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tranquillity, until the fourth persecution cution of the Christians (the seventh) so called. In Asia Minor, they were throughout his kingdom. The universalviolently assailed, about the year 160, ity of this persecution, and the perseverby the heathen populace; and the Chris- ance and cruelty with which it was purtian apologist 'Justin Martyr, and the sued, made it plain that the emperor's purbishop of Smyrna, Polycarp, were put to pose was to extirpate them entirely, and death. About the year 177, Marcus Aure-induced many to fall from their faith. lius treated the new congregations in Gaul, Fortunately, however, from the rapid at Vienne and Lyons, with great severity, changes in the government at this period, and many Christians suffered martyr- the persecuting policy was not very steaddom (fourth persecution). About the end ily followed. Valerian, in 257, put to of the second century, a strong disposition death few but the clergy (eighth persecuwas manifested to unite the congregations, tion); and the execution of the edict of which had been hitherto independent of Aurelian against the Christians (274, the one another, into one church. The spir- ninth persecution, as it was called) was preitual teachers, too, growing bolder with vented by his violent death. A severe the increase of their distinctions and priv- persecution (the tenth) took place under ileges, showed a disposition to grasp more the emperor Diocletian, at the instigation o. authority, and often came into collision his ministers, Galerius and other enemies with the civil magistrates; and the Chris- of the Christians, in 303. Throughout the tians, having become numerous and pow. Roman empire, their churches were deerful, openly derided the pagan worship, stroyed, their sacred books collected and now sinking into decline. These circum- burned, and all imaginable means of inhustances led to wild outbreaks of the hea- man violence employed to induce them to then populace, bent on revenging the in- renounce their faith. As they were acsults offered to their gods (about 192), and cused, moreover, of a rebellious spirit, and a dreadful slaughter ensued. The empe- of kindling a conflagration in the royal ror Septimius Severus, moreover, in 202, palace at Nicomedia, thousands suffered forbade the accession of new converts to martyrdom. Constantius Chlorus, a sovethe Jewish and Christian religions, and this reign favorable to them, was unable to decree was followed by still severer op- protect them entirely in his Gallic and pressions of the Christians. Dreadful tor- British provinces; and in Greece, Illyria, tures were employed by the Roman magis- Italy and Spain, Galerius, Maximinus and trates, at that time, in order to compel Licinius pursued them with imprisonthe Christians, of every age and sex, to ments and executions, principally directed deny their religion. Many yielded to the against the clergy, till 310. These were storm, with the intention of returning to the last oppressions of the Christians unChristianity in more peaceful times; yet der the Roman government. Constantine not a few preferred death to apostasy, and the Great (312 and 313) restored to the gained the martyr's crown, and the admi- Christians full liberty, and the use of their ration of Christian posterity. (See Mar- churches and goods; and his conversion tyrs, and Saints.) After this fifth persecu- to Christianity made it the established relition, the Christians enjoyed toleration and gion in the Roman empire. This religion peace from 211, under "Caracalla, Macri- afterwards experienced oppression withmus and Heliogabalus, and, under Alexan- out the limits of the Roman empire ; for der Severus, even privileges and distinc- instance, in 343 and 414 in Persia, and tion. The restraints imposed upon them from 437, with little interruption, till the by the emperor Maximian (235) received commencement of the sixth century, in the name of the sixth persecution, al- the African kingdom of the Vandals; but though, properly speaking, only Christian the efforts of some Roman emperors fateachers and clergymen were oppressed vorable to heathenism, as Julian and Euby this emperor; but the oppressions genius, for the restoration of the pagan which many of the congregations under- worship in the Roman empire, were more went were inflicted without his command. prejudicial to themselves than to the ChrisPrivate hatred, in fact, often led to out- tians. After the establishment of islamrages against the Christians, and excited ism, the caliphs in Asia and Africa laborthe populace to assail them. This hap- ed, with success, for the extirpation of pened at Alexandria, in the latter years of Christianity, and spared only particular the reign of the emperor Philip the Ara- schismatic sects, which still enjoy, under bian, who was, personally, well-affected the protection of the Mohammedans, the towards them. But his successor, De- free exercise of their religion. Christians cius, began his reign (249) with a perse- themselves, after it had become a crime to be a heretic (see Heretic, and Inquisition), cled in the rear by rocky mountains, persecuted one another most bitterly; and which open in the form of a crescent, and the outrages which the early Christians consisting of three divisions, one above had suffered from the heathens were tol- the other, and built entirely of the most erable, compared to the religious wars beautiful gray marble, the immense blocks which they waged against each other in of which are put together with admirable the middle ages, and to the sufferings in- art, without mortar. Marble stairs, so wide flicted on heretics, so called, by the inqui- and easy of ascent, that ten horsemen sition, and by fanatical princes, even to can ride up them abreast, lead from the the eighteenth century. But, as heathen lower divisions to the higher. At the eaRome could not stop the spread of Chris- trance of the portico, to which the steps tianity, so Protestantism, in later times, belonging to the first division lead, faburooted itself the more firmly in proportion lous animals are seen, wrought in the still to the tempests which assailed it; for the remaining pilasters, as if to guard the direct tendency of persecution is to awak- palace. Similar steps lead to the second en a spirit of heroic resistance, and a zeal division, to a colonnade, several columns to make sacrifices for the cause of truth. of which still exist, fifty feet high, and of PERSEPHONE. (See Proserpine.) such a circumference that three men can

PERSEPOLIS. În a northern direction hardly clasp them. This colonnade leads from the Persian capital of Shiraz are the to several detached buildings, of which ruins of ancient structures of different the largest stands in the same division; ages, among which are the only remains the others, farther back, form the third of ancient Persian architecture, belonging division. These houses contain a numto the most flourishing period of that ber of chambers, of different sizes, and powerful nation. There are other archi- seem to have been real dwellings. They tectural remains, with inscriptions, beleng- are ornamented with a number of images ing to the time of the modern Persian representing processions, people of all empire, which originated in the third ranks, combats of fabulous animals with! century of the Christian era, out of the one another and with men. In the wall Parthian empire. (See Parthians.) These of the rock against which the building latter remains lie about four or five miles stands, are two large tombs. At a confrom the ruins of Persepolis proper, and siderable height from the ground, a façade consist partly of works of sculpture, partly is hewn in the rock itself, behind which is of inscriptions in the ancient Pehlvi a chamber that can be entered only by a | language, cut in the rocks. They are passage broken through, as no regular encalled, by the Arabs, Nakshi Rustam trance has been found. Beneath, the rock (the image of Rustam) because they were is cut perpendicularly, in order to make! regarded as intended to commemorate the the monument entirely inaccessible. The deeds of this ancient hero; but, according best representation of the ruins is to be to De Sacy's satisfactory explanation, they found in Niebuhr. The result of the relate to the kings of the modern Persian most recent investigations, compared with race (the Sassanides). (See Persia.) Many the information contained in the inscriptions in Arabic, the later Persian, cient writers, is, that the monuments and other languages, were put here in the of Persepolis are actually of Persian century after Mohammed." The ancient origin, and the tombs, those of Persian Persian monuments differ essentially from kings, belonging to the buildings called all the rest of the ruins. These are the Chilminar, with which they are connected ruins of the proper palace of Persepolis, by subterranean passages. Though the called, by the Arabs, Chilminar, i. e. the buildings belong to Persian antiquities forty (used indefinitely to signify many) yet it is probable that the Persians themcolumns, with two tombs near it; four selves did not construct them, but caused tombs towards the north-east, near Nak- them to be erected by others; and their shi Rustam, called the tombs of the kings, truly Asiatic character affords foundation with the ruins of some other ancient for the supposition that they were built in buildings; and lastly many remains and imitation of the architecture of the Medes columns of unfinished tombs between (to whom the Persians were indebted, in Chilminar and Nakshi Rustam. All these general, for their civilization), under the remains are represented in Chardin's direction of the priests. The ruins of Travels through Persia, and in Niebuhr’s Persepolis proper are most probably not Travels to Arabia. The chief monument all of the same age, but the work of seveis Chihninar, undoubtedly the remains of ral Persian kings. Persepolis was not a great and magnificent structure, encir- destined for a temple, for the Persians


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professing the religion of the Magians, ceived him with his mother, soon wished s had no temples, nor was it a palace of to remove from his court the young and

the kings, because, though it may have daring hero. Under pretence, therefore, ?' originated, as most of the capitals of Asia of suing for the daughter of Enomaus,

did, from the residence of the kings of he requested from his friends presents of
the first conquerors, it soon ceased to be rarities to make his wedding feast more
their actual abode. But the ideas of splendid. Perseus promised him the

country, power and religion attached to head of the Gorgon (Medusa). Beyond sit, made it the receptacle of the royal the ocean, just on the borders of eternal is dead, and the sanctuary of the people. night, dwelt the formidable Gorgon race, : The various images represent the whole with serpent-locks and serpent-girdles,

private life of the king, as it was strictly of whom Medusa alone was mortal.
prescribed by the Magians. Immediately Conducted by Mercury and Minerva,
after their accession to the throne, the he first went to the three Graiæ, on the

Persian kings proceeded to Persepolis to western coast of the ocean; who had to be invested with the garment of Cyrus, but one eye and one tooth, in common.

and, at certain times, visited this holy Perseus got possession of these, and
place to sacrifice on the summits of the promised to restore them on condition
mountains. After the death of a king, his that they would bring him to the nymphs,
apparel, utensils, and even his treasures, who kept the instruments which he
were preserved here, as the tomb of the needed in this enterprise—the talaria, or

king was considered a fit dwelling to be winged shoes, the bag, and the belmet of 1 provided with all necessaries. For this Pluto, which made its wearer invisible.

reason, not only numerous guards protect. They agreed to the condition, and Pered the palace, but also the most important seus obtained from the nymphs what he officers of the deceased king, perhaps desired. Other accounts say, that he was even his wives, were obliged to remain furnished by Mercury and Vulcan. Led near the tomb. Alexander, after over- by Mercury and Minerva, he reached the coming Darius, gratified his revenge by slumbering Gorgons. With his face avertthe destruction of Persepolis. (See Alec- ed, he approached the monsters, whose ander.) The mechanical execution of look transformed the spectator into stone, these monuments is very perfect, and no saw the head of Medusa by reflection in country on earth, Egypt only, perhaps, his brazen shield, and cut it off. From excepted, can show such masonry as the drops of blood sprang Pegasus and these ruins. The character of this archi- Chrysaor. With the head in his bag, he tecture, however, is totally opposite to that escaped from the pursuing sisters, by of the Egyptian monuments. Surprising means of the helmet of Pluto. On the assiduity and minuteness of execution are winged sandals of Mercury, he now hovshown in the ornamental work. The in- ered over various regions, seeking advenscriptions on these ruins are in a three- tures. He went to king Atlas, who had fold character-comprised under the gene- been informed by an oracle, that a son of ral name of arrow-headed character,-and Jupiter would strip his garden of the also in three different languages. The golden apples which it bore; and thereoldest character, undoubtedly, consisting fore refused to Persens the rites of hospiof letters, is, according to the unanimous tality, who, presenting to his eyes the opinion of critics, in the Zend language, a Gorgon's head, changed him into a rock, sacred idiom of the Magians: the charac- which was doomed to support the heavters of the second kind seem to belong to ens. He then delivered Andromeda. (q. v.) the Pehlvi language; and the third are, By her he became the father of Perses, perhaps, Assyrian or Babylonian. Grote- whom he left in the care of his grandfend and Lichtenstein have been particu- father Cepheus, and returned with Anlarly successful in the explanation of these dromeda to Seriphos. Here he found his characters. Drawings, still more exact mother at the altar of Minerva, to which than those of captain Keppel, and accounts she had fled with his foster-father Dictys, of newly discovered bass-reliefs in Per- to escape the violence of Polydectes. He sepolis, have been given by Jam. Edw. transformed the latter, with all his associAlexander, in his Travels from India to ates, into stone; and, having placed Dictys England, through Persia, Asia Minor, upon the throne of Seriphos, he returned &c., 1825-1826 (London, 1827, 4to.) to Mercury the talaria, the bag and the

Perseus ; son of Danaë (q. v.) and Ju- helmet, and gave to Minerva the Gorgon's piter. Polydectes, king of Seriphos, an head, which she fixed in the centre of her island in the Archipelago, who had re- shield, or, according to some, on her



breastplate. Perseus then went to Argos, shock, which continued six days and six with Danaë and Andromeda, to visit his nights, destroyed the city of Shiraz (50,000 grandfather Acrisius. To avoid the predic- inhabitants) and Kazroun; mountains distions of an oracle, Acrisius had fled to Thes- appeared without leaving a trace behind. saly; but he could not escape his destiny; It is remarkable that so extensive a counfor Perseus followed him there, and killed try has no considerable river, although it him accidentally with the discus, of which contains many high mountains. There he was the inventor. In consequence of are a few small rivers, that lose themthis event, he refused to ascend the throne selves in the sand, or are consumed by of Argos, which had thus fallen to him, canals, which serve the purpose of irrigaand exchanged it for Tirynthus, the king- tion. Persia, however, contains several dom of Megapenthes. Here he founded lakes, among which are that of Erivan and Mycenæ. Besides Perses, the founder of Bakteghian or Salt lake. All the water is the Persian nation, Andromeda also be- impregnated with salt; the lakes are all came the mother of Alcæus, Sthenelus, saline, and wherever water has stood in Eleus, Mestor, Electryon, and a daughter winter, the soil is found to have become named Gorgophone. After his death, salt. The extensive plains are, many of Perseus was worshipped as a hero, and them, covered with water in winter, and placed among the stars. The fable of in summer present a bare, hot surface, Perseus has been, by some writers, derived coated with saline matter. The mounfrom Persia, and been interpreted as typi- tains are naked ; the hills dry and barren. cal of the introduction of agriculture from On account of the scarcity of water, but a Upper Asia or Persia into Greece. He is small portion of the plains is cultivated; the Bersin of the Shahnameh.

the remainder is either naked or merely PERSIA (Iran, Chahistan); a country of bears some succulent plants, which soon Asia, between 250 and 400 N. lat., and 44° wither. There are, however, some fertile and 64° E. lon.; bounded N. by Russia, tracts. The country supplies excellent the Caspian sea and Independent Tartary, horses and asses, dromedaries, caule, W. by Turkey, S. by the Persian gulf

, broad-tailed sheep, silk, grain, rice, pulse, and E. by Beloochistan and Afghanistan; melons, sesame, saffron, madder, hemp, comprising about 390,000 square miles, flax, tobacco, poppies, liquorice, sugarwith a population of about 6,500,000. The cane, date-palms, cassia, mastic, rich wines, centre of Persia is an elevated plain, con- cotton, manna, gum tragacanth, senna, galtaining several deserts of sand. The banum, assafætida, rhubarb, all the fruits northern provinces, in which rises the of the temperate zone, and fine tropical chain of the Ararat, and the western parts fruits, gall-nuts, copper, iron, lead, saltof the country, are mountainous. To the petre, sulphur, salt, &c. The inhabitants east of the Tigris, and nearly parallel with are partly Tadshiks, consisting of a mixed it, is a granitic ridge, called by the an- race of Parsee, Arabic, &c., origin, Parcients Zagros ; and also parallel with the sees, or fire-worshippers and Armenians; same is the Orontes (now Elwind), which and partly nomads, among whom the separates into two branches, one of which, Curds are the principal nation. The Tadto the west of the Caspian sea, is con- shiks (modern Persians) are superior to nected with the Elbour, or the Caspian the Ottomans in civilization, and manifest chain, a prolongation of the Taurus. The a strong passion for the arts and sciences country on the Caspian is lower than the They are Mohammedans, of the sect of coasts on the ocean, and is surrounded by Ali, or Shiites. A peculiar Mohammedan a semicircular barrier of mountains, which sect, the Sabians (q. V.), worship the cross, are a continuation of the Taurus and Cau- have a sort of baptism, and call themselves casus, and present a much steeper descent disciples of St. John. The Ishmaelites towards the Caspian than on the land side. (q. v.) also form a distinct sect. The ParIn the southern part of Persia, the eleva- sees are Guebers (9. v.), of the philotion of the country is more gradual than sophical sect of Sophis." (See Sophis.) in the north and west; and along the Per- Jews and Christians are tolerated in Persian gulf, there is a narrow strip of low sia. The Persians are distinguished for land, which is uninhabitable in summer their skill in dyeing, and in silk and woolon account of the heat. As we recede len manufactures. They manufacture from the sea, and approach the mountains, shagreen, morocco, work in gold and silthe climate becomes cooler. The ele- ver to great perfection, and make excelvated northern and western regions are lent sword blades, and a great number of temperate, and, in winter, cold. Earth- articles of copper ware. In agriculture quakes are not uncommon: in 1824, a they make great use of artificial irrigation,

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which is, at present, a monopoly of the and subdued Thrace, Macedonia, (512 B. government. The commerce, which is C.), and a small part of India; but his atconsiderable, is chiefly carried on by cara- tempt to conquer the Scythians beyond vans to India, Turkey and Arabia. The the Danube was unsuccessful. He reduce navigation of the Persian gulf is mostly in ed the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, the hands of foreigners. The navigation which had attempted to shake off the Perof the Caspian sea is open to the Russians sian yoke (501 B. C.); but he was unforand Persians; but the latter, by the terms tunate in his war against the European of the treaty of 1828, are excluded from Greeks, and Egypt revolted from him. maintaining ships of war in its waters. His son Xerxes (487 to 467 B.C.) effected Arts and sciences are held in esteem, but the submission of Egypt, but was defeatare by no means in a flourishing condition. ed by the Greeks on the field of MaraThe study of the Koran, divination, as- thon and at Salamis, and was obliged to trology, a sort of ethics, medicine and defend himself against their attacks in a poetry, are the chief departments of edu- disastrous war. Under Artaxerxes Loncation. The style of architecture is sim- gimanus, the Ahasuerus of the Scriptures ple, sculpture almost unknown, the music (until 425 B. C.), the first symptoms of dedetestable. The government is an abso- cline became visible. Egypt again revoltlute despotism; at the head of it is the ed, and was again conquered, after a shah, with unlimited power. Jaubert esti- bloody struggle. The Greek war termimated his income at $10,000,000. The nated disadvantageously, in 449 B.C. (See twelve provinces into which the kingdom Cimon.) Megabyzus excited a dangerous is divided are governed by khans. The insurrection. The weak king was governnomadic tribes enjoy a sort of indepen- ed by his mother and wife. The next dence under their chiefs, and form the changes of government were rapid and main body of the military force. Abbas violent. Xerxes II, his only legitimate Mirza, the heir apparent, has endeavored son, was murdered, after a reign of fortyto form troops with the European disci- five days, by bis natural brother Sogdiapline. Persia has no naval force, owing nus, who suffered the same fate, six partly to a want of ship timber. The months afterwards, by the hands of anlargest town is Ispahan (q. v.), formerly other illegitimate son of Artaxerxes, one of the principal cities of "Asia, now Ochus, who assumed the name of Darius much reduced. The capital is Teheran II, and reigned until 404 B.C. under the (50,000 inhabitants in winter; 10,000 in influence of his wife Parysatis. The resummer.)

volts of his satraps hastened the decline History. The history of Persia first of the empire, and the Persians were emerges from the obscurity of antiquity obliged to acknowledge independent kings with Cyrus. The dynasty of the Maha. in Egypt. But the internal troubles in bads is mentioned by Oriental writers as Greece, of which the Persians artfully the first. It was followed by that of the took advantage, saved them, for a time, Pishdadians (coeval with our Assyrian em- from a united attack by the Greeks. Arpire). After the Pishdadians, the Kaja- taxerxes II, Memnon, or Mnemon (until nides ruled for 718 years. Gustasp (Hys- 361 B. C.), was entirely under the influtaspes), the Median Cyaxares, or his con- ence of bis mother, Parysatis. His brothtemporary, under whom Zerdusht (Zoro- er Cyrus, supported by 10,000 Greeks unaster) lived, belongs to the uncertain time der Xenophon (g. v.), attempted to debefore Cyrus. With Cyrus (q. v.), 559— throne him (400 B. C.), but was defeated 529 B. Č., began the period of Persian and killed. Domestic dissensions obliged power in the West. By uniting the Per- the Lacedæmonians to abandon their adsians and Medes under his sceptre, he vantages in Asia Minor, and to conclude made them the ruling nation in Western the disadvantageous peace of Antalcidas Asia ; he conquered Cræsus, took Baby- (387 B. C.). Artaxerxes III, Ochus (untit lon, and reduced Asia Minor. He was 338 B. C.), son of Mnemon, secured his succeeded by his son Cambyses (529 throne by putting to death his numerous 522)

, who conquered Tyre, Cyprus and brothers. He recovered Egypt (350 B.C.); Egypt. After him, a Magian ruled for a but his eunuch, Bagoas, poisoned him on short time, who gave himself out as Smer- account of his cruelty, successively murdis, brother of Cambyses. He was de- dered all his sons, and gave the crown to tbroned, and Darius Hystaspes (q. v.) ob- Darius Codomannus (q. v.), a prince of tained the crown by lot or the choice of the blood, who was conquered by Alexhis colleagues (521–487 B. C.). He re- ander in three decisive actions, on the duced the revolted kingdom of Babylon, Granicus at Issus and Gaugamela, and

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