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lost his life (330 B. C.); after which Alex- territories by the Huns, and obliged to pay ander made himself master of the whole them a tribute for two years. The Sas empire (329 B. C.). On the dissolution sanides, however, soon regained their of the Macedonian empire, after the death greatness and power. Cobad (until 531) of Alexander (323), the Seleucides (see subdued the Huns; and, though he had Seleucus) ruled over Persia until 246 B.C. recovered his throne, in 498, by their asThey were succeeded by the Arsacides, sistance, yet, at a later period, he waged a who founded the empire of the Parthians, successful war against them, against Athawhich existed until 229 A. D. Ardshir nasius, the Indians, and Justinian I. His Babekan (Artaxerxes) then obtained the youngest son and successor, Chosrou sovereignty of Central Asia, and left it to Anusbiryan (from 531 to 579) was distinhis descendants, the Sassanides, who ruled guished for his uncommon wisdom and 407 years. With them begins, according valor. Under bim the Persian empire ! to Hammer (q. v.), the romantic character extended from the Mediterranean to the of Persian chivalry; and the six most re- Indus, from the laxartes to Arabia and i nowned rulers of this dynasty, among the confines of Egypt. lle waged sucwhom are Behramgur, Chosroes, Parwis

, cessful wars with the Indians and Turks, and Nushirvan, are the subjects of Per- with Justinian and Tiberius, and the sian romances. Ardshir, son of Sassan, Arabs, whom he delivered from the opruled from 218 to 241. The wars which pression of petty tyrants, and suppressed he carried on with the Romans were con- the rebellions of his brother and his son. tinued under his successor, Shapur (Sa- The Lazians in Colchis, wearied with the por I, until 271), against Gordian and Va- Greek oppression, submitted themselves to serian (the latter of whom fell into the him; but, when he attempted to transfer bands of Sapor, and was treated in a most them into the interior of Persia, they again revolting manner), and were not terminat- placed themselves under the dominion of ed until the peace of king Narses with Dio- Justinian, whose arms were now victoricletian (303). When Sapor the Great ous. Anushirvan died of grief during (from 309 to 380) had become of full age, the negotiations for peace. War continthe empire again recovered strength. He ued under Hormuz (Hormisdas IV, from punished the Arabs for their incursions and 579 to 591) until the reign of Chosrou II took the king of Yemen prisoner, and de- (until 628), ander whom the Persian power manded from the emperor of Constanti- reached its highest pitch. By successful nople the cession of all the country to the wars he extended his conquests, on the Strymon, as Ardshir had once done. Con- one side to Chalcedon (616), on the other stantine the Great, Constantine II and over Egypt to Lybia and Æthiopia, Julian resisted bis demands; but Jovian and finally to Yemen. But the fortune of purchased peace by a cession of the five war was suddenly changed by the victoriprovinces in question and the fortress of ous arms of the emperor Heraclius. Chos. Nisibis. Sapor also extended his conquests rou lost all his conquests, and his own son into Tartary and India. War and peace Sirhes made him prisoner, and put him to successively followed, without any impor- death (628). The decline of Persia was tant events, after the death of Sapor. Un- hastened by continued domestic feuds. der Artaxerxes II (until 383), Sapor III Sirhes, or Kabad Shirujeh, was murdered (until 388), and Vararanes IV (until 399), in the same year. His son Ardshir (Artathe empire flourished. Arabs, Huns and xerxes) III, but seven years old, succeeded Turks successively appear on the field, as him, and was murdered, in 629, by his genallies or enemies of Persia. Yezdegerd eral Serbas (Sheheriar). The chief PerI (until 420), a friend of the Christians, sians prevented Serbas from ascending the conquered Armenia in 412. In the year throne; and, after numerous revolutions 420, Vararanes V ascended the throne by succeeding each other so rapidly that the the aid of the Arabs. He was victorious historians have confounded the names, against Theodosius II, defeated the Huns Yezdegerd III, a nephew of Chosrou, aswho invaded his empire, and conquered cended the throne in 632, at the age of sixthe kingdom of Yemen. He was suc- teen. He was attacked by caliph Omar, ceeded by Vararanes VI (until 457) and in 636, and Persia became a prey to the Hormisdas III. In the year 457, Firus Arabs and Turks. Yezdegerd lost his (Pheroses) ascended the throne by the life in 651.-With the conquest of Persia assistance of the Huns, but afterwards by the caliphs begins the history of the made war against them, and lost his life in modern Persian empire. The dominion battle in 483. Valens, or Balash (from of the Arabs (see Caliph) lasted 585 years, 488 to 491) was stripped of a part of his from 636 to 1220. As some of the Arab

governors made themselves independent, greater part of Persia, and, in 945, even over and Persian and Turkish princes possess- Bagdad. They were chiefly distinguished ed themselves of single provinces, Persia for their virtues and love of science, and continued to be divided into numerous maintained themselves until 1056, when petty states. Among the principal dynas- Malek Rahjm was obliged to yield to the ties were, in the north and north-east, 1. Seljooks. 9. The Seljooks, a Turkish the Turkish house of the Thaheridis in dynasty, as is supposed, driven by the Khorasan, from 820 to 872; 2. the Persian Chinese from Turkestan, first became dynasty of the Soffarides, which derbron- powerful in Khorasan, with the Gaznaed the one last named, and ruled over vides. Togrulbeg Mahmood, a brave and Khorasan and Farsistan until 902; 3. the prudent warrior, drove out the son of Samanide dynasty, which established its Mahmood, the Gaznavide sultan, in 1037 ; independence on Khorasan in 874, under extended his dominion over Mavaralnar, Ahmed, in the province Mavaralnar, and Aderbijan, Armenia, Farsistan, Irak Agelasted to 999. Ishmael, Ahmed's son, de- mi, and Irak Arabi, where he put an end throned the Soffarides, and became pow- to the rule of the Bouides at Bagdad, in erful; and under his descendants originat- 1055, and was invested with their dignity, ed, 4. the Gaznavides, in 977, when Se- as Emir el Omrah, by the caliphs. Some bektechin, a Turkish slave and governor of his descendants were distinguished for of the Samanides at Gazna and Khorasan, great activity and humanity. The most inade himself independent at Gazna. powerful of them, Malek Shah, conquered His son Mahmood subdued, in 999, Kho- also Georgia, Syria and Natolia (Roum). rasan, and, in 1012, Farsistan, and thus put But the empire gradually declined, and an end to the dominion of the Samanides. was divided into four kingdoms, which He subsequently conquereil Irak Agemi were destroyed by the shahs of Khowa(1017) from the Bouides, and even extend- resm (1162 and 1195), the atabeks of Aleped his conquests into India. But his son po (1139), and the Monguls (1194). GenMasud was stripped of Irak Agemi and gis Khan established the power of the TarKhorasan by the Seljooks (from 1037 to tars and Monguis in Persia (1220_1405). 1044); and the Gaznavides, weakened by Those Persian provinces which had been domestic divisions, became, under Malek acquired byGengis Khan fell to his youngShah (1182), a prey to the Gourides. 5. The est son, Tauli, in 1229, and then to the sultans of Gour (Gourides) became pow. son of the latter, Hulaku, at first as governerful, in 1150, by means of Aladdin Ho- ors of the Mongolian khans, Kajuk and sain, but lost their ascendency, after seve- Mangu. Hulaku extended his dominion ral great reigns, partly by the encroach- over Syria, Natolia and Irak Arabi. He ments of the princes of Khowaresm, and or his successor became independent of partly by domestic dissensions. 6. The the great khan, and formed a separate dynasty of the Khowaresmian shahs (from Mongolian dynasty in those countries, 1097 to 1230) was founded by Aziz, gover- which sat on the throne till the death of nor of the Seljooks in Khowaresm, or Ka- Abusaid, without heirs, in 1335. His sucrasm, where he rendered himself inde- cessors, also descendants of Gengis Khan, pendent. Tagash (1192) destroyed the had merely the title of khans of Persia. empire of the Seljooks, and took Khora- The empire was weak and divided. Then san from the Gourides. His son Moham- appeared (1387) Timurlenk (Tamerlane) med conquered Mavaralnar, subdued the at the head of a new horde of Monguls, Gourides and Gazna, and occupied the who conquered Persia, and filled the greater part of Persia. But, in 1220, the world, from Hindoostan to Smyrna, with great khan of the Monguls (9. v.), Gengis terror. But the death of this famous conKhan (q.v.), and his heroic son Gelaleddin queror was followed by the downfall of Mankbern," deprived him of his domin- the Mongul dominion in Persia, of wbich ions; and he died in 1230, after a struggle the Turkomans then remained masters for of ten years, in a lonely hut in the moun- a hundred years. These nomadic tribes, tains of Curdistan. In western and north- who had plundered Persia for two centueastern Persia reigned, 7. Mardawig, a Per- ries, wrested, under the reigns of Kara sian warrior, who founded a kingdom at Jussuf and his successors, the greatest Dilem, in 928, which soon extended over part of Persia from the Timurides, were Ispahan, but was destroyed by the Bou- subdued by other Turkoman tribes under ides. 8. The Bouides (sons of Bouia, a Usong Hassan (1468), and incorporated poor fisherman, who derived his origin with them. They sunk before Ishmael from the Sassanides), by their valor and Sophi (1505), who artfully made use of prudence, extended their sway over the fanaticism for his political purposes, and whose dynasty lasted from 1505 to 1722. har (1738); invaded (1739) Hindoostan, Ishmael Sophi, whose ancestor Sheikh and obliged the great mogul Mohammed Sophi pretended to be descended from to cede to him some provinces on the InAli, took from the Turkomans of the dus and most of his treasures. But, in white ram, Aderbijan (1505 to 1508) 1747, Nadir was murdered by the comand part of Armenia, slew both their manders of his guards, and his death princes, and founded upon the ruins of threw the empire again into new confusion. their empire, after having conquered Shir- Four kingdoms were now formed : l. van, Diarbeker, Georgia, Turkestan and Khorasan and Segistan; 2. Kandahar, or Mavaralnar, an empire which comprised the eastern provinces ; 3. Farsistan, or the Aderbijan, Diarbeker, Irak, Farsistan and western provinces ; and, 4. Georgia. The Kerman. He assumed the name of a latter, for the most part, retained its own shah, and introduced the sect of Ali into princes, who, at length, submitted to Rusthe conquered countries. His successors, sia. In Kandahar and the East, Ahmed Thamas (1523 to 1575), Ishmael II (from Abdallah founded the empire of Afghan1576 to 1577), Mohammed (1577 10 1586), istan. (q. v.). He was victorious at PanniHamzeh (1586), Ishmael III (1587), car- put, and ruled with absolute sway in Inried on unsuccessful wars against the dia. His residence was Kabul. He was

Turks and the Usbecks. But the great succeeded, in 1753, by Timur; the latter shah Abbas (1587 to 1629), reëstablished by Zeman. In the two other kingdoms, the empire by his conquests. He took the Curd Kerim Khan, who had served from the Turks Armenia, Irak Arabi, Mes. under Nadir, and was of low extraction, opotamia, the cities of Tauris, Bagdad and succeeded in establishing tranquillity, after Bassora ; Khorasan from the Usbecks ; long and bloody wars, by subduing MoOrmuz from the Portuguese, and Kanda- hammed Khan, who fled, and perished at bar from the Monguls ; and humbled Mazanderan. His wisdom, justice and Georgia, which had refused to pay tribute. warlike skill gained him the love of his He introduced absolute power into Persia, subjects and the esteem of his neighbors. transferred his residence to Ispahan, and He did not call himself khan, but vekil instituted the pilgrimage to Meshid, in or- (regent). He fixed his residence at Shider to abolish that to Mecca among the raz in 1755, and died in 1779. New disPersians. The following rulers, Shah Sesi turbances arose after his death. His (1629 to 1642) and Abbas II (1642 to brothers attempted to get possession of 1666) had new wars with the Turks and the throne, to the exclusion of his sons. Indians; with the former on account of A prince of the blood, Ali Murat, occupiBagdad, which was lost; and with the lat- ed it in 1784; bứt a eunuch, Aga Mohamter on account of Kandahar, which was med, a man of ancient family and uncomreconquered in 1660. Under shah Soli- mon qualities, had made himself indeman, however, (1666 to 1694), the empire pendent in Mazanderan. Ali Murat, who declined, and entirely sunk under his son marched against him, died in consequence Hussein. The Afghans in Kandahar re- of a fall from his horse, and left the sceptre volted, in 1709, under Mirweis; and his to his son Yafar, who was defeated by son Mir Mahmud conquered the whole Aga Mohammed at Jezd Kast, and fled to empire, in 1722. A state of anarchy fol- Shiraz, where he perished in an insurreclowed. Mahmud, having become insane, tion. His son Luthf Ali made several was dethroned by Ashart, in 1725: the desperate efforts to recover his throne ; but latter was subdued by Thamas Kuli Aga Mohammed was victorious, and apKhan, who, with the assistance of the pointed his nephew Baba Khan his sucRussians and Turks, placed Thamas, son cessor, who has reigned since 1796, under of Hussein, on the throne in 1729. But, the name of Feth Ali Shah. He fixed his when the latter ceded Georgia and Arme- residence at Teheran, in order to be nearer nia to the Turks, Kuli Khan dethroned the Russians, who threatened him in him, and placed his minor son, Abbas III, Georgia and the neighboring provinces. on the throne. He recovered, by con- By the peace of 1812, the Persians were quest or treaties, the provinces ceded to obliged to cede to Russia the whole of the Russians and Turks, and ascended Daghestan, the Khanats of Kuba, Shirthe throne under the title of Shah Nadir, van, Baku, Salian, Talishah, Karaachb, Abbas III having died in 1736. He re- and Gandsha, resigning all claims to Shustored Persia to her former importance by laregi, Kharthli, Kachethi, Imeritia, Guria, successful wars and a strong government; Mingrelia and Abchasia, and were obliged conquered Bahareim (1735) and Balk to admit the Russian flag on the Caspian (1736) from the khan of Bucharia, Kanda- sea. (See Russia.) Feth Ali (born in


1768), a Turkoman of the tribe of Kad- dusht, wrote his religious books, with shar Shah, was induced by the heir-appar- which Anquetil du Perron made us better ent, Abbas Mirza, and his favorite Hussein acquainted, so far as they are extant, under Kuli Khan, who believed Russia to be in- the name of Zendavesta, or the living volved in domestic troubles, to attack that word. Sir W. Jones was informed by a power in 1826. The Persians invaded the learned disciple of Zoroaster, that Zend is Russian territories, without a declaration the name of the character in which the of war, instigated part of the Mohamme- books are written, and Avesta the name dan population to insurrection, and ad- of the language. It appears to have been vanced as far as Elisabethpol; but they extinct before the beginning of the vulgar were defeated in several battles, and the era ; and among the Guebers, who adhere Russians under Paskewitch conquered the to the doctrines of Zoroaster, there are at country to the Araxes, which, by the treaty present very few who are acquainted with of Tourkmantchai (1828) was ceded to it. The Zend, both in its grammatical Russia. (See Russia.) The cholera mor- construction, and its radical words, bears bus made great ravages in the north-west- a great resemblance to the Sanscrit and ern part of Persia in 1829 and 1830. Ac- Teutonic languages. (See Rask.) The cording to the latest accounts, the country Pehlvi, that is, the language of heroes, was disturbed by the contests of the royal which was first spoken nearly contempoprinces. The English always maintain an rarily with the Zend, at first in Media or embassy at the capital, to counteract the Parthia (in the language of the country, influence of Russia.-See Malcolm's His- Pehlo or Pehluwan), and seems to have tory of Persia (2 vols., 2d ed., 1829), and been closely allied with the Georgian and his Sketches of Persia (1828). Respect- Aramæan, attained to a high degree of ing Western Persia, we owe the latest ac- perfection, and became, under the Parthi- . counts since Chardin, Niebuhr, Olivier, to an kings, the common language of the Kinneir, Morier, Ouseley, and particular- nobility and higher classes, but gave way ly to Ker Porter, and Price's Journal of to the Parsee when the seat of the empire the British Embassy to Persia (London, was transferred to the southern provinces, 1825). Price was secretary to Ouseley's and the Sassanides prohibited its use. Acembassy. J. B. Fraser, in his Narrative of cording to some vague reports, it is still a Journey into Khorassan, 1821–1822 spoken by a wandering tribe of Shirvan (London, 1825, 1 vol., 4to.), 'describes the (the Puddars). Among the Guebers there general state of Persia. The Adventures are only a few who understand it. The of Haji Baba of Ispahan, by Morier, and writings of Zoroaster were early translated J. B. Fraser's two works—Kuzzilbash, and into the Pehlvi : there are also some theothe Persian Adventurer, being the Sequel logical and historical writings extant in it, of Kuzzilbas)—are interesting delinea- several of which Ouseley has brought to tions of Persian manuers. The great in- Europe. Under the Sassanides, the soft, fluence of England in Persia appears from rich and expressive language of Fars or G. Keppel's Journey from India to Eng- Farsistan (the Parsee), became the preland, by Bassorah, Babylon, Curdistan, vailing language in Persia: from it sprung Persia, &c., in 1844 (London, 1827, 4to.). the modern Persian, and from the two Drouville's Voyage en Perse (2d edit., was formed the rude Curd dialect. The Paris, 1825, 2 vols.) contains valuable in- Parsee, or the pure language of Farsistan, formation: see also the Letters on the bears traces of a common origin with the Caucasus and Georgia, by Freygang, Rus- Sanscrit; although we do not assume, with sian consul-general in French, Hamburg, Schlegel, that the Sanscrit is the mother 1816). Bucet's and Balbe's New Map of of the Parsee, nor with Frank, that the Persia (Paris, 1826) is accompanied by a Parsee is the mother of the Sanscrit ; the historical and statistical sketch of the latter of which opinions, however, apmonarchy.

pears the more probable, on account of Persian Language, Literature and An- the greater simplicity of the Parsee. We cient Religion. In the Persian provinces, find the Parsee tolerably pure in Ferdusi, which had previously formed the kingdom and other authors of the first century of the of Media, the Zend and Pehlvi, or Pehlevi, Mohammedan era, though not entirely free were the prevailing languages; the former from mixture with the Arabic. This mixin the north, the latter in the south of ture took place after the conquest of PerMedia. Zend is a Pehlvi word, signifying sia by the Arabs, when Mohammedanism living. In the Zend, which is nowhere became the prevailing religion of Persia, mentioned as a spoken, but only as a sa- and Arabic the learned language of the cred language, Zoroaster (q. v.), or Zer- country. The addition, not only of single

words, but even of whole phrases, was on the decline, when the Persian, favored
owing partly to necessity,because words by the Bouides and Seljooks, revived.
were wanting in Parsee to express many Among the princes who encouraged
new ideas, -and partly to an affectation learned men and poets by personal favor
of elegance. In this manner was formed and rewards, the Bouide Azad Eddaulet, i
the modern Persian. The Arabian words in the middle of the tenth century, the
which it contains have, in some instances, Gaznavide sultans Mahmood Sebektechin
remained unchanged, and have sometimes and Keder Ben Ibrahim, and the Seljook
been changed and inflected in the Persian sultan Malek Shah, with his vizier Nazam
manner. The resemblance between the el Maluk, and Keder Chan Chacan, de-
Persian and Teutonic is not so great, that serve to be mentioned. The flourishing
a German could, as Leibnitz said, at once period of literature continued till the time
understand whole Persian verses, but it is of Gengis Khan, in the thirteenth cen-
certainly striking, and proves, without jus- tury. Under Timur, in the fourteenth
tifying us in adopting useless hypotheses, century, and the Turks, in the fifteenth, it
that the German, which came from Asia, continually declined, and in the sixteenth,
sprung from the same source with the was almost entirely extinct. The oppres-
language of the early inhabitants of Per- sions and disturbances to which Persia
sia. The same is true 'of the Celts, Scla- has since been continually subject, have
vonians and Thracians, of whose lan- prevented the revival of learning. The
guages traces are also to be found in the old Persian language is now almost super-
Persian. According to Hammer, the pres- seded by the Turkish ; the Parsees alone
ent Persian is, of all the Eastern languages, speak it. But the Persians possess rich
the most nearly allied to the German. In literary treasures of the earlier periods,
the country which, according to Mirchond, particularly in poetry, history, geography,
was anciently called Germania, and, ac- &c. We must limit ourselves chiefly to
cording to Eddussi, Erman, the old Persian a notice of that portion which has been
is the native dialect ; so that the pame touched by Europeans. The most bril-
Germani is not of Roman origin. In the liant part of Persian literature is poetry,
simplicity of its grammatical construction, (See Hammer's History of Persian Polite
the Persian language resembles the Eng- Literature in German, Vienna, 1818).
lish ; in its power of compounding words, Among the poets are the following: Ru-
the German. We pass over the dialects of digi, the father of modern Persian poetry,
the Persian language, merely mentioning who translated in verse Pilpay's fables;
that the most cultivated of them, the re- the epic poet Ferdusi (q. v.), author of the
fined Parsee, which has become the lan- Shahnameh, or Book of Kings (of which
guage of the court and of literature, is Görres has given an abridgment), who
called Deri (court language, from dar, lived at the beginning of the eleventh cen-
door), and that the popular language is tury; and his contemporaries, the celebrat-
called Valaat. The written character of cd lyric poets, Ansari (the first king of
the Persian language is the Arabic, with poets) and Ahmed Essedi of Thus. Also
the addition of four letters with three distinguished as lyric poets are Anweri er
points, which are not in the Arabic. Their Enweri, of Bednah, in Khorasan (died
books are most frequently written in the 1200), who was unsurpassed in the Ca!
character called Talik. The Persian fude, and inferior only to Hafiz in the ode
literature, of wbich the Magi were in pos- (two of his poems are contained in the
session until the introduction of Moham- Asiatic Miscellanies); Chakani, bis con-
medanism, has nothing to show in its old temporary and rival; Chodscha Hafiz
dialects, the Zend and Pehlvi, but the Schemseddin Mohammed, best known
works above-mentioned, and the Perse- under the name of Hafiz (q. v.); Shahi, !
politan inscriptions, which are in part un- probably a pupil of Djami ; Hatefi, Emir
intelligible. What escaped destruction in Chosrou, Senai, Shefali

, and many other the time of Alexander, was destroyed writers of the divan, who are mentioned under the caliphs, and a few fragments in Hammer's work above referred to. To only were preserved among the fugitive the lyric poets of Persia also belong the Parsees or Guebers. Persian civilization Turkish emperor Selim I, the unfortunate declined during the first period of the Ara- Shah Allum (see Franklin's Life of Shah bian dominion; even in the tenth century, Allum), and the Shah Feth Ali.As a lyric, no traces of any literature are to be found mystic" and moral poet, Sheik Sadi (q. v.) among the Persians. Learning first re- is the most celebrated, not only in the vived in Persia in the time of the Abas- East, but also among us. Ferideddin Alsides, and Arabian literature was already tar, a contemporary of Sadi's, was the


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