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now form Prussia formed part of one therans: the reigning family are Calvingreat state, comprising all Germany, be- istic. In 1894, the king introduced a new cause her trade with the interior of Ger- liturgy, which, in 1825, 5343 of the 7782 many is now obstructed. The Prussian evangelical churches in the Prussian mouterritory extends 522 miles on the Baltic, archy had accepted. According to the and has several bays and ports. Its in- concordate with the pope, in the bull De land trade is promoted by the rivers Oder, Salute Animarum, of July 16, 1821. tine Vistula, Elbe and Saale (the two latter of bishops of Münster, Treves and Paderwhich are connected by seven canals born are under the archbishop of Cologne. with the two former), the Rhine, and also and the bishop of Culm is under the arebi the Memel, Pregel, Warta, Netze, Havel, bishop of Gnesen and Posen. The bistSpree, Weser, Ems, Ruhr, Lippe and oprics of Breslau and Ermeland are under Moselle, which either flow through Prus- no archbishop. The eight chapters elect sia, or belong entirely to it. There are their bishops; the pope confirms the eletrich lands along the banks of most of tion, and the chapters inquire, before the these rivers. The mineral treasures of election, whether the persons proposad the country, which are considerable, for their votes would be agreeable to the with the exception of the nobler metals, king. The members of the chapters are are much wrought. Amber is found elected by the pope in the months one, almost exclusively on the coast of Hinder three, five, seven, nine, eleven; in the Pomerania and East Prussia. Cattle other months by the bishop. In the firs of all kinds are raised: horses are bred case, respect is paid to the wishes of the chiefly in East Prussia. Agriculture and king; in the latter, the election is subject the raising of sheep (Prussia has more to the royal confirmation. The following than 15,000,000 of sheep) have attained a orders of knighthood exist in Prussia: high degree of perfection. Manufactures the order of the Black Eagle, founded in are carried on in the mountainous part of 1701, at the coronation of Frederie 1, Silesia, in Ravensberg, the Mark, Berg, and consisting of but one class; the order of the other Rhenish provinces, chiefly of the Red Eagle, originally an order of the articles of domestic production; for ex- house of Anspach and Baireuth, and conample, manufactures of linen, amounting, firmed in 1791, by Frederic William IL, in Silesia, annually to 11,000,000 of Prus- and, in 1810, divided into three classes; sian dollars (above 7,400,000 Spanish), of the Louisa order, founded in 1814, for wool (in Silesia, Brandenburg, Saxony, females; the order of Merit, founded in the Lower Rhine, Aix-la-Chapelle, Burt- 1740; that of the Iron Cross, with two scheid, Stolberg, &c.), and manufactures classes, for those who fought in the car of various kinds of hardware. Iron and paigns of 1813–15; the order of St. John, steel wares are largely made at Berlin, besides various other honorary designaSolingen, Remscheid, Iserlohn, The tions, medals, crosses, &c. In 1823, the value of all these manufactures was esti- king established provincial estates both mated, in 1804, at 51,000,000, and, includ- where they had previously existed, and ing all sorts of articles for consumptions, where they had not. This was to pare at more than 85,000,000 of Prussian dol- for a fulfilment of his promise made in lars,* and this year may be taken as a 1815, to give a constitution to his people, standard. Dantzic, Stettin, Königsberg, but was, in fact, an evasion and a mock. Memel, Elbing, Pillau, Colberg, Stralsund ery. The estates consisting of nobility, and Swinemünde (9. v.) are seaports, citizens and peasants, have the right to some of them not unimportant. Though give their opinion when they are consulPrussia employed many thousand sailors ed, and in questions relating to taxation, before the introduction of the continental they are always to be consulted ; but in system, yet it has no navy to protect its no case is their opinion binding on the commerce; and some forced attempts of government. Though Prussia is an ahthe government

the Prussian flag solute monarchy, all persons are equaliy to distant parts of the world, have by no subject to the laws, and justice is impar means tended to the benefit of commerce. tially administered (except in the case of By a law of Sept. 21, 1821, a small coin accusations for political offences); all are (silver grosh), of which thirty make one equally bound to do military duty, and Prussian dollar, was introduced. Gov- the way to office is nominally open to all ernment gain by it fourteen per cent.- Feudal services were abolished or renderMost of the inhabitants of Prussia are Lu- ed redeemable by the edict of Oct. 9,

* A Prussian dollar is equal to about sixty. 1807, which must be considered as a coneight cents of our money.

sequence of the principles introduced by

to carry

the French revolution. The internal or- scrupulous exactness: thus it belaved ganization of the state rests on the edict honorably in its new provinces to the pubof Oct. 9, 1707, and the administration lic creditors, who were so long ill-treated was settled by the law of April 30, 1815. under the confederation, and acknowledgA general presides over each military ed the whole debt in Westphalia, which division, and a high president (Oberpräsi- had been reduced to a third by the king dent) over each province. The conduct of Westphalia. The reigning house in of public affairs belongs to the govern- Prussia is the house of Hohenzollern. ments; the administration of justice to the The present king is Frederic William III high courts of the country (Oberlandes- (q. v.) His son, the priuce-royal, Frederic gerichte). Each "government has a pres- William, was born Oct. 15, 1795. Of the ident and two chief divisions, the first of previous kings, Frederic I died 1713, which attends to the police, the estates, Frederic William I in 1740, Frederic II the military, and the general affairs of the (the Great) in 1786, Frederic William II government, and is under the minister of in 1797.— History of Prussia. The Teuthe interior. The second division, under tonic knights received, in 1226, a strip of the minister of the police, has the charge land on the Vistula fiom Conrad of Masoof all financial affairs. Each province is via (see Poland), in order that they might divided into circles, superintended by a protect Poland from the heathen inhabitcounsellor (Landrath), the organ of both ants of Prussia. From 1230 to 1283, they divisions. The high presidents are per- carried on a war of extermination with manent deputies of the ministers. To eleven Prussian tribes. These at last bethem are intrusted all those matters of came Christians, and adopted the German political regulation, whose effect cannot customs. The power of the Teutonic be restricted to a single government; in knights increased rapidly, and, in the fifparticular, they are the presidents of the teenth century, their territory extended consistorial and medical authorities, and, from the Oder, along the Baltic, to the bay of at the same time, presidents of the gov- Finland, and contained cities like Dantzic, ernment in the capital of the province. Elbing, Thorn, Culm, &c. About 1404, At the head of the state stands the mon- they ruled over 2,500,000 of people, and arch, who issues through his “privy cabi- had an annual income of 800,000 marks. net” cabinet orders, signed by himself. But the knights became tyrants, and the March 30, 1817, a council of state was nobility and cities had no means of escapestablished: it is the highest deliberative ing their oppression but by submitting to authority, but has no part in executive Poland. A terrible war ensued, from business. It examines all plans, propo- 1454 to 1466, and the country was filled sals, grievances, &c. The king presides, with bloodshed and devastation. In 1511, or the chancellor of state, or a member tem- the knights elected Albert of Brandenporarily substituted. In 1819, this coun- burg, son of the margrave of Anspach, to cil consisted of sixty-six persons, including the office of grand master, with a view of the princes. Under the “ministry of strengthening themselves. In 1525, the state” (consisting of the prince-royal, nine order was abolished entirely in Prussia, ministers of state and six reporting coun- and its territory was converted into an sellors) stand immediately the privy state hereditary duchy, under prince Albert and and cabinet archives, the high committee bis male descendants or brothers, as a fief of examination, and the board of statistics. of Poland. The republic of Poland acThe ministry of state consists of, 1. the knowledged the sovereignty of the elector ininistry of the royal household; 2. of for- of Brandenburg in the duchy of Prussia eign affairs; 3. of justice; 4. of finances; by the treaty of Welau, Sept. 19, 1657. 5. of manufactures, commerce and public Towards other powers, and especially works; 6. of the army ; 7. the interior and Sweden, the great elector Frederic Wilthe police; 8. of ecclesiastical affairs, ed- liam (q. v.) also maintained a respectable ucation and health ; 9. of accounts attitude. His son Frederic JII placed the Slaatsbuchhalterei). Independent of these royal crown upon his head, Jan. 18, 1701, is the general post-office. The general as Frederic I, thereby elevating Prussia directory of foreign commerce has formed Proper to a kingdom. Vanity probably a separate department since 1820. The led him to take this step, but, under hini, sume is the case with the chief bank at the monarchy increased in territory, and a Berlin. (For the Prussian law, and the desire for further increase—a necessary administration of justice, see the end of consequence of the scattered condition of this article.) The Prussian government its component parts and the assumption has fulfilled'its pecuniary obligations with of a station which required augmented power to support it—became an early, and, of an insolent nobility on the field of Jena. it may be said, a ruling trait of Prussian Under his government industry was enpolicy, and the desire is still strong, for couraged ; the press enjoyed considerable the original motive still remains. Fred- liberty ; Frederic was, in general, a lorer eric William I (q. v.) received Stettin in of justice. With him died the principle 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, and also which had given motion to the whole sysPrussian Gueldres. He was a tyrannical tem, and Mirabeau, in his Histoire secrete

, soldier, but sagacious, a friend of justice calls Prussia pourriture avant maturite. when it did not interfere with his caprices His successor, Frederic William II, was a or plans. His desire to keep on foot a stand- profligate and weak man ; the country ing army of 60,000 men, led him to the was badly governed; the finances erenlisting of foreigners. He was frugal, hausted, and her politics became waverand under him began the system so much ing, because Frederic the Great had eledeveloped by Frederic II, of making the vated her to such a rank among the Eurointernal government as much as possible a pean states, that she was obliged to take a machine. His love of justice not unfre- prominent part in the most important afquently led bim to infringe the indepen- fairs of the continent; but after she bad dence of the judiciary. With many re- lost the aid of his genius, she had not suffisources which waited only for develope- cient power to act independently. This ment, Prussia came to Frederic the Great, wa

vavering character continued for a long who made it one of the first powers of series of years. With Frederic the Greai, Europe. Claims upon parts of Silesia also, or, at least, under him, began a sirwere used as a pretext for the invasion of gular contradiction in Prussian politics. that province. After several wars, he re- While her government promotes with mained in possession of the chief part of great liberality the diffusion of knowledge, it. East Friesland was united with Prus- and manitests a real enthusiasm for scisia in 1743. From the year 1763, Fred- ence, and several of her most eminent eric's chief care was directed to the inter- public men are among the friends of free nal government, almost all the branches institutions, yet history finds her siding of which he improved ; but the great with Russia, and, of late, also, with Ausnumber of troops which he kept on foot tria, all three opposing with a vain obstiinduced him to make the increase of rev- nacy the irresistible progress of liberty. enue the chief object of his government, At Reichenbach (q. v.), in 1790, Prussia and the whole system of internal admin- appeared as mediator in the peace with istration was regulated with a view to the Porte, and in August, 1791, becarne make it a productive machine. Square connected again with the court of Vienna miles and population were then the meas- by the convention of Pilnitz. (q. v.) The ure of power and happiness in the policy profligate extravagance of the court of of the European cabinets; the first parti- Frederic William II required large suption of Poland, in 1772, was the conse- plies of money ; and Prussia and Russia quence; and, from that time, Prussia sac- seized upon the remainder of Poland, unrificed Poland to Russia, to secure its aid der the pretext of putting down Jacobinas an ally against Austria. The monarchy ism, although Frederic William had aswas almost doubled under Frederic the sented to the new Polish constitution of Great. He left to his nephew, Frederic May 3, 1791. The cabinet, which surWilliam II, a territory of 71,670 square rounded the imbecile king, was without miles, with 5,800,000 inhabitants, and an principle; it took possession of the terriarmy of 220,000 men (which, however, tory of Nuremberg; it shared, in 1793 and consumed almost four titils of the reve- 1705, in the partitions of Poland, and pue of the state), and a treasure of 50 made a secret treaty (August 5, 1790) with million Prussian dollars (about 34 million France. After many inconsistent steps Spanish). Frederic the Great had no true caused by her artificial situation, Prusas love for his nation; his ruling passions resolved upon the maintenance of a striei were the love of fame and of power. He neutrality, which, in the state of Europe regarded the Prussian nation as a foreigu at that tiine, was impossible. In lots general regards the army under kris com- France occupied Hanover. In 1805, when a mand. More than any other prince he third coalition was forming against France, undermined the German empire, which, it Prussia wavered more than ever. The must be owned, had become worse than emperor of Russia, Alexander, appeared worthless. He separated entirely the at Berlin, and brought about the convert army and the citizens—a system whose tion of Potsdam, Nov.3, 1805; but, after the natural termination was the punishment battle of Austerlitz, Prussia sought for peace, and concluded with France the was then in a state of excitement, which treaties of Dec. 15, 1805, at Vienna, and the goverument gladly made use of, but of Feb. 15, 1806, at Paris. April 1, 1806, did not understand, or, if it did undershe was obliged to occupy Hanover, and stand, labored to check as soon as the ocwas severely reproached by Fox. After casion for turning it to profit had passed Napoleon had concluded the confederacy by. We have given, in the first division, of the Rhine, Prussia thought herself Statistics, &c. of Prussia, the increase called upon to form a counterpoise against which this monarchy received from the France; but she could not effect a confed- Vienna congress. Its political station is eracy of the states of Northern Germany, much the same as it was before 1806, A war ensued, and a single battle—that of though Prussia has become more influenJena, Oct. 14, 1806—disclosed to the world tial than it was during the reign of Fredthe rottenness of the system of Frederic eric William II, and is closely connected the Great (to rest the whole power of the with Austria and Russia, and instead of state on the army, and to separate the rallying round her the constitutional porarmy as much as possible from the citi- tion of Germany, and making herself the zens, by taking for soldiers foreigners, and champion of order and civil liberty in for officers noblemen only, whose arro- that country, she shuts her eyes to the gance has never been surpassed, and had noble opportunity, and joins to the barbano solid basis, not even that of large prop- rous might of Russia and the withering erty). The peace of Tilsit, July 9, 1807, despotism of Austria the light of science reduced Prussia to half its former dimen- and civilization, and thus, in case of a sions, and this half had to support 150,000 general war, will compel the constituFrench soldiers until December, 1808, tional states of Germany again to join and to pay 120 millions of francs; French France. garrisons remained in the fortresses of Administration of Justice in Prussia. Stettin, Küstrin and Glogau. The minis- At the head of it is the minister of justice, ter Von Stein (at the head of affairs since whose office extends to the organization Oct. 5, 1807,) strove to regenerate Prus- of the whole department, all the appointsia, and, though he was a most uncom- ments in the same, &c., and to decisions promising enemy of France, established in cases unprovided for, and the remedyby the edict of Oct. 9, 1807, new relations ing of what appears defective or contrabetween the landlords and the cultivators, dictory by the authority of the king. and introduced several results of the Under him, in the ancient Prussian doFrench revolution. The peasants were minions, are the high courts of the counto be in future free, and might become try (Oberlandesgerichte); under these the owners of the soil; and, Nov. 19, 1808, a lower courts, particularly the inquisitomunicipal constitution, called the Städte- riats, which have charge of criminal ordnung, was established, by which the cases; the country and town courts; royal minister Stein seems to bave intended to "justice-offices,” courts of the mediatized lay the foundation of a civil spirit, and to princes, counts and barons, patrimonial adapt the state of Prussia to the spirit courts; commissioners of justice (advoof the age.* In 1808, Stein was obliged cates) and notaries. There are also ecto leave Germany, in consequence of the clesiastical and commercial courts. Since persecutions of the French. June 6, the new organization of justice in Prus1810, baron Hardenberg was placed at the sia, it has always been the plan to appoint, head of the government as state-chancel- even for courts of the first instance, sevlor. His administration is a most impor- eral judges with collegiate power, for all tapt one for Prussia. _(See Hardenberg.) cases where the question is one of real The continuance of French oppression, legal investigation; whereas, in former instead of weakening Prussia, strengthen- times, in Germany, there was but one ed her to a degree which would have been judge in all the courts of the first instance. thought impossible. Her energy broke The same principle lies at the foundation forth with a wonderful effect in 1813, of the new French organization. The when the king called on "his people” tó judicial system in Prussia is as follows:shake off the French yoke. The nation A. In the German countries between the

Rhine and the Weser, the Elbe and Oder, The Stadteordnung gives the cities the con- including East Prussia, there is a control of their pecuniary affairs, and, in some siderable variety in the courts of the first measure, of their police. It was revised in 1831, instance, particularly in Silesia and Westduction. It does not, however, confer much real phalia, on account of the many lordships uberty.

and principalities which have independent


Civil cases,


courts of the first instance: some of them made from one country court to another; even possess courts of the second in- so that these courts exercise mutually an stance. In the Catholic parts of the coun- appellate jurisdiction over each other. try there are, also, the ecclesiastical courts The high court of appeal is not merely a of the archbishops and bishops. The court of cassation (q. v.), but goes into a courts of the second instance comprise consideration of the whole case, and de sixteen high courts of the country, of cides it upon the merits. The courts of the which the one at Berlin is called court of peace consist of a judge and an assessur the chamber (Kammergericht). These are (assistant). The country courts compris permanent courts

, and all the time in sixty-two presidents, directors, counsellors session. Every high court of the country and assessors. C. In the province of the is divided into two senates (three only ex- Lower Rbine, the French administration cepted), of which the second forms gen- has been retained entirely, as well in erally the court of appeal, and at the respect the organization of the same time attends to affairs of guardian- courts as to the nature of the process ship, &c. The division into senates exists (Only the Eastern Rhenish part of the also for criminal cases. These high district of the country court of Coblentz courts of the country consist of 330 pres- has the Prussian organization.) In this idents, counsellors and assessors (all province, there are 123 courts of the peace. judges). Above them stands the privy Above them stand six country courts, with supreme tribunal at Berlin, as a court of ninety-one presidents, counsellors and as revision for important cases.

The court of second instance according to the ancient German custom, (in regard to courts of the peace the thini pass successively through three courts, is the Rhenish court of appeal, with two criminal cases through two; but all de- presidents, twenty-six counsellors, and two cisions in important criminal cases are assessors. There are in these courts, colsent to the minister of justice, and gen- lectively, thirty-three advocates of the erally are laid by bim before the Kammer- crown. At Aix-la-Chapelle, Coblentz, Cogericht for its opinion. For the conduct logne, Crefeld, Elberfeld and Treves are of investigations there is a division, called commercial courts. Appeals of cassatioa

Inquisitoriat, in the high courts of the (q. v.) go to the court of cassation at Bercountry. This organization exists in lin. D. The principality of Neufchatel East and West Prussia, Brandenburg, and Valingin has its own ancient judicial Pomerania, Silesia, Saxony, Westphalia, system. The lower judicial authorities and Juliers-Cleves-Berg. B. The prov- are the mayors and castellans; the higher ince of Posen had, during the existence of are two sovereign courts, in which the the duchy of Warsaw, a judicial organiza- governor presides, and to which eacti tion entirely French, which, with certain estate (nobility, officers and communities modifications, has been retained by the sends four members. The supreme tribuordinance of Feb. 9, 1817. There are in nal at Berlin is the highest court of justice that province thirty-one courts of the peace, for that part of the Prussian monarchy, in for much the same objects as the French wbich the Prussian judicial system precourts of this sort, namely, to effect com- vails. It decides only as the highest cours promises, to decide in actions for the re- of appeal, the court of third instance, is covery of sınall debts, contracts of bire, causes in which the amount in dispute insults, &c. As courts of the second in- at least 2000 German dollars, with the eistance for cases decided by the justices of ception of a few kinds of cases which bethe peace, and of the first instance for oth- long to it, without regard to the anouk er cases, there are seven “ country courts” and of some which are excepted from i (Landgerichte), corresponding to the jurisdiction, without regard to the amourt. French tribunaux de première instance. In It acts only on the reports carried up as a some cases, the oral pleading has been re- from the lower courts, and, whenever : tained in civil cases, but with an extension disputed fact remains to be settled, the of the power of the judge, and a curtailing cause is sent back to the inferior court. of the irregular writing, which the French The numerous other courts, which possess process perinits to the advocates. (See final jurisdiction, have prevented this inProcess.) For criminal cases there are bunal from contributing so much to give four inquisitorints, entirely in the Prussian completeness and uniformity to the jure form. A high court of appeal at Posen, prudence of the country, as other suprem with two presidents and eight counsellors tribunals in other countries; for exam (judges), forms the court of bighest in- the parliament of Paris, the court of caur stance in all cases. The first appeal is tion, the court of the imperial chamber,

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