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so; he cannot be denied to possess fancy, up for some time, except a frothy mucus but he wants taste and judgment. His that seems to proceed from the fauces. mixture of the grave, lofty and sacred, The breathing is at the same time somewith the mean and burlesque, which is what impeded, and upon the least bodily offensive to modern taste, was in accord- motion is much hurried : a sense of straitance with the spirit of his age. His style ness, with oppression at the chest, is expeis rich in pure Tuscan modes of expres- rienced: the body becomes gradually sion, but his versification is rude and leaner, and great languor, with indolence, clumsy. Lord Byron translated this work dejection of spirits, and loss of appetite, of Pulci's.-His brother Bernardo was prevail. In this state the patient frethe author of some elegies and short po- quently continues a considerable length ens.—Another brother, Lucà, wrote some of time, during which he is, however, heroic epistles, a pastoral romance (Dri- more readily affected than usual by slight udeo d'Amore), and an epic romance, proba- colds; and upon one or other of these ocbly the first in Italian (Il Ciriffo Calvaneo). casions, the cough becomes more trouble

PULCINELLA. (See Punchinello.) some and severe, particularly by night, PULLEY. (See Mechanies.)

and it is at length attended with an exPULMONARY CONSUMPTION, or Phthisis pectoration, which towards morning is (from pow, to consume); a disease known more free and copious. By degrees the by emaciation, debility, cough, hectic fe- matter which is expectorated becomes ver, and purulent expectoration. The more viscid and opaque, and now assumes causes which predispose to this disease are a greenish color and purulent appear. very numerous. The following are, how- ance, being on many occasions streaked ever, the most general : hereditary dispo- with blood. In some cases, a more severe sition; particular formation of body, obvi- degree of hæmoptysis attends, and the ous by a long neck, prominent shoulders, patient spits up a considerable quantity of and varrow chest; scrofulous diathesis, Horid, frothy blood. The breathing at indicated by a fine clear skin, fair hair, Jength becomes more difficult, and the delicate rosy complexion, large veins, thick emaciation and weakness go on increasupper lip, a weak voice, and great sensi- ing. With these the person begins to be bility; certain diseases, such as syphilis, sensible of pain in some part of the thorax, scrofula, the small-pox, and measles ; em- which, however, is usually felt at first unployments exposing particular artificers der the sternum, particularly on coughing. to dust, such as needle-pointers, stone- At a more advanced period of the disease, cutters, millers, &c., or to the fumes of a pain is sometimes felt on one side, and metals or minerals under a confined and at times prevails in so high a degree, as to unwholesome air; violent passions, exer- prevent the person from lying easily on tions, or affections of the mind, as grief, that side; but it more frequently happens, disappointment, anxiety, or close applica- that it is felt only on making a full inspition to study, without using proper exer- ration, or coughing. Even where no pain cise ; frequent and excessive debauche- is felt, it often happens that those who ries, late watching, and drinking freely of labor under phthisis cannot lie on one strong liquors: great evacuations, as di- or other of their sides, without a fit of arrhea, diabetes, and the continuing to coughing being excited, or the difficulsuckle too long under a debilitated state; ty of breathing being much increased. and, lastly, the application of cold, either At the first commencement of the disease, by too sudden a change of apparel, keep- the pulse is often natural, or perhaps is ing on wet clothes, lying in damp beds, or soft, small, and a little quicker than usual; exposing the body too suddenly to cool but when the symptoms which have been air

, when heated by exercise ; in short, by enumerated have subsisted for any length any thing that gives a considerable check of time, it then becomes full, hard, and to the perspiration. The more immediate frequent. At the same time the face or occasional causes of phthisis are, hæ- flushes, particularly after eating, the palms moptysis, pneumonic inflammation pro- of the bands and soles of the feet are afceeding to suppuration,

catarrh, asthma, fected with burning heat ; the respiration and tubercles, the last of which is by far is difficult and laborious; evening exacerthe most general

. The incipient symp- bations become obvious, and by degrees toms usually vary with the cause of the the fever assumes the hectic form. This disease ; but when it arises from tubercles, species of fever is evidently of the remitit is usually thus marked : It begins with tent kind, and has exacerbations twice a short

, dry cough, that at length becomes every day. The first occurs usually about habitual, but from which nothing is spit noon, and a slight remission ensues about

five in the afternoon. This last is, how- ed, and, lastly, form little abscesses of ever, soon succeeded by another exacerba- vomicæ, which, breaking and pourin, tion, which increases gradually until after their contents into the bronchia, give ris midnight; but about two o'clock in the to a purulent expectoration, and thus la morning, a remission takes place, and this the foundation of phthisis. Such uber. becomes more apparent as the morning cles or vomicæ are most usually situate. advances. During the exacerbations, the at the upper and back part of the lungs : patient is very sensible to any coolness of but, in some instances, they occupy th: the air, and often complains of a sense of outer part, and then adhesions to the pleticold when bis skin is, at the same time, ra are often formed. When the disease is preternaturally warm. Of these exacerba- partial, only about a fourth of the uppe: tions, that of the evening is by far the most and posterior part of the lungs is usually considerable. From the first appearance found diseased; but, in some cases, lite of the hectic symptoms, the urine is high has been protracted till not one twentiei. colored, and deposits a copious branny part of them appeared, on dissection, fi: red sediment. The appetite, however, is for performing their function. A singi:not greatly impaired; the tongue appears lar observation, confirmed by the morlu clean, the mouth is usually moist, and the collections of anatomists, is, that the kt thirst is inconsiderable. During the exa- lobe is much oftener affected than th cerbations, a florid, circumscribed redness right. The diet, in this disorder, shouk! appears on each cheek; but at other times be of a nutritious kind, but not heating, a the face is pale, and the countenance difficult of digestion. Milk, especially somewhat dejected. At the cornmence- that of the ass ; farinaceous vegetables, ment of hectic fever, the belly is usually acescent fruits; the different kinds of costive ; but in the more advanced stages shell-fish ; the lichen islandicus, boika of it, a diarrhea often comes on; and this with milk, &c., are of this descriptiot. continues to recur frequently during the Some mode of gestation, regularly eremainder of the disease; colliquative ployed, particularly sailing, warm clothing sweats likewise break out, and these alter- removal to a warm climate or to a pure nate with each other, and induce vast de- and mild air, may materially concur n bility. In the last stage of the disease, the arresting the progress of the disease emaciation is so great, that the patient bas in its incipient stage. With regard to the appearance of a walking skeleton; bis urgent symptoms, requiring palliatio countenance is altered, his cheeks are the cough may be allayed by demulcenä prominent, his eyes look hollow and lan- but especially mild opiates, swallowe! guid, his hair falls off, his nails are of a slowly; colliquative sweats by acids, par livid color, and much incurvated, and his ticularly the inineral; diarrhea by chain feet are affected with ædematous swell- and other astringents, but most effectually ings. To the end of the disease, the senses by small doses of opium. remain entire, and the mind is confident PULO Pinang. (See Prince of Wales's and full of hope. Those who suffer un- Island.) der it are seldom apprehensive or aware Pulque, or Octlı; a favorite drink of of any danger; und persons laboring un- the Mexicans, extracted from the maguey, der its most advanced stage often flatter or agave Mexicana. At the moment of themselves with a speedy recovery, and efforescence, the flower-stalk is extirpaiform distant projects under that vain hope. ed, and the juice destined to form the Some days before death the extremities fruit flows into the cavity thus fornel. become cold. In some cases a delirium and is taken out two or three times a day precedes that event, and continues until for four or five months. The sap in the life is extinguished. The morbid appear- state is called aguamiel (honey-water 1 ance most frequently to be met with on and, when allowed to terment art. the dissection of those who die of phthisis, twelve or fifteen days, forms madre padu. is the existence of tubercles in the cellular or mother of pulque. This is used as a substance of the lungs. These are small leaven. A small quantity, being plara tumors, which have the appearance of indu- in a vessel of the aguamiel, produces a rated glands, are of different sizes, and are fermentation, and renders it pulque, in the often found in clusters. Their firmness is best state for drinking, in twenty-tu?" usually in proportion to their size, and, hours. It is a cool, refreshing drink, azu. when laid open in this state, they are of a its intoxicating qualities are slight. white color, and of a consistence nearly Pulse (from the Latin pulsus, a bestapproaching to cartilage. Although indo- ing, a blow); the motion of an arten. lent at first, they at length become inflam- consisting of its alternate expansion au .

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contraction, which, in practice, is consid- disordered state. When the irritability of ered as a beating. This motion is the the system is so heightened as to produce strongest in the heart, which is the cen- fever or inflammation, the pulse is acceltre of the arterial system, and from it is erated. If the action of the nervous syspropagated through all the minutest tem is irregular, or unduly heightened, the branches of the arteries. In those which pulse becomes frequent and irregular, as lie immediately under the skin, it can be in the case of cramps and a diseased irrifelt with the finger, as is the case with the tation in the abdomen, from worms, &c., radial artery, the pulsation of which is and in hypochondriacal and hysterical very perceptible at the wrist. (See Blood, persons. In case of mechanical obstrucand Heart.). The state of the pulse is, tions to the circulation, as in dropsy of the therefore, an indication of the action of the pericardium, polypus in the heart, or in heart and the whole arterial system, and the great arteries, the pulse is irregular of the condition of the blood, and the and interrupted. It is doubtful whether physical functions in general. The cir- Hippocrates had any knowledge of the cunstances to be attended to in the pulse pulse. Soon after his time, however, are either the number of pulsations which physicians, especially those of the Alexantake place in a given time, and the regu- drian school, were attentive to it. Aretælarity or irregularity of their occurrence, us of Cappadocia explained the pulsation or the character of each pulsation. In as a motion occasioned by a natural and the former case, the pulse is said to be involuntary extension of the warmth bequick or slow, according to the number longing to the heart and arteries, by which of pulsations in a given interval ; regu- theirown motion is occasioned ; and Athelar or irregular, as they occur at equal or næus of Cilicia had given the same exunequal intervals. In the latter case, it is planation before him. He describes the strong or weak, hard or soft, full or small

, various kinds of pulse connected with &c. "It is affected by the age, sex and different disorders. Galen wrote several temperament of the individual, and by works on the pulse. For several centuaccidental circumstances, as sleep, food, ries after, the doctrine of pulsation reexercise, heat, &c. The pulse is most mained much as he had left it

, as was the rapid in childhood, making from 100 to case, indeed, with many branches of med110 beats in a minute, and is regular, and ical science. The demonstration of the rather soft and small. In youth, it is circulation of the blood by Harvey, and much less rapid, making not far from of the irritability of the muscular fibre by ninety beats a minute. At this period, it Haller, threw new light on this subject. is regular, strong, rather soft than hard, The feeling of the pulse is the principal moderately full. In mature age, the num

examination which Chinese physicians ber of beats is about seventy-five per min- make of the state of their patients, and ute, and the pulse is regular, strong, or they discriminate its different states with moderate, fluctuating between hard and a subtilty approaching absurdity. soft, between full and small. In old age,

PulTawa, or PolTawA; à fortified the number of beats sinks to sixty. The town of Russia, on the river Worskla, pulse is sometimes irregular, strong, but capital of a government of the same slow, hard, rather full than small. In the name; lat. 49° 30' N.; lon. 34° 14' E.; 450 female sex, it is more rapid, softer and miles south-west of Moscow; population smaller than in the male. In the sanguine 9000. June 27, 1709, Peter the Great temperament (so called), it is quicker, full- (see Peter I) defeated Charles XII (q. v.) fr, softer; in the choleric, slower, harder, before Pultawa. In commemoration of stronger; in the phlegmatic, slower, weak- this victory, the Russians have erected a er, softer, fuller; in the melancholy, slow, column in the city, and an obelisk on the hard and strong. A vegetable diet makes field of battle. it slow, weak, full, soft; a meat diet, PULTENEY, William, earl of Bath, an spices, spirituous liquors, make it quick English statesman, the political antagonist and hard. In a pure, clear air, it is quick; of sir Robert Walpole, was descended from in damp, impure air, slow and languid. an ancient family, and was born in 1682. Sudden agitation and violent passions He became a student of Christ-church, Oxmake it rapid and irregular ; joy makes it ford, and, after having travelled abroad, requick and strong; long-continued grief turned home to devote himself to politics. languid and soft. The pulse is, therefore, Being chosen a member of the house of a highly important indication of the state commous, he joined the party of the of the system. A deviation from the whigs, in the latter years of the reign of regular pulse of an individual indicates a Anne. Under George I, he was made

secretary at war; but a dispute with sir manifest their native ferocity on the Robert Walpole caused his removal to the slightest opposition to their desires or caranks of the opposition, when he joined prices, and, unlike the dog, never appear lord Bolingbroke in conducting an anti- to entertain a personal attachment to their ministerial journal called the Craftsinan. master. (See Cat.) in 1731, a duel with lord Hervey gave of- Pumice. (See Pitchstone.) fence to the king, who removed Mr. Pul- PUMP; a contrivance for raising fluids teney from the office of privy-counsellor, by atmospheric pressure. (See Hydrauwhich he had hitherto held, and also from lics, and Air.) The operation and conthe commission of the peace. These and struction of the air-pump are explained in other marks of the displeasure of the a separate article. The simplest and most court only served to increase the popular- common pump is the ordinary lift, or suckity of Pulteney, who, at length, succeed- ing, or household prmp. It is of great ed in procuring the resignation of his ri- antiquity, its invention being ascribed to val, Walpole, in 1741. The party with Ctesebes of Alexandria, about 120 B.C. which he had acted then came into pow. It consists of a hollow tube descending to er, and he was raised to the peerage by a reservoir of water, and containing an the title of earl of Bath. From that peri- air-tight piston (box), attached by its rod to od, however, his popularity and influence a lever (the handle or brake of the pump). entirely ceased. He died June 8, 1764. Another stationary box is inserted in the

Puma (felis concolor et discolor). This tube below the movable one, and both are animal is also known under the names of furnished with valves, or clappers, opencougar, panther, &c., and is the largest an- ing upward. When the pump is full of imal of the cat kind found in America. water, every stroke of the handle raises The puma is of a brownish-red color, the movable box, together with the colwith snall patches of rather a deeper tint, umn of water above it. When the hanwhich are only observable in certain dle is lifted, the box is pushed further lights, and disappear entirely as the ani- down into the water, while its valve opens mal advances in age. The belly is pale- to allow the water to pass through. The reddish ; the breast, inside of the thighs valve then shuts, and the second stroke and legs, of a reddish-white, and the low- of the pump raises another column of er jaw and throat entirely white. The pu- water to the spout. As the action of this ma was formerly found in most parts of pump depends upon the pressure of the the American continent, and is still nu- atmosphere, water cannot be raised by it merous in South America; in the U. from a depth of more than thirty-four States, the advance of population has ren- feet below the upper valve ; and, in pracdered it scarce. It is a savage and de- tice, a much shorter limit is commonly asstructive animal

, though possessing all the signed.--Forcing pump. The forcing timidity and caution of the cat kind. It pump differs from the common sucking can climb trees with great facility. In the pump just described, in having a solid piso day time, it is seldom seen, the night be- ton, without a valve, and the spout, or dis ing the time it selects for committing its charging orifice, placed below the pistoa. depredations. Although it generally con- When the piston is raised, the lower valve fines its attacks to the smaller quadrupeds, of the pump rises and admits the water it will sometimes assail those of large size from below, as in the common punp; and strength, and even man himself. The but when the piston is depressed, the wapuma is said to be readily tamed, and may ter is thrown out through a spout in the even be rendered docile and obedient. side, which has a valve opening outward. When domesticated, its manners closely In a forcing pump, the water cannot be resemble those of the common cat, having brought from a depth of more than thirtythe same fondness of being caressed, and four feet below the piston; but it can afexpressing its satisfaction by the same terwards be sent up to any height desired kind of gentle purring: Mr. Kean, the in a pipe, because the pressure commuuitragedian, possessed an individual of this cated by the downward stroke of the passpecies, which was so tame as to follow ton is not dependent on the pressure of him about like a dog. It should, howev- the atmosphere, but on the direct force er, be noticed that docility and submission applied to the piston. These two contriin the cat kind are only apparent; man vances are sometimes combined in the has never been able to subject them as he same machine, as in Delahire's pump has other animals. Even down to the do- which is a lift and force pump, raising an mestic cat, there is no one of them that equal quantity of water by its up and can bear to be thwarted ; and they also down stroke. The fire-engine (q. v.) consists of two forcing pumps, working into ed. There are various kinds of these oue common air-vessel, placed between puncheons used in the mechanical arts; them, and from which the spouting pipe such, for instance, are those of goldsmiths, for directing the water proceeds. The cutlers, pewterers, &c. chain pump used in the navy is an up- PUNCHINELLO, or Punch (from pulciright barrel, through which leathers strung nella); an Italian mask. The abbate Gaon a chain are drawn by means of wheels liani derives the name from a misshapen, or druns in constant succession, carrying but humorous peasant from Sorento, who the water in a continual stream before bad received it (about the middle of the them. They are employed only when a seventeenth century) from bis bringing large quantity of water is to be raised, chickens (pulcinelli) to market in Naples, and must be worked rapidly to produce and who, after his death, was brought upwly effect.

on the theatre San Carlo for the amusePUMPERNICKEL; a coarse, heavy, brown ment of the people, to whom he was well bread, made, in Westphalia, of unbolted known. According to another account, ne. It is baked in large loaves, some- a company of actors, which went to Acertimes weighing sixty pounds. The fol- ra at the time of the vintage, was attacked lowing account of the derivation of the by the peasants (with whom the vintage word is given :-A French traveller in is a season of festivity), with a sally of Westphalia, on asking for bread, was, pre- jokes and gibes, in which a certain Puccio sented with some of this kind, on which d'Aniello among the peasants attracted he observed that such stuff was bon pour notice by his comical humor and gronickel (good for Nickel, i.e. either his horse tesque appearance, being hunched before or his servant).-whence it came to be and behind. The players had to yield to called pompernickel, or pumpernickel. The him; and, when the contest was over, story is obviously made to fit the 'case. they determined to take advantage of the In fact, it is called by the inhabitants talent of Puccio d'Aniello, and persuaded grobes brot, the former name being only him to join their company. He appeared used by foreigners.

on the stage in a wbite robe, and large, full l'UMPKIN, or PompiON (cucurbita pepo); shirt, with long hair, and soon became a species of gourd, or squash, distinguish- such a favorite of the Neapolitans that his ed from most varieties of the latter by the mask was retained after his death ; and his rounded form of the fruit, which some- successor, to resemble bim the more, tines grows to an enormous size. It has chose a mask with a long black nose. hispid, branching and prostrate stems, From his pame was formed, according to which, in a good soil, will cover an eighth Neapolitan custom, Pulcinella. Perhaps, part of an acre. The fruit is esteemed in- however, this mask was only a modificaferior to most varieties of the squash, but, tion of an older one, which some have denotwithstanding, is very commonly culti- rived froin tbe ancient Atellana (q. v.), and vated, both in Europe and America. have thought that they discovered the groPux; a play upon words, the wit of tesque figure of Punch on ancient vases. which depends on a resemblance between This mask is still the delight of the Neatwo words of different and perhaps con- politans. The dress, at present, consists trary significations, or on the use of the of wide drawers of white woollen, a large same word in different senses; as in the upper garment, of the same material, with well-known story of the man who, being wide sleeves, fástened with a black leather requested to make a pun, asked for a sub- belt,, or hair-cord. This upper garment ject, and was told to take the king, upon is sprinkled over with hearts of red cloth, which he replied that the king was no and it is trimmed round the bottom with subject. The Greeks and Romans some- a fringe. Around his neck Pulcinella wears times used puns, even in serious dis- a linen ruffle; on his head a white woolcourses ; but the moderns restrict them len cap, with its long point terminating in to light conversation, devices, symbols, red tuft'; three fourths of the face are covrebuses, mottoes, &c.

ered with a black mask ; the nose is curvPusch. (See Punchinello, and Puppet ed and pointed, like a bird's beak. This

mask speaks the dialect of the peasants, Puscheon; a little block or piece of and figures, not merely in the theatre, but steel

, on one end whereof is some figure, at all the popular festivals in Naples, letter, or mark, engraved either in creur especially during the carnival. (See or relievo, impressions of which are taken Mask, and Harlequin.) on metal or some other matter, by striking PUNCTUATION, or INTERPUNCTION; the it with a hammer on the end not engrave art of employing certain signs, by means


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