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the translation of some speeches of De- last obliged him to give up an undertakmosthenes, which he published, were ing which was too great for the means proofs of biş diligence and talents. But of an individual. In 1798, the directory Rousseau's Émile filled him with a dislike of Switzerland invited him to establish a for the habits of a learned life, and for house of education at Stanz for poor the general system of education in Eu- children. He became here the teacher, rope ; and a dangerous illness, occasion- father, and, we must add, servant to ed by excessive study, induced bim, im- eighty children, of the lowest classes. mediately after his recovery, to burn the But war, and the efforts of a party ungreater part of the extracts and collec- friendly to his scheme, destroyed this tions which he had made during his study establishment after a year. Pestalozzi now of the history of his country and of law, took churge of a school at Burgdorf, and to become a farmer. He studied ag- where he also received pupils, who paid riculture with a farmer near Berne, and for their instruction, so that he was enathen bought a piece of land in the neigh- bled to employ able assistants. A publicaborhood, built a house, which be called tion on the application of his method by Neuhof, and began the life of a farmer mothers, which appeared in 1801, under when he was twenty-two years old. He the title How Gertrude teaches her soon married, and became concerned, Children (in German), and the elementary through his wife's relations, in a calico books, Book of Mothers (in German), and manufactory. In these situations, he be- the Anschauungslehre der Zahlenverhältnisse came acquainted with the moral wretch- (the Doctrine of Numerical Relations conedness of the lowest classes, and, in 1775, veyed by Perceptions of Form*), found began his career of instruction by the ad- well-disposed readers. But Pestalozzi mission of the children of paupers into brought new vexations on himself by his house. He soon saw himself sur- mingling in politics. He was a decided rounded by more than fifty children, to democrat and man of the people, who, in whom he was a teacher and father. He 1802, sent him as their delegate to the first had no aid from others, and, though he consul; and, in 1802, be published his worked with the children when he was Views on Subjects to which the Legislanot employed in teaching them, or in his ture of Helvetia should chiefly direct its private affairs, he had not the practical tal- Attention, which made the higher classes ent necessary to turn the labor of his little unfriendly to him. His institution, in the workmen to account. His philanthropic mean while, flourished. In 1804, he reand noble self-denjal was derided ; his moved, with his school, to Münchenconfidence was abused; his own affairs Buchsee, where he entered into a nearer declined; and he was generally consider- connexion with Fellenberg, and, in the ed as a well-meaning enthusiast. But he same year, to Yverdun (9. v.), where had formed his purpose, and was not to be occupied the castle given to him by be diverted from it; and, amidst straiten- government. Pestalozzi's method has ed circumstances, he collected that knowl- become the subject of animated discusedge of the state of the lower classes sion since the beginning of the nineteenth which is set forth so admirably in his century, partly owing to the opposition novel Lienhardt und Gertrud (1781, 4 which new schemes always nieet with, vols.),—a work which has exerted a re- and partly to the extravagance of his admarkable influence. The description in mirers. Pestalozzi was a man of great this work of the school at Bannal con- genius and depth of feeling, full of the tains many churacteristic traits of Pesta- spirit of self-sacrifice, devoted to the nolozzi's life, at that time, at Neuhof. To ble purpose of aiding mankind in the illustrate this novel, he wrote, in 1782, most effectual way, by the instruction of Christoph und Else, besides Abendstun- the poor and abandoned, in which he was den eines Einsiedlers, in Iselin's Ephem- warmly engaged until his death. He eriden, in which he gives the first account loved liberty, and believed that its cause of his method ; a Schweizerblatt für das would be most promoted by the educaVolk (1782 and 1783); a Treatise on tion of the most neglected. His genius, Legislation and Infanticide, and Inquiries moreover, enabled him to devise the into the Course of Nature in the Devel- most effectual plans for obtaining this opement of Man (1797),—which are full end. But he was not sufficiently practiof thought (all in German). The latter cal properly to direct the economy of a work was written at a time when Pesta- large cstablishment for instruction, and lozzi had suffered many vexations and * Not an exact translation, but as near as we Inisfortunes. The want of all support at can give it, without a long paraphrase.

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to employ to the most advantage the tal- tice, and the place of meeting for the diet. ents of many teachers. Ile was void of It is situated on a plain ; the streets are worldly prudence, and this want was an tolerably spacious and regular, and the abundant source of vexations to him and houses substantial, but not elegant. It others throughout his life. The idea of contains eleven Catholic, one Lutheran, communicating all instruction by imme- one Reformed, and two Greek churches, diate address to the sensations or concep- two synagogues, four convents, three hostions, and effecting the formation of the pitals, a university, a gymnasium, a public child by constantly calling all his powers library, and a royal museumn. The uniinto exercise, instead of making him a versity was transferred hither from Buda mere passive recipient, selecting the sub- in 1784, and is the only one in Hungary. jects of study in such a way that each It has four faculties, and is richly endovistep shall best and the further progress of ed, having a library of 60,000 volumes, a the pupil, is original with him. It is not botanic garden, an observatory, &c. The the acquisition of skill in reckoning, read- number of regular professors is 43, and ing, writing, drawing, singing, &c., but the number of students is about 1000; the exercise of the powers of the child by and in the gymnasium, 701. The lectures means of these subjects, which Pestalozzi in the university are generally given in inakes the object of elementary educa- Latin. Pesth is the most populous and tion. The principles of his method are most commercial town in Hungary. The clearly developed in his Wochenschrift für Danube affords means of intercourse with Alenschenbildung (3d and 4th vols., 1810 a considerable tract of country. There and 1812). This publication, with the are four annual fairs, which are numereply of his assailant, Niederer, to the Re- rously attended. The manufactures port on Pestalozzi's Institution at Yver- comprise silk, cotton, leather, jewellery, dun (addressed to the diet in 1810), Gru- musical instruments, and tobacco. ner's Letters from Burgdorf (in German, PESTILENCE. (See Plague, and Spasin 1806), and Johannsen's Criticism of modic Cholera.) Pestalozzi's Method (in German, 1804), Pestum, or Pesto. (See Pæstum.) afford a satisfactory view of his system. PETAL; among botanists, an appellalle liimself did not consider his system tion given to the flower leaves, in opposientirely complete. From Spain, France, tion to the folia, or common leaves. Prussia, and many other countries, testi- PETALITE; a mineral first discovered monies of houor and regard were sent to in the mine of Uto, in Sweden, and inhim from the governments; and his pu- teresting as having led to the discovery pils have spread as far as European civi- of a new alkali

. See Lithia.) It is poslization extends His exterior was ex- sessed of the following properties: mastremely simple. His negligent black sive; fracture splintery and imperfectly dress, his broad Swiss dialect, and blunt conchoidal; lustre resinous; color white, manners, without any kind of ceremony, occasionally tinged with red or blue ; showed the honest Swiss. In 1818, lie translucent; tough; hardness the same with undertook a new edition of his complete that of feldspar; specific gravity, 2.439. It works, the proceeds of which he destined consists of silex 79.21, alumine 17.22, and for a new school for poor children. He lithia 5.76. If exposed to a high degree died February 17, 1827, at Brugg, in Aar- of leat before the blow-pipe, it becomes gau.-See his autobiography, The Scenes glassy, semi-transparent and white; but of my Life while at the Head of my Institu. melts with difficulty, and only on the tions of Education at Burgdorf und Yfer. edges. When gently heated, it emits a dun (Leipsic, 1826); also Ed. Biber's Me- blue phosphorescent light. This rare moirs on Pestalozzi and his Plan of Educa- substance is found in Massachusetts, at tion (London, 1831).

Bolton, in a lime quarry, associated with Pestu, or' Pest (anciently Transacin- pyroxene, sphene and scapolite. cum); a city of Hungary, on the Danube, Petard, in the art of war; a metalopposite to Buda, with which it is con- lic engine, somewhat resembling a highnected by a bridge of boats three quarters crowned hat, which is loaded with powder of a mile long ; 90 miles south-east of Its use is, in a clandestine attack, to break Presburg, 113 south-east of Vienna; lon, down gates, bridges, barriers, &c., to which 19° 14' E.; lat. 47° 32' N.; population, it is hung, by means of a wooden plank 61,502, of which 45,000 are Catholics. attached to it. It is also used in couuterBuda is the residence of the viceroy, and mines, to break through the enemy's galaccounted the capital of Hungary, yet leries, and give their mines veni. Pesth is the seat of the high courts of jus- PETECCHIE. (See Plague.)

PETER I, Alexiewitsch, the Great, czar formation of his character. Sophia herand emperor of Russia, born at Moscow, self soon perceived his superior talents, May 30 (June 11, new style), 1672, was when, in the beginning of 1688, he apthe eldest child of the czar Alexis Michai- peared, for the first time, in the privy lowitsch, by his second wife, Natalia Kiri- council. In 1689, Peter's marriage with lowna, daughter of a Russian boiar. Eudoxia Federowna Lapuchin, effected Blessed with a healthy constitution and a through the influence of his prudent vigorous mind, Peter attracted general at- mother, withdrew him from his former tention while he was but a child; and Alexis orgies, and gave him a new hold on the wished to pass by his two elder sons, the affections of the people. Sophia, having sickly Feodor and the feeble Ivan, and desired to be present, as regent, at a reappoint Peter his successor. But the ligious celebration, at which the czars ambitious Sophia, daughter of Alexis by themselves were commonly present, Peter his first marriage, prevented the elevation opposed it in vain; and, a few faithful of her half-brother. Feodor III, howev- Strelitzes having betrayed to him her iner, the successor of Alexis (1676—1682), tention to assassinate him with his wife, passed over Ivan, and named Peter, yet a mother, and sister, he took refuge with minor, his successor. On the death of them in the monastery of Troizkoi

. Here Feodor, Peter was accordingly proclaim- he

summoned to his aid general Gordon, ed czar.

But Sophia excited a rebellion a Scotchman, who, with all the foreign of the Strelitzes, by the report that Ivan officers, immediately hastened to Peter. had been put to death by Peter, and that The czar soon found himself surrounded her own destruction was resolved upon. by numerous friends, and Sophia was When Ivan afterwards appeared, the obliged to take the veil. Peter then made Strelitzes exclaimed, “Thou art our czar!" a solemn entry into Moscow, and, in sight “I will be so," answered the trembling of all the people, embraced his brother Ivan, "only on condition that my dear Ivan, who left all the power in the more brother shall share my throne." Peter able hands of his brother. The first airn was, therefore, crowned with Ivan, June of Peter was the formation of a standing 23, 1682. The Strelitzes again rebelled; army, according to the European tactics. but Peter escaped with his mother to a Lefort and Gordon trained the new troops, monastery, which protected him from the among whom were a great number of fury of the insurgents. In the mean Huguenots, who had fled to Russia, after time, the cavalry of the czar hastened to the repeal of the edict of Nantes. Peter his rescue, and overpowered the rebels, soon saw himself surrounded by 20,000 thirty of whom were beheaded to prevent well disciplined troops, and, at the same future seditions. But Sophia, taking ad- time, engaged in forming a naval force. vantage of the weakness of Ivan and the His father, Alexis, desirous to trade with youth of Peter, became constantly more Persia by means of the Caspian sea, had assuming: her name was finally subscribed procured a ship to be built by some Dutch to the imperial ukases with those of the shipwrights, which arrived at Astrachan, two czars, and her image was stamped on but was there burned by the Cossacks, the reverse of the coins. Peter, mean- and of the crew only two, one of whom while, was silently developing his manly was the gunner, Karsten Brand, returuand warlike spirit. He formed two compa- ed to Moscow. Brand now became Penies of soldiers from the young men of his ter's principal ship-builder, and, in 1693, own age, in whose ranks he himself serv- the emperor sailed to Archangel in his ed. Their commander was the young own ship, the St. Peter, to purchase Lefort. (q. v.) Sophia considered this clothes for his army. In 1794, he enteramusement as well calculated to remove ed Archangel with several Rússian vesher brother from state affairs, and heard sels, and appointed prince Romanadowwith pleasure of the excesses in which ski admiral of the fleet. Regarding comPeter and his favorites indulged. But the meree as of the utmost importance for accomplished and enthusiastic Lefort was the civilization of his subjects, he cast his instilling a large amount of valuable eyes upon the Black and Baltic seas, into knowledge into the mind of the inquisi- which the great rivers of his empire emptive czar, in whom the early instructions tied themselves. Being at war with the of Sotow (an experienced diplomatist), Porte, he first turned his attention to the and Francis Timmermann (a German outlet of the Don; at this point, he wishimathematician), and the lessons of his ed to conquer Azoph, to procure an emmother, had already laid a solid foundation porium on the Black sea. In July, 1695, for the improvement of his mind and the he commenced the attack by land, but

5

VOL. X.

soon found it necessary to change the ing passed him unobserved; he caused storming to a blockade. In the mean every thing to be explained to him, and time, he hastened back to Moscow, em- even performed several surgical operations. braced his dying brother Ivan, and furnish- The petition of the Jews of Holland to be ed his subjects, who were suffering from received into his country he refused. He the bad crops, with corn from Riga and was induced, by his love for the sea, to Dantzic, in Russian ships. At the same accept the invitation of king William III time, he collected skilful engineers and to visit London. Here Peter resided in artillerists from Austria, Brandenburg and the royal ship-yard, and often declared Holland, and introduced greater uniformi- that, if he were not czar of Russia, he ty into the army, of which the boiar Alexis would be an English admiral. He took Semenowitsch was the nominal com- into his service upwards of 500 persons, mander, while Gordon, Lefort and Golo- officers, engineers, cannoneers, surgeons, win were in fact its soul. The new ship- &c. He received a doctorate from the yard, at Woronesch, on the Don, furnished university of Oxford, and, after a stay of him, as early as 1696, with a fleet of 23 three months, went through Holland and galleys, two galleasses, and four fire-ships, Dresden to Vienna. But an insurrection with which he defeated the Turkish fleet, of the Strelitzes induced him to hasten in sight of Azoph. All relief by sea be- home, and he arrived at Moscow Sept. ing now cut off, he pushed the siege with 4, 1698. The insurrection had already renewed vigor, and in two months (July been suppressed by Gordon; but Peter 29) the Russians entered Azoph. To se- erected a bloody tribunal ; every day of cure the possession of this key to the the succeeding month saw the blood of Black sea, Peter ordered fifty-five ships the rebels flow; and as there were the of war to be built, and a canal to be con- strongest reasons to suspect his sister Sostructed connecting the Volga and the phia of being the author of this disturbDon, and sent a number of the young ance, he caused twenty-eight gibbets to nobles to Italy and Holland, to learn the be erected, and 130 of the conspirators to art of ship-building, and to Germany to be executed before her monastery ; and become acquainted with military disci- three of them, who had drawn up a pepline. After having suppressed (Feb. 2, tition to Sophia, were hung before ihe 1697) a conspiracy of the Strelitzes and windows of her cell

, with the petitions in several noblemen against his life, in which their hands. Five hundred were banishhe displayed much personal courage, he ed; the corps of the Strelitzes was abolishtravelled in foreign countries. The affairs ed, and the last remains finally became of the government, during his absence, extinct in Astrachan in 1705. It was were committed to prince Romanadowski probably merely from personal dislike and three boiars; and the Strelitzes were that he accused his wife Eudoxia, who dispersed throughout the country, to se- was impatient of his amours, of being encure the internal tranquillity of the empire. gaged in the conspiracy. She was banHe set out on his celebrated journey in ished to Suzdal, where she was obliged April, 1697, travelling, not in the charac- to take the veil, under the name of Helen. ter of czar, but as a member of an em- To reward his faithful adherents, he estabbassy, which was to visit foreign courts, lished the order of St. Andrew, August according to the old Russian custom. 30, 1698, which Golowin was the first to Having passed through Esthonia, Livonia receive. The death of his favorite Lefort (countries then belonging to Sweden), and of Gordon plunged him into the deepBrandenburg, Hanover and Westphalia, he est grief. Menzikoff (q. v.), who rose from arrived at Amsterdam, where he worked, obscurity by his talents and activity, now incognito, in a Dutch ship-yard. From Am- became the favorite of Peter. He supsterdam, he went to the village of Saardam, plied the place of the Strelitzes by twenwhere he appeared in the dress of his own iy-seven new regiments of infantry, and country, and caused himself to be enrolled two of dragoons (in all 32,029 men), who, among the workmen, under the name of within three months, were disciplined and Peter Michaeloff. Here he lived in a little brought into marching order. Nothing but hut for seven weeks, made his own bed, merit and length of services was regarded and prepared his own food, corresponded in the appointment of officers. Peter dewith his ministers at home, and-labored at voted himself with incessant activity to the the same time in ship-building. He then internal regulation of his empire, which returned to Amsterdam, and superintend- assumed, by degrees, the appearance of a ed the building of a ship of war of sixty new creation. The manner of collecting guns, which he sent to Archangel. Nothi- the public taxes was simplified; the German costume was introduced; beards be- from which he superintended his new gan to disappear; the numerous retinue work. May 27, 1703, the foundation of of the bojars was diminished; foreign the fortress was laid, which the czar called travel was in a manner necessary to se- St. Petersburg. The work was comcure the prince's favor; printing presses, menced under the direction of an Italian were set up, and useful works introduced; architect, and 20,000 men, from every part schools were established in all the large of the empire, were soon employed upon towns; and new ecclesiastical institutions it. While engaged in this work, he deterorganized. When the patriarch Adrian mined to build a city, which should serve died, at I foscow, in 1700, the czar left as a commercial emporium, to connect this office, but little inferior in authority Russia with the rest of Europe. In four to the papal, unfilled. The'armistice of months, the fortress of St. Petersburg was two years between Russia and Turkey, completed, and the city was also gradually stipulated in the peace of Carlovitza, be- rising. Many of the workmen, unwilling tween the Porte and Austria, was pro- to undertake the long journey to their longed (1700) to thirty years ; but, at the homes, settled here, where they were besame time, war was declared against sides welcomed by the czar, as they were Sweden. Patkul (q. v.) had now matured serviceable in erecting houses for the the alliance of the czar with Augustus, rich. Many Swedes, Finns and Livoniking of Poland, and no indications of ans, driven from home by war, eagergood will on the part of the young Charles ly hastened to the new city, where they XII, of Sweden, could divert Peter from received the land in their own right; so his designs. (See Northern War.) Peter that, in two years (1705), besides Vasilioccupied Ingria, and attacked Narva. The Ostrov, where the first private houses young king of Sweden (see Charles XII) were built, the island of St. Petersburg Hew to its relief, and defeated 38,000 and the admiralty quarter were settled. Russians with 8000 Swedes, November, (See Petersburg.) Under the direction 30, 1700. This defeat did not shake the of Menzikoff, the fortress of Cronschlot resolution of Peter. “I know," said he, arose from the sea, at a short distance, for “ that the Swedes will often defeat us, but the protection of Petersburg. More than we are learning. Our turn to conquer 8000 horses, and as many men, perished will come at last.”. Fresh troops were in the labor of transporting the materials immediately assembled, arms were pro- for building; but in March of the followvided, and the victory of the Russians over ing year, the cannons thundered from the the Swedes on the Embach (Jan. 1,1702) walls of Cronschlot. In the mean time, laid the first foundation for their future Austria, Holland and England made every triumphs. Noteburg (which received exertion to destroy the alliance of Peter from Peter the name of Schlusselburg) and with Augustus of Poland. Charles left Marienburg were taken; among the in- his great enemy in the heart of Livonia, habitants of the latter, who were carried and marched to Saxony to compel Peter's into Russia, was the orphan Catharine. ally to abdicate his throne. Peter, on the (q. v.) After a triumphal entry into Mos- other hand, commenced his new operacow, and a short delay at Woronez, Pe- tions by the destruction of a Swedish floter returned to the theatre of the war tilla of thirteen ships on lake Peipus. on the Baltic, where Menzikoff had been Dorpat, Narva and Ivangorod were capthrowing up fortifications for the pro- tured, and the Swedish army was finally tection of the new docks, at the influx of destroyed under the walls of Pultawa (July the Olonza into lake Ladoga. For the 8, 1709). The czar, now promoted to the same purpose, on the first of May, Peter rank of lieutenant-general in the army, took Nyenschantz, a fortress at the mouth and rear-admiral in the fleet, wrote from of the Neva. Four days after, with thirty the field of battle to admiral Apraxin in Pesmall vessels, on board of which he served tersburg—“Our enemy has experienced as captain of bombardiers, he took two the fate of Phaëton, and the foundation Swedish ships of war at the mouth of the of our city on the Neva is, at length, firm.” same river. To reward him for his ser- Peter immediately hastened back to his vices on this occasion, admiral Golowin favorite city on the Neva, where be made created him knight of St. Andrew. As preparations to connect lake Ladoga with Nyenschantz was too far from the sea, the Wolga, and concluded commercial and not sufficiently secure, Peter deter- treaties with France, Italy and the Hansemined to construct a new fort, to protect atic towns. Having celebrated his victory the mouth of the Neva. He here built a by a triumphal entry into Moscow, and resmall wooden hut, in the Dutch style, organized ihe army, consisting of 33 regi

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