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recall. By means of his sister, however, (B. C. 440), who opposed the pretensions Pericles had made a private agreement of Athens. He was partly persuaded to with Cimon, by which the command of undertake this war by Aspasia. (q. v.) the army was left to the latter, and the The expedition, in which she attended government of the state was to be in the Pericles, ended in the subjugation of the hands of Pericles. On the death of Ci- island and the restoration of the demomon, he became, as it were, prince of cratic government. The Samians soon Athens; for, although the aristocracy set rose and expelled the Athenian garrison; up against him Thucydides, the son of but Pericles again reduced them to subMelesias, a relation of Cimon, he was too jection. On his return to Athens, he deunequal to maintain the opposition. “If livered the celebrated funeral oration in I should throw him to the ground,” said memory of those who had perished in the he once of Pericles, “ he would say that expedition, which had such an effect upon he had never been prostrated, and would his audience, that the women crowded persuade the spectators to believe him." about him, and wreathed his temples with From this time, Pericles ruled the state, flowers. Thucydides was banished in the but without assuming the title of prince, struggles of parties, and the importance and endeavored to occupy the people of Pericles was greatly increased, till the with the establishment of new colonies or jealousy of the Athenians awoke, when warlike enterprises. By his great public they found those hopes abortive which works, he flattered the vanity of the Athe- bad been excited by the events that prenians, while he beautified the city, and ceded the Peloponnesian war. Some of employed many laborers and artists. To the friends of Pericles became the objects pay the expenses of these undertakings, of public prosecutions—Anaxagoras, his he caused the public treasury of Greece venerable instructer, on a charge of irreto be transported from Delos to Athens, ligion; Aspasia on account of her connexand justified this act of perfidy by saying ion with Pericles. He undertook to plead that the money had been raised to defend her cause himself, and was so affected that the nation from the invasion of barba- he forgot his dignity, and burst into tears. rians; and, as this end had been attained He procured her acquittal ; but he withby the exertions of the Athenians, the drew Anaxagoras from the attacks of his allies had no further right to inquire into enemies, by conducting bim from Attica the expenditure of the funds. His per- under his own protection. When the Sparsonal integrity in pecuniary matters was tans, who had assumed the protection of above suspicion. Of this we have a re- the smaller states of Greece, sent to Athmarkable example: During an expedi- ens, demanding a compensation for the tion against Eubea, the Lacedæmonians injuries which had been done to these invaded Attica, as the allies of the Mega- states, and threatening war in case of rerians. Pericles averted an attack by bribing fusal, Pericles persuaded the Athenians to the tutor of the Spartan king. When he reject the proposal, and thus became the submitted his accounts for examination, author of the fatal Peloponnesian war. ten talents were charged for secret ser- (See Peloponnesus.). Some maintain that vices, and the Athenians were satisfied his object was to keep his countrymen without any further account. Pericles employed abroad, in order to avert their finally made bimself master of the impor- attention from his government, particularly tant island of Eubea, B. C. 447, and, soon as his enemies were daily increasing, and after, concluded a truce of thirty years that Aspasia entertained a violent hatred with the Spartans. To set bounds to the against Sparta. The probability is, that popular power, which he had bitherto Pericles, misled by his views of the diglabored to increase, he now procured the nity and importance of the Athenian rerevival of an old law, declaring no person public, would consent to no concessions, a citizen of Athens whose father and particularly as such a measure would be mother .were not both Athenian citizens, fatal to his own greatness. At the comand caused 5000 individuals, who had be- mencement of the war (B. C. 431), Perifore been free, to be sold as slaves. This cles recommended to the Athenians to act is a proof of the great influence of turn all their attention to the defence of Pericles, and, doubtless, obtained the ap- the city and to naval armaments, rather probation of a majority of the citizens, than to the protection of their territories. whose importance was increased by a Accordingly, as he was made commanderdiminution of their numbers. Pericles in-chief, notwithstanding the murmurs of took advantage of the armistice with the Athenians, he allowed the superior Sparta to make war upon the Samians forces of the Spartans and their allies to

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advance to Acharnæ, in Attica, without finest ornaments—the Parthenon, the resistance, and, at the same time, sent a Odeon, the Propylæum, the Long Walls fleet to the shores of Peloponnesus, to numerous statues, and other works of art. Locris and Ægina, which took twofold The golden age of Grecian art, the age of vengeance for the ravages in Attica. After Phidias (9. v.), ceased with Pericles. His the Peloponnesians had retired, he invad- name is therefore connected with the ed the territory of Megaris, which had highest glory of art, science and power in been the cause of the war. At the end Athens, and if he is accused of having of this campaign, he delivered a eulogy conducted the city to the edge of that over those who had fallen in their coun- precipice from which she could not es. try's service. The next year, a plague cape, yet he must receive the praise of broke out at Athens, which made such having contributed greatly to make her dreadful havoc, that Pericles was obliged the intellectual queen of all the states of to summon all his fortitude to sustain his antiquity. countrymen and himself.

To occupy

PÉRIER, Casimir, formerly a banker, their attention, he fitted out a large fleet, and menuber of the French chamber of and sailed to Epidaurus; but the mortality deputies, in which he was one of the among his troops prevented him fromeffect- most distinguished liberal orators, was ing any thing important. He returned with born at Grenoble, in 1777, and, after finisha small force; but the Athenians no longer ing his education at the college of the put confidence in him. He was deprived oratory in Lyons, entered the military of the command, and obliged to pay a service at an early age. He served with heavy fine, though no particular crime honor in the campaigns of Italy (1799 and was charged against him. The fickle 1800), but on the death of his father, a repeople, however, soon recalled him to the spectable merchant, he abandoned the prohead of the state, and gave him more fession of arms for mercantile business. power than he had before enjoyed. But, In 1802, he established a banking house in amid his numerous civil cares, he was company with his brother, in the manageafflicted by domestic calamities. His eld- ment of which he acquired an intimate est son, Xanthippus, who had lived at va- acquaintance with the most difficult and riance with him, died of the plague. The important questions of public credit and same disease carried off his sister and many finance. Cotton manufactories, machine of his nearest relatives and friends, and, manufactories, and several other manufac- ! among the rest, Paralus, his only remain- turing establishments, were carried on by ing son by his first marriage. This affic- the brothers, and Casimir introduced im tion moved him to tears. To console him provements into the processes. In 1815 for this loss, the Athenians repealed the Casimir Périer published a pamphlet law which he had himself previously in- against the system of foreign loans, char- i troduced, in regard to children whose acterized by clearness and soundness of parents were not both citizens, and thus views, and in 1817 he was elected to repplaced his son by Aspasia among the citi- resent the department of the Seine in

But his strength was gone: he the chamber of deputies. Here he was sunk into a lingering sickness, and died no less distinguished as the firm and eloB. C. 429, in the third year of the Pelo- quent advocate of constitutional principonnesian war. When he lay upon his ples, than as an enlightened and sagacious death-bed, his friends, in their lamenta- financier. In the revolution of 1830, le tions, spoke of his great achievements; took a decided part in favor of the nabut he suddenly started up and exclaimed, tional liberties; was one of the deputation “ In these things I bave many equals; appointed to wait on marshal Marmont but this is my glory, that I have never during the three days; a member of the caused an Athenian to wear mourning.” municipal commission of the provisional By the death of Pericles, Athens lost hier government, July 28; but did not sign most distinguished citizen, to whom, al- their declaration of the dethronement of though deficient in severe virtue, is not to Charles X. When Charles made his last be denied greatness of soul. His educa- effort to retain the throne, he ordered tion enlightened his mind, and raised him the duke of Mortemart to form a minisabove the prejudices of his age. His am- try, who made M. Périer minister of bition was to give his country supremacy finance, and general Gérard that of war. over all the states of Greece, and, while he August 5th, Périer was chosen president ruled it, Athens maintained this rank both of the chambers, and on the 12th formin an intellectual and political view. To ed one of the first cabinet of the new Pericles the city was indebted for its king, without holding the port-folio of any

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department. In March, 1831, he succeeded ending succession. Chronology depends Laffitte as president of the council, with entirely upon astronomy; and before the the department of the interior ; Louis latter had made known the true motions (q. v.) being minister of finance, Sébastiani of the heavenly bodies, the former reof foreign affairs, and De Rigny of the mained in a confused state. The princimarine. (See France, in the Appendix, at pal periods of the Greeks were-Meton's the end of the work.) The chief en- lunar period of 19 years, or 6940 days, deavor of M. Périer's ministry, so far, according to which the Greeks computed appears to be to keep France at peace their astronomical calendar from 432 B.C.; with Europe, and thereby to make com- the period of Calippus (330 B. C.), or that merce and manufactures flourish, to estab- of Alexander, which comprised 4 times 19, lish civil liberty and repress the military or 76 years minus 1 day; and the still spirit; and, secondly, to render the gove more accurate period of Hipparchus, of ernment more firm. The opposition re- 304 years, which made the tropical solar proach him with ignominiously courting year only 6 minutes and 16 seconds too the favor of the absolute monarchs, with long. The Roman indiction (q. v.) was a having deprived France of the honorable period of 15 years, the origin of which is and elevated position due to her in the not very clear. The Julian period, inEuropean system, with being unwilling vented by Scaliger, consisting of 7980 to follow up, frankly, the principles of Julian years, was intended to reduce to the “ July revolution," and with having the same result the different computations sacrificed Italy to Austria, and Poland to of the year of the birth of Christ from the Russia.

creation. It is the product of the numPERIGEE, or PERIGEUM. (See Apo-bers 28, 19 and 15; or the solar, lunar and gee.)

indiction cycle. (See Cycle.) After 28 PERIHELION, or PERIHELIUM; that point times 19, or 532 years, the new and full in the orbit of a planet, or comet, which moons return in the same order, upon the is nearest to the sun; being the extrernity same day of the week and month, in the of its transverse axis, nearest to that Julian calendar, and the three chronofocus in which the sun is placed, and logical cycles (the solar cycle of 28 years, thus opposed to the aphelion, which is the the lunar cycle of 19 years, and the indicopposite extremity of the same axis. The tion cycle of 15 years) recommence at the ancient astronomers used, instead of this, same time. This period is also called the the term perigæum, as they placed the great Paschal cycle, and the Victorian or earth in the centre. The perihelion dis- Dionysian period. The year of the birth tances of the several planets, the mean of Christ, in the Julian period, is 4714. It distance of the earth from the sun being is now little used, as we reckon by years taken as unity, are as follows:

before and after Christ.-In history, a Mercury, .1815831 Ceres, 2.6890660 period is a certain division of time, deterVenus, .7164793 Pallas, 2.5222080

mined by events, giving to it the character Earth, .9831468 Jupiter, 5.1546127

of a whole. A judicious division of bisMars, 1.4305595

tory into periods is very necessary for a

Saturn, 9.4826022 Vesta, 2.2797800 Uranus,19,1366347

clear view of the whole, and, in fact, is Juno, 2.4122190

(See Aphelion.) method of studying history. The ancients

the necessary result of an intelligent Perillos. (See Phalaris.)

wrote general history ethnographically PERIMETER, in geometry; the bounds (q. v.), and chronologically, or in the way or limits of any figure or body The of annals. Bossuet, in his Discours sur perimeters of surfaces or figures are lines; l'Histoire universelle, and Offerhaus, in his ihose of bodies are surfaces In circular Compendium Historia universalis, divided figures, instead of perimeter, we say cir- history by centuries, and by subdivisions cumference, or periphery.

of the latter; but modern historians have PERIOD (from the Greek reprodos, a cir- preferred to divide universal history by pecuit); a' division of time, or of events riods. Voltaire, in bis Essai sur l'Histoire occurring in it. The astronomer calls générale, Millot, Condillac, Gatterer, Schlőthe time of a revolution of a heavenlyzer, and, in general, all the principal modern body, or the time occupied in its return to historians, have followed this plan. The the same point of its orbit, its periodh progress of civilization and of civil liberty (See Planets, and Kepler. In chronology, is more important than the order of dyperiod denotes a division of time, during Dasties, or the fluctuations of power; and which certain phenomena complete their the periods of history ought to be founded courses, which are repeated in never- upon the various stages or manifestations

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of these. A judicious division into po is not difficult to follow their connexion riods can be effected only by a clear and and to form a distinct conception of the philosophical view of history. Philo- whole. In some languages, the rules for sophical views are the great object of the the construction of periods are stricter study; but incautious philosophizing often than in others: some allow great liberty. leads the reader to deductions drawn To the former belongs the English lanfrom his own imagination rather than guage; to the latter, the Greek, Latin and from a rigid scrutiny of facts. The di- German. The genius of the German vision of history into periods, founded on language, in particular, allows of very general_views, requires, therefore, great long and involved periods, in which per-, care. The philosophico-historical school spicuity frequently suffers seriously; and of Germany, at the head of wbich, at often happens that the whole meaning present, we may put professor Hegel, has of a long, sentence in that language de : fallen into glaring errors in this respect. pends upon the last word, so that we are This same censure, however, by no means kept in suspense as to the ideas conveyed, belongs to all the philosophical historians until the decisive word appears. The of that country, but should be confined to following rules should be observed in the the school which is particularly termed construction of a period: 1. The chief philosophical. The division into periods idea must be made prominent, whilst the must vary, both according to the chief secondary ideas are presented with s aim of the historian and according to the force proportioned to their importance : amount of historical knowledge existing 2. there should be a certain proportion in his time. Thus a historian who pro- between the length of the different memposes to write a history of religions, or bers; 3. the subordinate parts should who thinks that religious revolutions have each serve for the more distinct explanaalways been the most important, and are tion of the preceding, and should not be the best standards by which to measure too much accumulated ; 4. the ideas to be the other changes in human society, will conveyed should be presented in a certain establish his division into periods accord- gradation, from the less distinct to the ingly. Another will take, as his basis, more distinct, from the weaker to the the political changes of nations. The stronger, the less important to the more most perfect division would be that important, except the contrary effect is which should adopt, as the basis of each expressly intended. Important as the period, that feature which was the most logical and grammatical arrangement of a strongly characteristic of it, which is not period is, the musical and rythmical is by always easy, as one principle often con- no means to be neglected. Much detinues strongly operative, while another pends here upon tact, but study can much has risen to an important influence, threat- improve this. There is a harmony in lanening to supersede it. In such a division guage which, if it cannot convince, yet can of universal history, civilization, religion, strongly affect, can carry the reader along, government, learning, important inven- or impress a sentiment indelibly. Yet tions, &c., would all become, in turn, undue refinement, an overlabored choice the bases of the various periods. (See of phrase, is to be studiously avoided. Epochs, and History.)

The rhythm of a period (the numerus) corA period, or sentence, in writing, is a responds to the metre in poetry, and is series of logically connected passages; a important for all languages, particularly passage developed in properly connected for those which, like the Greek or Gerparts. Aristotle's definition, which makes man, have a real prosody. Only a few it a discourse having its beginning and general rules can be given for rhythm: the end in itself, is indistinct. Every passage ear of the writer or speaker must be his would then be a period; and, on the other principal guide. The beginning of a pehand, a whole speech, a whole work, riod should be fitted to gain the attention would be a period. Periods should not of the hearer. Hence it is well to choose be too long, but it is impossible to fix the such words as fill the ear; e. g. in lanlimits distinctly. Cicero's rule, that a pe- guages which have a prosody, the first riod ought not to be longer than four pæon (vuu)the ionicus a majore hexameters, is as insufficient as the other, --uv), the third epitrites (--uthat it should be sufficiently short to be and some others. The conclusion ought spoken at one breath, without exhaustion to satisfy the ear by its firm and full sound. of the lungs. If it is properly constructed, The following feet are therefore desirable: the voice finds resting-places enough; the fourth pæon (vuu-), the amphibraand, if its parts are logically connected, it chys (u-y), the antibacchius (-ul

the dactylus iambus -), the di- with this department of literature, the trochæus fu-u), which it is best to present state of knowledge and civilizabave in one word, and the dactylus tro- tion cannot be understood, and the histochæus (-uu-u), which, however, on rian will find it essential to a comprehenaccount of its hexametrical form, is to be sion of the great movements of our time. used with great caution. The period Châteaubriand threw Villèle from his sadshould have a proper proportion of pauses, dle, by articles in the Journal des Débats; and so as to be equally removed from total when we see editors of newspapers drawirregularity, and from a constantly-return- ing up a protest so noble and historing symmetry which approaches to metri- ical as that of the Paris editors on July cal rhythm. The construction of sen- 26, 1830, and immediately afterwards

tences attained a perfection with the shedding their blood for the rights there· Greeks, which has not been reached by in maintained; and find statesinen like i any other nation, for two reasons,—their Brougham, Mackintosh, Peel, contributing

deep and universal feeling of the beauti- articles to English reviews,—we cannot be ful, and the richness of their charming surprised at the importance of the periidiom in participles and well-sounding odical press. We have given, in the article terminations. The Romans imitated the Newspapers, a sketch of the history and

Greeks, but the example of Cicero is not present state of that branch of periodical : to be closely followed, as he amplifies his literature. The first journal of the charphrases too much.

acter of a review was the Journal des In physiology, periods designate the Savants, established in 1663. Its success various stages in the developement and gave rise to Les Nouvelles de la Répubdecay of the animal organization, which lique des Lettres, by Bayle; Le Mercure, are distinguished by a marked character; by Visé ; Le Journal de Trévour, set up as the period of childhood, of puberty, &c. by P. Catrou, a Jesuit ; in Italy, to the Periods also denote, in medicine, those Giornale de Literati ; in Germany, to the repetitions of phenomena which we ob- Acta Eruditorum (q. v.). In England, the serve in certain diseases, e. g. in intermit- first review of this sort was the Monthly, tent fevers, the increase of the disorder in commenced in 1749, and still published. the evening, &c. Periodical diseases are (For further information, see the artisuch as, at certain times, make regular at- cle Review.) The utility of periodicals tacks, or are attended with regular aggra- has been very great; they have spread vations. This property is very common, knowledge throngh quarters to which the and there is hardly a disease in which it bulky productions of the sixteenth and has not been observed in the case of some seventeenth century never could have individual. On the contrary, there is 110 penetrated. The reviews, in particular, disease which always pursues its course have done much to promote the cause of periodically.

truth and just thinking. But the periodPERIODICALS, in the proper sense of ical press, like every thing else in the the word, are all publications which ap- world, has its bad side as well as its good, pear at regular intervals; and in the wide and one of its bad consequences has been sense which the word has now received, a taste for superficial accomplishment. it may even be considered as embracing Periodicals, however, have become a matthose publications which, as is not unfie- ter of necessity, as the circle of civilizaquently the case in Germany, appear from tion has widened, as the various nations time to time, yet neither at regular inter- have become more and more interested in vals nor in numbers of a fixed amount of each other, and as the great interests of pages (Zwanglose Hefte). The periodical mankind have been more deeply investipress, comprising newspapers, reviews, gated and more universally discussed. magazines, annual registers, &c., devoted For a citizen of Athens, the market and to religion, politics, the sciences, arts, the gymnasia máy have afforded a sufamusements, husbandry, &c., is one of ficient supply of news to keep him acthe most interesting and most momentous quainted with the events generally interconsequences of the invention of the art esting to his community; the wits of of printing. At first, slips of paper con- Florence may have found the shop of taining a few particulars, intended princi- Burchiello (q. v.) a sufficient centre of inpally for the gratification of curiosity, peri- telligence; but our times require much odicals have now become one of the most more regular, extensive and effectual important parts of the machinery of so- means for the diffusion of information on ciety, particularly in England, France and the events and productions of the day, and the U. States. Without an acquaintance for the discussion of the numberless im

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