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the Roman rota, &c. The regulation of ground on which it was rejected, and the judicial system has hitherto fallen whatever the new institutions made necesprincipally to the minister of justice. The sary was added according to the prevailing supreme tribunal, in the year 1824, con- law. This code was published from 1784 sisted of a president (bearing the rank of to 1788, in six parts. The opinions of ipinister) and twenty counsellors, who those who understood the subject were were chosen from the most distinguished requested, and prizes offered for the best members of the supreme tribunals of all commentaries on it; and the whole was the provinces. In addition to these, there completed in June, 1791, under the title was established, in 1819, for the adnjivis- “ General Prussian Code.” Some slight tration of justice in the Rhenish provinces faults which were pointed out having been of Prussia, a court of revision and cas- corrected, it was promulgated June 1, sation at Berlin. For the grand duchy of 1794, under the title Algemeines LandPosen there is a supreme court of appeal, recht. The work has, from the first, held consisting of a president and eight coun- a high rank, and only one distinguished sellors at Posen. Swedish Pomerania voice has been raised against it, that of also has its old system of justice, a court John George Schlosser, in his Five Letters of five members, and a supreme court of on Legislation, and particularly on the appeal, composed of a president and three Plan of the Prussian Code (Frankfort, counsellors, both established at Greifswald. 1789–90, 2 parts), which, on the whole,
Prussian Code (Allgemeines Landrecht, take the same ground as Von Savigny that is, universal law of the country, called has lately done (Ueber den Beruf unserer also, sometimes, by foreigners, Codex Fri- Zeit zur Gesetzgebung, Berlin, 1815),* opdericianus). All the kings of Prussia and posing all modern codes. The reforms Brandenburg, since the elector Frederic which have been effected since 1808 have William of Brandenburg, have zealously greatly added to its value, and the efforts endeavored to improve the system of law for its improvement are still continued. and legislation; but none of them have Among the commentaries should be disunderstood so thoroughly the real wants tinguished F. H. von Strombeck's Suppleof the people, and none have had such ment to the General Code for the Prussian success as king Frederic II, who was, in a States (Leipsic, 1824, 2 vols.). great many respects, a benefactor to his Prussia Proper includes the two provcountry. Immediately after the conclu- inces of East and West Prussia. East sion of his first war, he gave to the courts Prussia is mainly made up of the former a more simple and efficient constitution. duchy of Prussia, and West Prussia is a The minister of justice (high-chancellor), part of Poland, which was taken in the Samuel V. Cocceji, a celebrated lawyer, partitions. Königsberg is the capital of began a Corpus Juris Fridericianum, in East Prussia. Dantzic and Marienwerder which the Roman law was brought into a are the most important places of West natural order, general principles laid down Prussia. and conclusions deduced, all subtleties Prussian BLUE. (See Blue, Prussian, and fictions, and all rules not applicable to aud Prussic Acid.) the state of Germany, excluded, and all Prussic Acid, or HYDROCYANIC Acid, doubtful laws settled (1st part 1749, 2d is procured by the following process: part 1751). But this essay embraced only To a quantity of powdered prussian blue, a small part of the systern of law; and, diffused in boiling water, let red oxide of although it was introduced in some prove mercury be added in successive portions, inces, still the proposed end was not yet till the blue color is destroyed. Filter attained. After Cocceji's death (1755), his the liquid, and concentrate till a pellicle constitution of the courts fell into disuse, and the design of making a new code of
* This work of Mr. von Savigny, whose objec. laws was for the time abandoned. But, but to compile codes, we by no means share, nor
tions against the aptitude of our time, not to make, in 1780, under the superintendence of the even consider very profound, is, nevertheless, minister Von Carmer, the formation of a highly interesting, as might have been expected code was undertaken, and prosecuted with
from the reputation of the author. We recomunceasing activity. It was vot intended the code here in question. It sets in a striking
mend its perusal with reference to the history of to make an entirely new code of laws, but light the extreme care with which the Prussian 10 supply the defects of the existing sys- code was drawn up, in which respect it is much tem. The Roman law was, therefore, distinguished from the French and Austrian taken as the foundation of the work. To codes. Savigny's work has been translated under each passage was prefixed the place Legislation and Jurisprudence, by a Barrister of
the title on the Aptitude of the present Age for which it should occupy in the code, or the Lincoln's Inn (London).
appears upon its surface. On cooling, Carbon,
4439 crystals of prussiate (or cyanide) of mer- Nitrogen,
5171 cury will make their appearance. These, Hydrogen,
3.90 after drying, are put into a tubulated
100. glass retort, to the beak of which is adapted a horizontal tube, about two feet This acid, when compared with other long, and fully half an inch wide at its animal products, is distinguished middle part. The first third part next great quantity of nitrogen it contains
, by the retort is filled with small pieces of its small quantity of hydrogen, and the white marble, the rest with fused muriate total absence of oxygen. When this of lime. To the end of this tube is strong acid is kept in well-closed vessel adapted a small receiver, which is im- even though all access of the air is premersed in a freezing mixture. Pour on vented, it sometimes undergoes decompothe crystals in the retort, muriatic acid in sition in less than one hour. It begius rather less quantity than is sufficient to by assuming a reddish-brown color, which saturate the oxide of mercury which becomes deeper and deeper, until at formed them. Apply a very gentle heat length it deposits a carbonaceous matter. to the retort. Prussic acid will be evolv- which gives a deep color to both acid ed in vapor, and will condense in the and water, and emits an odor like that of tube. Whatever muriatic acid may pass ammonia. When potassium is heated in over with it will be detained by the mar- prussic acid vapor, mixed with hydrogen ble, while the water will be absorbed by or nitrogen, there is absorption without the muriate of lime. By means of a inflammation, and the metal is converted moderate heat applied to the tube, the into a gray, spongy substance, which prussic acid may be made to pass suc- melts, and assumes a yellow color
. Supcessively along; and, after having been posing the quantity of potassium emplos. left some time in contact with the muri- ed capable of disengaging from water a ate of lime, may be driven over into the volume of hydrogen equal to 50 parts receiver. As the carbonic acid, evolved we find, after the action of the potassium from marble by the muriatic, is ant to cer- that the gaseous mixture has experienced ry off some of the prussic acid, care a diminution of volume amounting to 36 should be taken so as to prevent the dis- parts. On treating this mixture with tillation of this mineral acid. Prussic potash, and analyzing the residue by oracid, thus obtained, has the following ygen, we find that 50 parts of hydrogen properties: it is a colorless liquid, pos- have been produced, and, consequentis sessing a strong odor, somewhat resem- that the potassjum has absorbed 100 pers bling that of peach blossoms; and the of prussic acid vapor; for there is a di: exhalation, if incautiously inhaled, may inution of 50 parts, which would obvious produce sickness or fainting. Its taste is ly have been twice as great, had not 50 cooling at first, then hot, asthenic in a parts of hydrogen been disengaged. The high degree, and a true poison. Its spe- yellow matter is prussiate of potash, procitic gravity, at 441°, is 0.7058; at 64°, erly a cyanide of potassium, in anak 0.6969. It boils at 811°, and congeals at with the chloride and iodide of potasiun about 30, becoming crystallized with the formed when the vapor of muriatie a fibrous form of nitrate of ammonia. The hydriodic acid is made to act upon pot? cold which it produces, when reduced sium. The base of prussic acid the into vapor, even at the temperature of divested of its hydrogen, to which it owed 68°, is sufficient to congeal it. This phe- its acidifying quality, is called cyanat nomenon is easily produced by putting a by Gay-Lussac, in allusion to its being the small drop at the end of a slip of paper, basis of the blue color of prussian blue. I or a glass tube. Though repeatedly rec- is obtained by heating the cyanide of met tified on pounded marble, it retains the cury in a small glass retort. It soon blackproperty of feebly reddening paper tinged ens, and melts like animal matter, at the blue with litmus. The red color disap- same time disengaging the cyanogen L pears as the acid evaporates. The vapor abundance. This substance, which is the of prussic acid is 0.9476. It was analyz- true radical of the acid under consideration
. ed by Gay-Lussac by passing it through is possessed of the following properties: I an ignited porcelain tube, containing is a perinanently elastic fluid, of a stri coils of fine iron wire. No trace of oxy- and penetrating odor, and a density, wher gen could be found in it. The result compared with air, of 1.8. It is inflar was as follows:
mable, and burns with an intenselv besu
uful bluish flame, bordering on purple. peach flowers, and the leaves of the lauroIt consists of nitrogen 29.654, and carbon cerasus, and of other vegetables, is owing 25.418, and is, therefore, a bicarburet of to this substance. Prussic acid is often cyanogen. Though a compound body, it obtained from the peach and apricot kerhas a remarkable tendency to combine nels. The bark of the prunus padus conwith elementary bodies. Thus it is capa- tains much of it, and water distilled from ble of uniting with the simple non-metal- it is capable of killing animals. Cyanolic bodies, and evinces a strong attraction gen unites with oxygen, and gives rise for the metals. It enters into direct com- to a compound called cyanic acid. It bination with a few alkaline bases only, consists of cyanogen 26 parts, and oxygen and these compounds are by no means 16. It crystallizes in oblique rhomboidal pernianent; hence it has no claim to be prisms, which are colorless and transpaconsidered as an acid. To return to the rent, insoluble in cold water, but are disproperties of prussic acid, before we de- solved in hot water, as well as in the scribe the other compounds of cyanogen. strong acids. Its most remarkable propBarytes, heated in prussic acid, yields its erty is, that it allows of being boiled with barium to the cyanogen of the acid to the strong acids without undergoing deform a cyanuret of barium, while the hy- composition or change. With the metaldrogen of the acid and the oxygen of the lic oxides it forms salts that do not detoearth unite to form water. Potash and nate. The cyanous acid contains just half soda behave in a similar manner, as re- as much oxygen as the cyanic, and is spects their bases. Prussic acid' is the characterized by the facility with which it most violent of all poisons. When a rod is resolved by water into carbonic acid and dipped into it is brought in contact with ammonia, and by the property of detothe tongue of an animal, death ensues nation, when in union with the oxides of before the rod can be withdrawn. Doc- mercury and silver. It is, in fact, the tor Magendie has, however, introduced same substance as the fulminic acid, its employment into medicine. He found which is essential in the fulminating it beneficial against phthisis and chronic compounds of these metals. (See Fulmicatarrhs. His formula is the following; nation, and Fulminating Silver, and MerMix one part of the pure prussic acid cury, under these metals respectively.) with 8.5 of water by weight. To this We have also two compounds of the radmixture he gives the name of medicinal ical of prussic acid with chlorine, called prussic acid. Of this he takes 1 gros, or the chloride of cyanogen, and the bichloride 59 grs. troy, distilled water 1 lb., or 7560 of cyanogen. The former of these is solid grs., pure sugar 1} oz., or 7081 grs., and, at 0 of Fahr. Between 5° and 10° 5', it is mixing the ingredients well together, he liquid, and also at 68°, under a pressure administers a table-spoonful every morn- of four atmospheres; but, at the common ing and evening. One ten thousandth of pressure and temperature, it is a colorless prussic acid may be detected in water, by gas. In the liquid state, it is as limpid the addition of a few drops of solution of and colorless as water. sulphate of iron. This test, though deli- offensive odor, irritates the eyes, and is cate, is surpassed by another, in which highly injurious to animal life. It concopper is used, and which will detect sists of 36 parts chlorine and 26 of cyangone twenty thousandth of prussic acid in gen. The bichloride of cyanogen conwater. To employ it, we must render tains twice as much chlorine as the prethe liquid containing the prussic acid ceding compound. It is solid at common slightly alkaline with potash, add a few temperatures; at 284o it fuses, and boils drops of sulphate of copper, and, after- at 374o. Its vapor is acrid, and excites a wards, sufficient muriatic acid to redis- flow of tears, and is injurious to life. Its solve the excess of oxide of copper. Theodor is similar to that of chlorine. When Liquid will appear more or less milky, ac- boiled in water, it is converted into muricording to the quantity of prussic acid atic and cyanic acid. There is a compresent. Prussic acid is formed in a great pound of iodine and cyanogen of somemany chemical operations; as, for in- what similar properties. It has a caustic stance, by transmitting ammoniacal gas taste and a penetrating odor. It is very over ignited charcoal contained in a tube; volatile, and sustains a temperature above as also by heating in a glass tube, closed 212°, without decomposition. Bromide of at one end, a mixture of oxalate of amino- cyanogen has also been formed, and renia and oxalate of manganese. Prussic sembles the last mentioned compound. arid exists in the vegetable kingdom. Cyanogen forms an acid compound by a The peculiar smell of bitter alnionds, union with hydrogen and iron. It is
It has a very
neither volatile nor poisonous in small beautiful dye, called prussian blue, is a ferquantities, and is destitute of odor. It is rocyanate of the peroride of iron, and is gradually decomposed by exposure to the always formed when ferrocyanic acid or light, forming prussic acid and prussian its salts are mixed in a solution with a blue. It decomposes some salts of the persalt of iron. The usual mode of masmore powerful acids: peroxide of iron, ufacture is by mixing together one part for example, unites with it in preference of the ferrocyanate of potash, one part of to sulphuric acid, unless the latter is con- copperas and four of alum, each previrus centrated. As this acid contains no oxy- ly dissolved in water. Prussian blue, gen, but simply consists of carbon, hydro- mingled with more or less alumine, pregen, nitrogen and metallic iron, the name cipitates. It is afterwards dried on chall of ferrureted chyazic acid (chyazic, from stones in a stove. The ferrocyanate of the initials of carbon, hydrogen and azote) potash employed in the process is preparhas been proposed; but the term ferro- ed by heating to redness dried blood, a cyanic acid is more generally employed. other animal matters, with an equal weight Of the salts formed by this acid, the most of pearlash, until the mixture has acquirimportant in chemistry is the ferrocyanate ed a pasty consistence. The sulphocytisie of potash (formerly called the prussiate of acid is a compound of cyanogen, sulphur potash). It is transparent, and of a beaŭ- and hydrogen. Cyanogen forins two tiful lemon yellow color
. In large crys- compounds with sulphur alone, and one tals, it possesses a certain kind of tough- with selenium. ness, and in thin scales, a degree of elas- Pruth; a river of Europe, which rise ticity. Its solution is not affected by in Galicia, in the Carpatbian mountains alkalies, but it is decomposed by almost all and empties into the Danube below Gathe salts of the permanent metals. The lacz. By the treaty of Bucharest between following table presents a view of the col- Russia and the Porte (May 6, 1812), the ors of the metallic precipitates thus ob- Pruth, from its entrance into Moldavia, tained :
was recognised as the boundary of the
two empires, and all that part of Moldavis Solutions of
lying on the left bank, was ceded to Rias. Manganese .. White precipitate. sia. In 1711, Peter the Great (see Peter I. Protoxide of iron. . Copious white. after three days' disadvantageous fighting Deutoxide of iron. Copious clear blue. on the Pruth, was surrounded by the Tritoxide of iron . . Copious dark blue. Turkish forces, and extricated only by a Tin White.
treaty, concluded through the prudence Zinc.
and promptitude of the empresa. See Antimony
Catharine I.) By the treaty of Adrian. Uranium Blood red.
ople (September, 1829) it was stipulated Cerium White.
that the Pruth should continue to forintbr Cobalt.
boundary between the Russian and Turs Titanium Green.
ish territories. Bismuth. White.
PRynne, William, a learned lawyer an! Protoxide of copper
antiquary, was born at Swanswick, in Deutoxide of copper Crimson brown. Somersetsbire, in 1600, and was placed st Nickel. Apple green.
Oriel college, Oxford, where he was gradLead. White.
uated bachelor of arts, in 1620. He ibes Deutoxide of mer
removed to Lincoln's-inn to study the law, cury
and became barrister, bencher, and reader Silver ..
passing to of that society. His attendance upon the
blue in the air. lectures of doctor Preston, a distinguistieri Palladium Olive.
Puritan, strongly attached him to the sect, and he began to write as enrly ss 1627, attacking the drinking of healits
love-locks, popery, and Arminianis.. Iron, though contained in the ferrocyanic which he deemed the enormities of the acid and all its salts, cannot be detected age. In 1632, he published his work in them by the usual tests of iron; for the against theatrical exhibitions, entitled His liquid tests are fitted only for detecting trio-Mastir; which, although licensed by oxide of iron as existing in a salt, and archbishop Abbot's chaplain, yet, in car therefore cannot be expected to indicate sequence of some reflections upon female the presence of metallic iron, while form- actors, that were construed to be levelked ing one of the elements of an acid. The at the queen (who had acted in a pastors
Rhodiuoja platina }None.
after the publication of the work), brought thirty-five or thirty-six days of their presa persecution upon the author in the star- idency. The liberty of eating in the Prychamber, which condemned him to a fine taneum was one of the highest marks of of £5000, to be expelled the university of bonor, and was conferred only on those Oxford and Lincoln's-inn, to be degraded who had done important service to the from his profession of the law, to stand state. Napoleon established a school in Partwice in the pillory, losing an ear each is under the name of the prytanée, in which time, and to remain a prisoner for life. some hundreds of scholars were educated, Prynne continued writing against prelacy mostly at the expense of the state. They in prison; until, for a virulent piece, en- were educated together until they were titled News from Ipswich, he was again twelve years old, when they were trained sentenced by the star-chamber to a fine for civil affairs (for which there were five of £5000, to lose the remainder of his professors), or for the military service (for ears in the pillory, and to be branded in which there were three professors). At each cheek with the letters S. L. (seditious the age of fifteen years, they left this instilibeller). This sentence was also execut- tution, for the purpose of completing their ed, and he was removed for imprisonment education in other seminaries. to Caernarvon castle, and afterwards to Psalm; in' general, a song; in a narthe island of Jersey. His spirit was not, rower sense, a sacred song (from the Greek however, to be subdued, and he continued yadder, to play on a stringed instrument, to write until the meeting of parliament to sing). Psalm is used particularly to dein 1640, when, being chosen representa- note the sacred songs which are contained tive for Newport in Cornwall, the house in the collection of religious lyric poems of commons issued an order for his re- in the Old Testament. They are mostly lease. He entered London, with other of the time of David, or of a later period, sufferers, in triumphant procession, and one only, perhaps (the 90th, the psalm of petitioned the commons for damages Moses), being of more ancient date. (See against his prosecutors. On the impeach- Hebrew Literature.) David, who arranged ment of Laud, he was employed as chief the temple music, not only appointed from manager of the prosecution, and, when the Levites a considerable number of the parliament became victorious, was singers and musicians, but also composed appointed one of the visitors to the uni- for the divine worship sacred songs, which versity of Oxford, where he labored stren- served as a model for many others. Sevuously to advance the cause of Presbyte- eral of the psalms that bear his name are nanie.n. He warmly opposed the Inde- not, indeed, written by bim, but only pendents when they acquired ascendency, composed in his manner, and therefore and used all his influence to produce an called by his name. Seventy-one, in accommodation with the king, being one particular, are ascribed to him, but some, of the members who were excluded and even of these, are evidently of a later imprisoned on that account. With the date. On the other hand, the contents other excluded members, he resumed his and style of some which do not bear his seat in 1659, and displayed so much zeal name, and the superscriptions of which for the restoration, that general Monk was have, perhaps, been lost, show him to obliged to check his impetuosity. He have been the author. To his times beEnt in the healing parliament as member long most of the psalms attributed to for Bath, and on the restoration was ap- Asaph, Heman, and Ethan or Jeduthun. pointed to the office of chief keeper of Twelve psalms bear Asaph's name, of the records in the Tower. He occupied which several show traces of a later origin. liis later years in writings connected with Asaph, son of Berachiah, was a Levite, and Bris office in the Tower, and finished his (1 Chron. xvi, 5) the first of the chief musilife at his chambers in Lincoln's-jon, in cians appointed by David for the divine 1669. Prynne was a man of extensive worship. The name of Heman is attached learning and indefatigable industry, but to one only (the 88th psalm). Heman, surwanted genius and judgment. His works, named the Ezrahite, seems to have been 16 wbich Wood has given a catalogue, a Levite, and is named among the chief amount to 40 volumes, folio and quarto, singers of David. Some of the Psalms je most valuable of which is his Collection were composed by Solomon, who, accordof Records (3 vols., folio).
ing to the First Book of Kings (iv, 32) PRYTANEUM; the building in Athens, wrote “a thousand and five songs, but a which the Prytanes (those senators who whose name is affixed, in our collection, resided in turn) held their meetings, and to two only (the 724 and 127th), and of ived at the public expense during the these the first seems isither to have been VOL. X.