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written for Solomon than by bim. But, was preserved the most purely. Many on the other hand, some others, of un- of their allusions are historical, and must known authors, may be his; several are be explained by history; but it would be at least of his time, and refer to events going too far to attempt to explain every of his reign—the consecration of the tem- thing historically; since it is evident that ple, &c. The opinion that some psalms much is metaphorical, some, thougb a are of the time of Samuel, and written by smaller portion, allegorical
, and much prothe prophet himself, is supported by no phetical, referring to the future, rather historical testimony, but is not improbable. ihan to the past. Some, on account of Most of those by unknown authors seem to their local allusions, are less instructive to be of later date; some fewapparently belong us; but most of them are rich in encourto the reigns of the kings immediately suc- agement, consolation, filial trust, joyful ceeding Solomon, several to the mournful confidence in God, evidences of humility days of the Babylonish captivity and of and patience, and are well adapted for the the return, especially those headed “ for sacred songs of Christians. It may be the sons of Korah," most of which are added that the collection in the Old Tes probably by the same author. Of later tament by no means contains the whole date, also, are probably those called “songs treasure of Hebrew psalms.
Not only of the degrees," which some have referred are the songs of Solomon lost, but there to the return from Babylon, others to the are many others mentioned in the Old annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem and the Testament which are not in our biblical temple, and which others suppose to have collection. been sung on the steps of the temple. Fi- PSALMANAZAR, George, the assumed nally, a few seem to belong to the age of the name of a man of letters, who is chietly Maccabees. The psalms of David, wheth- known as a literary impostor. He was er actually composed by him, or merely of born of Catholic parents, in the south of his time, probably constituted an earlier France, in 1679. His mother, being abarcollection, which extended to the 72d. doned by her husband, sent her son to Those which follow are, for the most part, a school kept by Franciscan friars; and more modern. Our collection consists he was afterwards placed in a college of of 150 psalms, but the manuscripts are not the Jesuits. He then studied among the all numbered alike. The Septuagint and Dominicans, and having finished his eduVulgate unite the 9th and 10th, and the cation, acted as a private tutor. Leaving 104th and 105th, while they divide the his situation, he engaged in several adven116th and the 147th into two, so that their tures; and, at length, having stolen free number differs in some respects from that a church, where it had been dedicated, of the English translation. The Maso- the habit of a pilgrim, he roved about in rites, without any sufficient reason, divided that character, subsisting on charity. He the whole collection into five books. afterwards became a common vagrant, The Psalms are lyric poems, chiefly odes, and then servant to the keeper of a tavern, and didactic, elegiac or idy Hic. (See whose house he left clandestinely, and, reLowth's Hebrew Poetry.) Most of them newing his wandering mode of life, be are in the form of prayer, or begin or end conceived the project of professing him with prayer; and, whether they utter self to be a Japanese convert to Christiancomplaint, lamentation or consolation, are ity, wbo had found his way to Europe expressive of the deepest trust in God. As he did not find this scheme very pronk Their morality is pure, except in some of able, he adopted the character of a beatben David's martial or triumphal songs, or native of the island of Formosa, and, in songs of lamentation, in which we find order to support his pretensions, he coexpressions of hate, cruelty, and national trived a new language, which he called pride. But they are all truly national, and the Formosan. At this time he becans most of them of a pure religious tone. acquainted with a clergyman named IsThey are among the highest and sublimest nes, who, conceiving he could tum the efforts of poetry; and the holy light of imposture to good account, persuaded this revelation, the inspiring belief in the eter- pretended Formosan to suffer hinself nal true God, spreads over them a bright be converted to the church of England, splendor, and fills them with deep fervor. and the clergyman and his new discipk They must not be compared with the went to London, where the latter was preother lyric productions of the ancient sented to bishop Compton and others and world; they are altogether the peculiar the former was rewarded for his zeal pa growth of the holy land, where the voice church preferment. Psalmanazar bi of revelation resounded most loudly, and the effrontery to translate the Church Catechism into his newly-invented For- sisting of 150 beads, the number of the mosan language; and he published a Psalms in the Psalter. History of Formosa (1704), which passed PSALTERY, or PSALTERION; a stringed through several editions." In the mean instrument much used by the ancient tiine he was sent to study at Oxford ; and Hebrews, and by them called nebel. We a controversy was carried on between his know but little of the ancient form of this patrons and doctor Halley, doctor Mead, instrument, but have reason to conclude and some other less credulous persons, that it resembled that of our harp. The who refused to admit bis pretensions. psaltery now in use is a flat instrument, in The imposture at length became clearly the form of a trapezium, or a triangle manifest; and the culprit, deserted by truncated at top. It is strung with thirthose whom he had deceived, was obliged teen wire cords, tuned in unisons, or ocw rely on the exercise of his literary abil- taves, and mounted on two bridges. It ities for his support. He settled in Lon- is performed with a plectrum, whence it don, where he resided many years, and is usually ranked among the instruments was employed by the booksellers, particu- of percussion. larly in the former part of the Uni- PSAMMETICUS. (See Egypt.) versal History, published in 1747. To- Psara, or IPSARA (Psyra); an island wards the close of his life, he drew of the Grecian Archipelago, seven miles up an autobiographical Memoir, in which north-west of Scio, about five and a half he expresses much contrition for the miles in length, and as many in breadth. deceptions which he had allowed him- It consists almost entirely of a rock, thinly self to practise. His death took place covered in some places with a vegetable in 1763.
mould. The population is about 400. It PsalmODY; the art of writing, or com- was settled aboui a century ago, by a little posing, divine hymns, or songs. The band of Greeks, who fled thither to composition and performance of psalmody escape the Turkish yoke, and supported appears to have been practised and en- themselves by fishing. In 1824, it was couraged in Germany, France, and the taken by the Turks ; 600 Psariotes, the Low Countries, long before it was intro- sole remnant of a population of 6000, duced into England. Most of the old mel- which had perished under the Turkish odies now sung in the service of the paro- scymetar, after defending themselves for chial churches were set by German mu- a long time, in a mountain-fortress of the sicians, and it seems highly probable, island, buried themselves beneath its
from all that can be collected on the sub- ruins. hject, that the practice of psalmody had its Pseudo (from the Greek Yevdos, a false
origin in Gerinany. It does not, howev. hood); a term or particle prefixed to er, appear that even in that country it at names and words, to denote any thing first gained admission into public wor- spurious and false. Thus we call any ship; but it was a long time confined to thing which has a false name, as a book family devotion, especially among the written under a feigned name, pseudonyreformed. Luther, who was a good mu- mous. (See Anonymous.) Pseudo-Smerdis, sician, is knowu to have regularly prac- the false Smerdis. (See Persia.) tised psalmody with his friends every Pseudo-DEMETRIUS. (See Russia.) evening after supper, and is by some sup- Pseudo-IsidorE. (See Isidore, Decreposed to have been the author of the ex- tals, and Popes.) cellent melody of the 100th psalm. The Psyche, the twofold signification of first English version of the Psalms of Da- whose name (yuxn, the soul, and a butteryid, which took place soon after that of fly) added much to the effect of the beauthe French, was made in the reign of tiful allegory respecting her, was the Henry VIII, by Thomas Sternhold (q. v.), daughter of Sol and Constancy. Apuleigroom of the robes to that monarch, and us (q. v.) makes her the daughter of a John Hopkins, a schoolmaster, assisted by king, and relates her history thus: Psyche, William Whittyngham, an English dic whose two elder sisters were of moderate vine of considerable learning. Soon after beauty, was so lovely, that she was taken the publication of this version, vocal for Venus herself, and men dared only to psalmody was introduced into the church adore 'her as a goddess, not to love her. Service, and various musical manuals ap- This excited the jealousy of Venus, who, peared for the purpose of facilitating its to revenge herself
, ordered Cupid to inpractice.
spire her with love for some contemptible PSALTER ; a collection of the Psalms wretch. But Cupid fell in love with her (q.v.); also a large chaplet or rosary, con- limself. Meanwhile, her father desiring to see his daughter married, consulted the and relations of the changes and phenom oracle of Apollo, which commanded that ena which take place in the mind during Psyche should be conveyed, with funeral the intellectual operations; or to trace the rites, to the summit of a mountain, and causes of these phenomena, and to dis there be left, for she was destined to be the cover the nature of the mind and its relabride of a destructive monster, in the form tions to the universe; or, in short, to treat of a dragon, feared by gods and men. of the mind, either as it manifests itself, With sorrow was the oracle obeyed, and or as it is in itself. Investigations of the Psyche was left alone on the desert rock, latter class, which have for their object when suddenly Zephyr hovers around that which cannot be discovered by obserher, gently raises and transports her to a vation, constitute metaphysical or tranbeautiful palace of the god of love, who scendental psychology; while those of visits her every night, unseen and un- the former class, in which the soul beknown, leaving her again at the approach comes a subject of observation, constitute of day. Perfect happiness would have empirical or experimental psychology. been the lot of Psyche, if, obedient to the Empirical psychology may, therefore, be warning of her lover, she had never been defined to be the scientifically conducted curious to know him better. But by observation of the operations and changes the artifices of her jealous sisters, whom of the human soul. As a science, it iDshe had admitted to visit her, contrary to cludes all the phenomena of the intelthe commands of Cupid, she was per- lectual activity; as the science of the soul, suaded that she held a monster in her it forms a part of anthropology, called arms, and curiosity triumphed. As he psychological anthropology, in distinction slept, she entered with a lamp to examine from physiology, or physiological anthrohim, and discovered the most beautiful of pology. It takes for granted the distincthe gods; in her joy and astonishment, tion of the spiritual substance (the I, the she let a drop of the heated oil fall upon self) from the body, as a matter of con his shoulders. Cupid awoke, and, having sciousness, and does not therefore attemp reproached the astonished Psyche for her to explain it. It treats of the mind, is. suspicions, fled. After having tried in deed, in its operations, and in so far as it vain to throw herself into a river, she is connected with the body, but neglects wandered, inconsolable, to all the temples, the mere physical phenomena. It is seeking every where her beloved, till she more strictly than logic, an introduction to came to the temple of Venus. Here be- intellectual philosophy, since logic treats gan her severest sufferings. Venus kept only of the laws of reason. As the deher near her person, treated her as a slave, velopement of the human mind proceeds: and imposed upon her the severest and from the particular to the general, emmost trying tasks. Psyche would bave pirical psychology is the most proper issunk under the burden, had not Cupid, troduction to speculative philosophy; the who still tenderly loved her, secretly assist- more so, as it makes us acquainted with ed her in her labors. But in the last dan- the spiritual instrument which philosophy gerous task imposed upon her, to descend employs. In this course of investigation, to the realm of shadows, and bring away the subject of attention is merely facts of Proserpine's box of cosmetics, she almost which every one is conscious, and which, perished. She succeeded, indeed, in the therefore, are intelligible by all, and of adventure; but, having opened the box, a which a distinct and connected view may deadly vapor issued from it, and she sunk prevent many errors in philosophical sprei lifeless to the earth. Cupid now ap- ulation. Again, empirical psychology peared, and the touch of his arrow re- applied philosophy; for it must not only stored her to life. Venus was finally rec- employ the philosophical forms in to onciled; by Jupiter's command Psyche disposition and explanation of facts, but became immortal, and was for ever united also certain metaphysical notions as with her beloved. Her marriage was cel- power, cause, &c.), and requires a phiko ,ebrated with great festivities, but her en- sophical spirit to give it the character of a 'vious sisters threw themselves from a science; and it is thus distinguished fror. precipice. Raphael has given a most a mere natural history of the soul, the beautiful representation of the marriage, developement of which is prior in paint in the Farnesina at Rome.
of time. The latter merely records the Psychology (from yuxn, the soul, and facts in their natural order, while pet duros, doctrine); the science of the soul, chology presents them in their connexions, or the spiritual principle in man. The and according to the laws which requiere object of this science is to teach the laws them; and in this view it is that part of
applied philosophy which teaches the or- (in eight books). He followed, in this work, ganization of the human soul, according the geography of Marinus of Tyre, which to the external manifestations of its in- appeared not long before; but he enriched ward experience (consciousness), (See his work with important additions and Philosophy, and Metaphysics.)
improvements, both in regard to the latitude PTOLEMAIC SYSTEM. (Sée System of and longitude of places, and the boundathe Universe.)
ries of countries and provinces, and he is PTOLEMAIS. (See Acre.)
the first writer who sought to determine PTOLEMY; the common name of thir- the situation of places in this way; his teen Greco-Egyptian kings, who reigned work also contains the first principles of in Egypt, from the death of Alexander till the projection of maps (in Greek and it became a Roman province (about 290 Latin, with maps, by Mercator, 1618). years). They are more properly called Although necessarily imperfect, from want Lagides (since they did not all bear the of observations, it is nevertheless imporname of Ptolemy), from Lagus, the found- tant to modern geographers. Besides er of the dynasty. 1. Ptolemæus Lagi these principal works, we have other (i. e. son of Lagus, a Macedonian ; in works of Ptolemy, on chronology and reality, the son of Pbilip), called also Soter, astronomy. the Savior (by the Rhodians, on account PUBERTY ; that period of life in which of the assistance which he rendered them), childhood ceases and youth begins. It is at first governor of Egypt, reigned thirty- much earlier in southern countries than in nine years, and died 284 B. C. He em- northern. In our climate, it is from the age bellished Alexandria, and founded the li- of thirteen to fifteen in the female sex, and brary in that city. His son and successor, from fourteen to sixteen in the male, but, 2. Ptolemy II (Philadelphus), a magnifi- in individual cases, is accelerated or recent prince, is said to have founded Ptole- tarded by various circumstances. The mais and several cities, and to have built the physical and intellectual changes which Pharus (q. v.), which, however, is by some manifest themselves at this epoch are ascribed to his father. He died 247 B.C. highly interesting. The child is occupied 3. Ptolemy Euergetes died 221 B.C. His and satisfied with present objects, and all wife was Berenice. These three first the functions of the body appear to opePtolemies were, in particular, the patrons rate merely for the preservation of the inof learning at Alexandria. (Concerning dividual, while the sexual organs, which these and the other Ptolemies, see Alexan- are destined for the continuance of the speurian School, and Egypt.). Vaillant wrote a cies, and therefore to direct the thoughts Historia Ptolemæorum (Amsterdam, 1701, to the future, are yet not developed for folio.)
the performance of their proper functions; PTOLEMY (properly PTOLEMÆUS, Clau- but, at the period of puberty, a sudden dius), geographer, astronomer and mathe- change occurs : the lively and easilymnatician, born at Pelusium in Egypt, A.D. pleased boy, the gay and sportive girl, 70, lived at Alexandria during the reigns begin to appear thoughtful and reserved, of Marcus Antoninus and Adrian, and is and separate themselves from the childish said to have reached the age of eighty plays in which the two sexes mingle toyears. He is considered the first astrono- gether; the body grows more rapidly mer of antiquity. He corrected Hippar- than before; the sexual parts are develchus's catalogue of the fixed stars, and oped; the breasts become fuller; and, in drew up tables for calculating the motions both sexes, the voice becomes harsh and of the sun, moon and planets. The scat- disagreeable before assuming the clear Lered observations of the ancients were metallic tone, deep in man, high in wofirst collected by him, and reduced to a man, but in both very different from that of system, which is contained in his work childhood. After this crisis is passed, the Meyada Evvrašis, 13 books (Basle, 1538, fol.). youth and maiden appear in all their The system of the world which he here bloom; they look upon the world as if exhibits is known under the name of the with new senses; hope shines over the Ptolemaic. This work was translated into future, in which they live more than in Arabic about 827, and from this transla- the present; the region of the ideal opens tion, which bears the title Almagest, a before them, and they are eager to realize it, Latin version was made by the command at the greatest efforts. This period is often of the emperor Frederic II (1230). There attended with dangerous diseases: iņ some are also other translations of this work, individuals, it is retarded or checked in its from the Arabic into Latin. Another im- developement, by former maladies, and in portant work of Ptolemy is his Geography this case the body is generally small and
feeble, and the mind perverse; in others, is to be maintained abroad by the suppiy it is attended with violent symptoms, of articles wholly the product of foreign which, however, may depend upon acci- industry, there is no such compensation dental causes, thwarting nature in her for the burthen of the tax. Another adfunctions. Excess of blood, inflamma- vantage of public debts is, their affording tions, bleeding, are among the common means of investment, and thus encomplaints of this period, arising from the couraging the accumulation of property. irritable state of the vascular system; or Lands, houses, banks, canals, mines, and the nerves and mind are too highly ex- all other species of permanent property, cited, giving rise to epilepsy, St. Vitus's afford a stimulus to industry and econodance, &c., or to mental aberrațions, mel-' my, as they offer the means of enjoying, ancholy, enthusiasm,&c. (See Physiology.) permanently, the fruits of acquisitions, and
Public Debt. (For the amount of public stocks have the same effect. Anthe national debt of the different countries Other effect of a public debt is its attaching of Europe, see the table in article Europe, the public creditors to the government also given, in the early copies, after the in- But before their number can be sufficientdex to vol. v.; for those of the American ly large to make their aid important to the countries, see the separate articles; the government, the national debt must, protsecurities of which they consist are ably, be increased to an amount that will described in the article Public Stocks.) render it burthensome. Among the disThe policy of contracting public debts is advantages arising from the facility of congood or bad, according to circumstances. tracting permanent public debts, one is the În general it is not desirable for a govern- facility which it gives for the carrying on ment, any more than for an individual, to of wars, and the indulging in any other be in debt; and yet cases will justify a expenditures. The wars of Europe, since nation in drawing on its future resources. the public debt of Great Britain comIn pressing emergencies, taxation is not menced, under William III, are attributed adequate to the necessary expenditures; partly to this cause. Another disadvanand even if it were adequate, it may be tage is, the burthensome taxes, to which better to distribute a part of the burthen the necessity of paying the interest of through many successive years, by means such a debt, may subject the people. This of loans, because the suddenly levying of is the operation of the national debt of an immense tax might check the produc- Great Britain, at the present time. It is tive faculties of the people; and no wrong impossible to prevent the burthen of the is done to posterity by this, where the ob- taxation from falling, directly or indirectly, ject of the expenditure is as important to in a very great degree, upon the laboring the future as to the present, as in case of and active classes; and, in Great Britain, national defence or public works. We this has become so heavy to the mere is may add, that increasing the means of borer, who has no capital, that his wages public expenditure usually creates de- will but just support, or will not support mand for an increased quantity of the himself and his family, in the cheapest products of the country, and thus stimulates manner of living; and his life becomes industry. If, for example, the govern- one desperate struggle against want and ment has a large army to maintain on its starvation. own territory, and the products of the Public LANDS. The property of the country can supply it with arms, clothing, soil of the whole vast region, comprefood, and all other articles, the army will hended within the limits of the U. States, be a stimulus to all the kinds of industry and not owned by the separate states or concerned in affording its supplies. It by private individuals, vests in the goversmay even happen that the very burthen, ment of the U. States. From the Atlantie or what seems to be one, will, in such to the Pacific ocean, and between the case, enable the people in general to be northern and southern boundaries of the better clothed, fed and lodged, since the republic, it is calculated that there is con means of a people to produce the luxuries tained a superficies of 1,400,000,000 acrs and comforts of life depend very materi. The political situation of the differe: ally upon the facility and rapidity of ex- parts of this superficies is exceedingly changes of products of different sorts of various. Dividing it into four belts labor, and great public expenditure often strips, parallel (or nearly so) with a mens creates a market by increasing consump- ian line, the first comprehends the Atlant tion, and thus stimulating industry. But states, in most of which, particularly in the if the expenditure employs only the in- Middle and Northern states, the land as dustry of a foreign country, as if an army almost wholly the property of individuals