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fifty-eight north-east of New London, umes, in addition. The government of seventy east of Hartford, 190 north-east the university is vested in a board of felof New York, 394 north-east of Wash- lows, consisting of twelve members, eight ington ; lon. 71° 26' W.; lat. 41° 51' N.: of whom, including the president, must population, in 1820, 11,767 ; in 1825, be Baptists; and a board of trustees, of 15, 41 ; in 1830, 16,832 ; in 1832, about thirty-six members, twenty-two of whom 20,000. It is thus the second town in must be Baptists, five Friends, five EpisNew England, in point of population. It copalians, and four Congregationalists. is built on both sides of what is usually The acting officers of instruction, at presstyled Providence river, which is only an ent, are the president, three professors, and arm of the bay reaching to the mouth of two tutors. There are 114 students. The Mooshasuck river, at the upper part of the philosophical apparatus, which has recity, its two sections being connected by cently been largely increased by private two bridges, one ninety feet in width. munificence, may be considered very exVessels of nine hundred tons burthen can tensive and complete. Annual commencecome to the wharves. The buildings are ment on the first Wednesday of Septemchiefly wood, uniformly painted white, ber. There are three vacations ; one, from though there are many of granite and commencement,four weeks; one, from the brick. Some of the dwelling-houses last Friday of December, six weeks; and are spacious and elegant, and those on one, from the second Friday of May, three the high ground on the eastern side of weeks. Whole number of graduates to the town are remarkable for beauty of sit- 1827, inclusive, 1119. The present conuation. The chief public buildings are dition of the institution is prosperous. the state-house, of brick; the arcade, of The Dexter asylum for the poor of Provgranite ; fourteen houses of public wor- idence, finished in 1828, is a brick edifice ship; the halls of Brown university ; the of three stories, 170 feet long and forty-five Dexter asylum ; the Friends' boarding, feet wide. The Friends' boarding school, school ; five public school-houses, and established by, and belonging to the yearly several large manufacturing establish- meeting of New England, is also å spaments. The arcade is the most splendid cious structure, of brick, with a basement building of the kind in the Union; it has of granite, under the care of a superintwo fronts, of hammered granite, each tendent, five male and four female teachseventy-two feet wide, presenting colon- ers. There are 117 male and 70 female nades, of the pure Grecian Doric, of six pupils. It has a small library. The columns each. The columns are twenty- public schools were established in 1800, five feet high, the shafts being twenty- and now consist of five grammar schools, two feet in length, each of a single block. five primary schools, and one African The body of the building is of split stone, school. They originated with the mecovered with cement, and extends from chanics and manufacturers' association. street to street, in length 222 feet. It was The Providence library contains about finished in 1828, and the whole cost was 1000 volumes; the mechanics' apprenabout 130,000 dollars. Of the churches, tices' library about 1000; and that of the the first Baptist, the two Unitarian, and athenæum (an institution just commenone of the Episcopal (St. John's), are ced), about 1500. Providence was early a bandsome structures. Brown university place of much commercial enterprise. In (originally founded at Warren, in 1764, ihe first half of the year 1791, the duties and removed to Providence in 1770) takes paid on imports and tonnage amounted to its name from Nicholas Brown, its most 59,766.14 dollars ; in the year 1831, the munificent benefactor. It has two halls, whole amount collected was 227,000 dolboth of brick, viz. University hall, four lars, notwithstanding the diminution of stories high, 150 feet long, and forty-six the rates of duties on many articles, which feet wide, containing fifty-one rooms for reduced the sum 36,000 dollars, at least. officers ard students, besides a chapel, li- The imports in 1831 amounted to 457,717 brary and philosophical room; and Hope dollars; the exports, domestic $199,193, college, built in 1822, four stories high, foreign $130,441, . total $329,634. The 120 feet long, forty wide, with forty-eight amount of shipping registered is 12,362 rooms for officers and students. They tons; enrolled, 4788 tons. There are four are placed on some of the highest ground insurance companies, with an aggregate in the city. The college library contains capital of $360,000 ; and fifteen banks, about 6000 volumes. Three other libraries with an aggregate capital of $4,502,80C, within the walls, be enging to literary so- besides a branch of the U. States bank, cieties, present an aggregate of 6000 vols with a capital of $800,000, and the sarings bank, capital $100,000. The Black- ful patented invention; one of sperm and stone canal. extending from Providence to one of linseed oil; one mill for cutting the town of Worcester (Mass.), was fin- and grinding dye-stuffs. A large glasished in 1828; whole cost about $700,000. house, for the manufacture and cutting of It is navigated by thirty boats, from twen- flint-glass, has been in operation about a ty-five to thirty tons each. There are ten year, employing a capital of $36,000, fifty| newspapers published in Providence, two eight men and fourteen boys, whose of which are daily. Providence is most wages amount to $21,000 per annum, and distinguished for its manufactures. There turning out manufactured goods to the are in Providence four cotton factories, value of $1400 per week, or about two moved by steam and two by water $70,000 per annum. Besides the above power, employing a gross capital of there is an extensive manufacture of leath$327,489. They contain 11,194 spindles, er, boots and shoes, soap and candles, caband 244 looms. They give employment inet furniture, hats, &c., and pickers and to 352 persons directly, besides 739 others, sundry articles used in other departments dependent, more or less, on them, with of the manufacturing business. The capan aggregate annual amount of $45,801 italists of Providence have, besides, an wages. They consume annually 434,971 amount equal to $2,000,000 invested in pounds of cotton ; spin 382,875 pounds of cotton, woollen, and other factories, o yarn, and weave 1,458,000 yards of cloth, other towns of Rhode Island and the admostly of the finest and most valuable joining states, agencies of which are quality, to the estimated value of $247,860. established within the city. For the conThere are also tyo extensive bleacheries, sumption of the town and its vicinity, inin which very large quantities of cotton cluding, as this does, many manufacturing cloth, from many of the factories in Rhode villages, there were imported, in the year Island and other states, are bleached, cal- 1830, 45,166 bales of cotton, and, in the endered and beetled ; and a third one is year 1831, 55,707 ; and of bread-stuffs

, in erecting. The two in operation employ 1830, 68,473 barrels of flour, 358,181 a capital of $175,000, and 195 persons, bushels of corn, and 16,967 of rye: i whose annual wages amount to $49,000; 1831, 71,369 barrels of flour, 216012 and the annual quantity of cloth bleach- bushels of corn, and 7772 of rye.-Tlu ed and finished at these establishments is town was founded by Roger Williams 3,300,000 pounds, or 13,200,000 yards. who was born in Wales, and educated There are also four dye-houses, and a fac- Oxford. He removed to America : tory for making candle and lamp wick, 1631, and, after preaching at Salem and and cotton webbing. There are four iron Plymouth, was settled at the latter place founderies and seven machine shops, em- as pastor of the congregational chuch, i ployed principally in building cotton ma- 1634. He there preached against the chinery, and estimated to constitute one king's patent to the Plymouth colons third of the whole amount of this busi- on the ground that the king had no se ness carried on in the state. These em- thority to grant and dispose of the land ploy a capital of $250,000, and 414 per- of the natives, without their consent. Fer sons. They work up annually about 1390 this course, together with his peculiar tons of iron and steel, manufacturing ligious tenets, and particularly his opera machinery to the value of 309,000 dol- and fearless declaration of the principales lars. There are, besides, one file factory, not of toleration merely, but of entire and one of steam engines, one of steam unrestricted religious freedom, and to boilers, and three brass founderies, all on a avowal that the civil magistrate had considerable scale. There are seven prin- right “ to deal in matters of conscien cipal establishments for working in tin, and religion," he was banished, and order sheet-iron, copper, brass, &c., in two of ed to depart the Plymouth jurisdico which the manufacture of stoves, pipes, within six weeks. This sentence vi and grates for anthracite coal, is carried passed in the autumn of 1635; but i on very extensively; one comb factory, was afterwards informed that permet which annually consumes $4000 worth sion was granted him to remain until the of stock, and manufactures combs to the ensuing spring. So great, however, ya value of $9500; twenty-seven jewellers' the fear of his influence, that an officers and goldsmiths' shops, employing a capi- sent to apprehend and carry him on boards tal of $100,200, 282 persons, and manu- vessel at Nantasket, in order that he was facturing goods to the value of $228,253; be conveyed to England. Before the art also one factory for hat bodies of wool, val of the officer, Williams, having intins very extensively operating on a most use- tion of this desigo, had departed for le

hoboth. Being there informed by gov- far the most commercial town of the Baernor Winslow that he was still within the hamas. The population of the island is bounds of the Plymouth patent, he cross- supposed to be about 8000, the greater ed the Seekonk river, in the spring of part of whom are slaves. (See Bahamas.) 1636, and commenced a new settlement PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS. (See New in the wilderness, near the mouth of the England, and Providence.) small river Mooshasuck, giving it, in ac-' Province (provincia), among the Roknowledgment of the divine protection, mans; a district of conquered country, the name of Providence. The first settle- governed by a proconsul or propretor ment of the town was thus made on the (see Proconsul), and called therefore propoint of land between the Seekonk or vincia consularis, or pretoria. But this Blackstone river on the east, and the arm name was only applied to lands lying beof the Narraganset bay on the west. yond the boundaries of Italy. In the The latter was afterwards gradually con- time of Augustus, they were divided into tracted by the extension of the land in the provinciæ senatoria, or populares (the the present westerly part of the town, people's provinces), and the provinciæ imuntil the two parts were, at length, con- peratoria (the emperor's provinces). The neeted by Weybossett bridge, now nearly latter comprised those which were most in the centre of the town. The sheet of exposed to hostile inroads, and the adminwater remaining north of this bridge was istration of which was left entirely to the thus formed into a beautiful cove, which, emperor, under the pretence of sparing at its northern extremity, receives the the senate and people the trouble of manMooshasuck river, and forms the basin of aging them, but in rcality to keep the arthe Blackstone canal. In 1676, during my in his own hands. They were differthe war which was made, at the instiga- ent according to circumstances. In modtion of king Philip, for the extermination ern times, the term has been applied to of the New England colonists, an attack colonies,or to dependent countries, at a diswas made on Providence by the Indians, tance from the metropolis, or to the differand about forty houses burned and de- ent divisions of the kingdom itself. Thus stroyed. In 1801, it suffered severely the Low Countries belonging to Austria from an extensive fire. In 1807, a vio- and Spain were styled provinces (see Nethbent storm and flood destroyed nearly erlands); and the same term is applied to all the bridges, and a great number of some of the English colonies. The difbuildings, in the town and its vicinity. In ferent governments into which France the great storm of September, 1815, about was divided, previous to the revolution, 500 buildings were destroyed by the wind were also called provinces. The name has and the water of the bay. The loss of sometimes been retained by independent property on that occasion was then esti- states. Thus the republic of Holland, afmated at more than $1,000,000 ; but that ter it had thrown off the Spanish yoke, eventually proved of much benefit to the was called the United Provinces ; and the place, by removing a great number of old Argentine republic has assumed the name and comparatively useless buildings, of United Provinces of the Plata. In Engwhereby an opportunity was afforded for land, the jurisdictions of the two archDew and commodious streets in those sec- bishops are styled provinces.Provincial is tions which are devoted to commercial a monastic officer who has the superintenbusiness. In October, 1831, Providence dence of the monasteries of his order withwas incorporated as a city, divided into in a certain province or district, and is himsix wards. Its municipal government is self subordinate to the general of his order. rested in a mayor, a board of six alder

Provost (from præpositus); in some of men, and a common council of twenty- the Scotch cities, the title of the chief four members.

municipal officer. (See Prévot.) The PROVIDENCE, or New PROVIDENCE ; the heads of several of the colleges in the second island, in point of size, among the universities of Oxford and Cambridge are Bahamas, being thirty miles in length and also styled provosts. eight in breadth ; lat. 25° 2 N.; lon. 77° Provost marshal of an army is an offi20 W. A part of it is very fertile ; but cer appointed to arrest and secure desertits principal business arises from the mis- ers and other criminals, to hinder the solforunes of those ships which are compel- diers from pillaging, to indict offenders, led to seek it for a harbor. The port is and to see sentence passed upon them called Nassau, and is situated on the and executed. He also regulates weights nonh part of the island. Its harbor is and measures. rather shallow ; but it is the capital, and Prudhon, Pierre Paul; a French paintVOL. X.

33

er, born in 1760, at Cluny, where he was assembling of representatives from all tb educated by the monks of the celebrated various provinces in one legislative boty abbey of the place. The sight of the pic- Nothing would have united the people tures here awakened his taste for painting, more strongly than thus awakening which being observed by the monks, the national feeling for a common inbishop of Macon had him instructed in tution. 3. That, since the time of Friodrawing at Dijon. After having studied eric the Great, Prussia bas felt obliged u in Rome, whither he was sent by the Bur- seek a strong ally in Russia to strength gundian estates, Prudhon returned to herself against Austria-an alliance whe France in 1789, and lived some time in has much retarded her civil advancemet: obscurity in Paris, but finally gained rep- We shall now proceed to the Statistva utation by his celebrated allegorical pic- and Geography of Prussia. The Prusses ture, Crime pursued by Divine Justice. monarchy, which contained 3,000,000 (i He died in 1823. His principal produc- inhabitants, on 46,428 square miles, was tions are Psyche borne away by the Zeph- an army of 76,000 men, when Freden yrs, Zephyr sporting over the Water, an the Great ascended the throne, contaip Assumption, and a Dying Christ. Some in 1804, without reckoning Neufchuita have censured his design, and the same- 9,977,497 inhabitants, upon 120,395 square ness of his heads; but his brilliant color- miles (with 38,000,000 of Prussian dollar ing, and the fine expression and grace of income, about 32,000,000 Spanish), a his pencil, are generally admired. at the end of 1828, 12,726,823 inhabitants Prunes. (See Plums.)

upon 106,852 square miles, with 3,310,47 Prussia; the smallest of the (so called) buildings, to which is to be ad-led Net great powers of Europe; a country in chatel, with 51,580 inhabitants, upon ? several respects singular, being composed square miles; and, at the close of 18 of very heterogeneous parts, several of the number of the inhabitants r them not connected by any common feel- 12,939,877. The whole increase of tting or common interest, not even by geo- population in 14 years has been 2,247.023 graphical situation, but merely by arti- In 1826, the population stood thus:ficial political system ; and yet it holds an influential station among the European

Germans,

10,08T Of Sclavonic origin,

2,027 powers. Another very striking feature of

French Walloons, this monarchy is the care which it be

154 stows on science and education. The

Jews, . . sciences are no where fostered with more The numbers belonging to the chief reicare, and there are few countries in which gious denominations, in 1826, were, common schools are more widely diffused, Notwithstanding the effect which this

Evangelical (comprising Lumust have in enlightening the people, and

therans and Calvinists),

7,195,notwithstanding the attention which has

Catholics, been paid, for several generations, to the

Jews, . .

154. administration of justice, there is an almost

Mennonites, .

162 incomprehensible backwardness in every The military consisted, in 1829, of 167.00 thing which belongs to a civic spirit,

troops (of which 17,908 W chietly, it is probable, from three reasons: guards, 19,132 cavalry, 15,718 artiller, 1. that the greatness of Prussia proceeded and 104,712 infantry of the line), ana from, and has been supported by, military 359,248 Landwehr (q. v.), of which 17:13 power, the power of standing armies, and

were of the first class, and 179,624 of 5 the whole system of government has been second class: the whole military fun. carried on with something of a military therefore, comprised 524,248 men. R. spirit by numerous officers in regular gra- enue for 1829 about 36,190,000 $6 dations, who execute the orders received ish dollars ; national debt, in from their superiors. 2. That many of 135,370,000. The revenue, for 1829, 2 the various parts composing the mon- levied thus:archy have no national interest, as Prussians, in each other; so that the noblest Domains and royal forests, $3.222.9 germs of civil virtue remain undeveloped Sale of domains, in the breasts of the people, whose inter- Mines, salt works,

7124 ests are diverse. We may add here, by Manufactures of porcelain, the way, that Prussia, of late, has neglect

Post department, ed the most important means of giving Lotteries, coherency to her population, namely, the Salt monopoly,

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Balance from Neufchatel, 18,525 three governments, of which the smallest Tar on real estate,

6,880,612 in point of population contains 148,948 Taxcalled class-tar, 4,537,200 inhabitants, and the largest in this respect, Tax on occupations, 1,236,900 that of Breslau, contains 942,307 inhabitOn excise, duties and stamp, 13,347,262 ants. A government is under the control Highway toll, .

408,262 of a president and a number of counselExtraordinary revenue, . . 426,070 lors and assessors, who have the charge

of every thing except the administration The army cost, in 1829, $15,692,562. of justice. Each province has a highThe number of students at the universi- president. The ten provinces are as folties stood thus in the following years :- lows:

Year.
Berlin, . 1810 1829 1706

Brandenburg,

1,539,602 Halle, 1694 1828 1185 Pomerania,

877,555 Breslau, 1702 1828 1021 Silesia,

2,396,551 1818 1829 1002 Saxony,

1,409,388 Konigsberg, . . 1544 1829 523 Westphalia,

1,228,544 Greifswalde,. . 1456 1829 154 Cleves-Berg,

1,075,025 Münster,. . . 1631 1827 284 Lower Rhine,

1,127,297

East Prussia, (For the schools of Prussia, see the article

1,216,154 Schools.) The chief cities are

West Prussia,

792,207 Posen, ..

1,064,506 Berlin (the capital),

236,830

Neufchatel has 51,580. Though the geoBreslau,

90,090 Cologne,

64,499

graphical character and financial resources Königsberg,

of Prussia were much improved by the 67,941

peace of Paris, the first still gives rise to Dantzic, .

61,902 Magdeburg,

many inconveniences. Prussia has an 44,049

unguarded frontier from Seidenberg, in The peace of 1815 did not give compact- Upper Lusatia, to Wittichenau; an open ness to the irregular territory of Prussia. frontier towards Russia (as a Russian arIt consists (Neufchatel not included) of an my may, at any time, come within three eastern and a western part: the former, days' march of Breslau, and to fortify the which is much the larger, is bounded by Prosna wouid cost millions), and her Russia, Austria, the kingdom of Saxony, Rhenish provinces compel her to keep the small states in Thuringia, the electo- up always a strong military force in the rate of Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Meck- direction of France—all which shows, if lenburg, and on the north by the Baltic. we may use the phrase, the artificial exThe latter is separated from the former by istence of Prussia, her unnatural position. the electorate of Hesse, Hanover and Prussia can only partially overcome these Brunswick, and is bounded by the Neth- disadvantages by immense expense; and erlands, France, Bavaria, Lippe-Detmold, nothing but the establishment of a general Nassau, Waldeck, and other small territo- government for the whole of Germany ries. The country is mostly level, with can afford an adequate barrier against the sinall elevations. The island of Rugen, threatening power of Russia. Prussia, with its promontory Stubbenkammer, is the which has but a third part of the populahighest point in the lands on the Baltic. tion of France, has yet 712 miles more of The principal chains of mountains are frontier. At one extremity she touches the Sudetes, with the Riesengebirge (the the gates of the French fortress ThionSchneekoppe, 4950 feet high); the Hartz ville on the Moselle, while the other is (9.v.), with the Brocken; the Thuringian watered by the Memel and the Niemen, forest; the Westerwald, with the Sieben- and we seek in vain for a body to unite the gebirge; the Hundsrück, with the Hoch- two arms, which are connected only by wald; and the Eifel, a continuation of the the double military road running through Ardennes. The rivers are mentioned be- Hanover. There are, properly speaking, low. The climate is, on the whole, variable, three Prussias, one in Poland, one in Gerand severe rather than mild and warm; many, one between the Meuse and the yet, in the valleys of the Nahe, Moselle, Rhine. The kingdom has three vulnerSaar and the Rhine, it is very fine. Since able parts, towards Russia, Austria, and 1215, the monarchy has been divided into France; hence its situation is dependent. ten provinces and seven military districts. The commerce is various, yet would be The provinces are subdivided into two or much greater if those countries which

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