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of Mexico. It has been selected as a and lovely character from this double naval station and depot. A stream of pause, by which it is distinguished essedfresh water runs through the town. It is tially from the majestic hexameter, (q. v. regarded as comparatively a healthy place. Ovid therefore says, that Cupid created is The present population may be a little for his sport, by robbing the hexameter more than 2000.

of two syllables. If used alone, the penPENSIONER; a person who receives a tameter would become monotonous ani pension from government.—Grand Pen- tiresome; it is, therefore, never employed sionary was the priine minister of the states except alternately with the hexameter. of the province of Holland, who was which always precedes it. The metre called by them advocate-general of the thus composed of hexameters and penprovince. He had no deciding voice in tameters was called by the ancients the the assembly of the states, but only pro- elegiac, and each two verses a distick posed the measures to be discussed. (See Distich, and Elegy.) The character of He collected the votes, drew up the re- the pentameter, however, is not exclusively ports, opened all memorials addressed to gentle. It may be very poignant if used the states, transacted business with the in an epigram, the point of which is made foreign ministers, superintended the reve- to coincide with the abrupt terminatio: nue and the maintenance of rights arl of the pentameter. A distich of Schilla privileges, and took care, in general, of compares the hexameter to the rising of the welfare of the province. He took the water of a fountain, and the pentame part in the doings of the college of the ter to the falling back of the same. counsellors, who exercised the sovereign PENTAPLA, PentagLOT; a Bible in fire power in the absence of the estates, and languages. was permanent deputy to the general Pentateuch. (See Hebrew Languag estates of the United Netherlands. The and Moscs.) influence of this first magistrate was very PENTECOST (from nevrnkoorn, the fiftieth great in Holland, and, therefore, in all a Jewish festival, celebrated fifty day: the Netherlands. His term of office was after the passover, in commemoration o five years, after the lapse of which he the promulgation of the law on mour was generally rechosen. The French Sinai. It was also called the Feast revolution and its consequences put an Weeks, because it occurred at the end of end to this office; but Napoleon, in 1805,, a week of weeks, or seven weeks. It made a state-pensionary director of the also a festival of the Christian church, republic. (See Schimmelpennink.) curring fifty days after Easter (q. v.), si PENTAGLOT. (See Pentapla.)

commemoration of the descent of the PentAMETER; a verse consisting of Holy Ghost on the disciples. It is calle. five feet. These feet are two spondees or Whitsuntide by the English, according ! dactyles, two dactyles and one spondee, some, from White Sunday Tide (time), bei which latter is so severed, that its first cause those who were newly baptized ar syllable follows the two first feet, and its peared at church in a white dress betwee last syllable concludes the verse. The Easter and Pentecost. final syllable may also be short. The PENYELIC MARBLE. (See Marble.) scheme of the pentameter is, therefore, as PENTHESILEA. (See Amazons.) follows:

PENTHEUS; nephew of Cadmus, ar

of

of

Bacchus, and for this offence was torn a The ancient grammarians, who in this way pieces by the Bacchantes, among when make of the pentameter a verse of five feet, were his own mother and sisters, acting, can give no other reason for so doing, than probably, under the direct influence of tbe' that there does not exist, as they say, any god, like the rioters in the late outrages, foot of one syllable. To the ear, howev- Bristol, after they had broken open the er, and in its essential character, the pen- wine-cellars of the town-house. tameter is, as well as the hexameter, a PENUMBRA. (See Eclipse.) verse of six parts, having in the third di- Peon, in the language of Hindoostan; i vision a long syllable, and in the last a foot-soldier, armed with sword and targe. long or a short syllable, on which we In common use, the word denotes a foori dwell as long as on two long sylla- man so armed, employed to run before bles, so that the pentameter requires as the palanquin. Piada is the origina much time in pronouncing as the hexam- word, of which peon is a corruption. eter. The pentameter receives a gentle Peony. (See Peony.)

41-441-l-uutuul posed the introduction of the worship

PEPE. (See Naples and Sicily, Revo- the sun, rubbed between the hands, and lution of.)

winnowed to separate the hulls; it is PEPLUM. (See Panathenæum.) much less pungent than the entire berries. PEPPER (piper); an extensive genus The leaves of the P. betel, a native of the of plants, constituting a distinct natural same parts of the globe, serve to enclose family—the piperacea. The species are a few slices of the areca nut (thence commostly succulent, perennial, herbaceous monly called betel nut), and a little shell or shrubby, often climbing, dichotomous, lime, which substances together form a and jointed. The leaves are very simple, masticatory as much in use amoug these and sometimes peltate, smooth, veined, nations as is tobacco in Europe and pubescent, or rough. The flowers are America. It stains the saliva of a brickdisposed in nearly filiform aments, are red color, and corrodes by degrees the subdestitute of either calyx or corolla, and stance of the teeth, but the consumption are separated by very small scales; these is, notwithstanding, prodigious, and it aments or spikes are opposite to the leaves, forms a very extensive branch of comor terminal. The fruit consists of a berry merce. The true cubebs is the berry containing a single seed. The species of a third species of pepper (P. cubeba), of pepper are almost strictly confined also from the same countries. The berwithin the limits of the tropics, and ries are globular, and about as large as abound particularly in the equatorial re- those of the black pepper; they are ionic, gions of America. A single species has stimulant and carminative, and are frebeen discovered in East Florida, inbab- quently used medicinally by the Aviatics. iting as far north as lat. 39o. They are We must not confound this with the tailed inconspicuous, often insignificant plants, pepper, also called cubebs, which is the in their appearance, and present little va- product of the uvaria zeylanica, an enriety in the shape of their leaves. The tirely different plant, although it is used for P. nigrum, which furnishes the black the same purposes. In the year ending pepper of commerce, is a native of the September 30, 1830, there were imported East Indies, and is besides cultivated on into the U. States 2,275,947 pounds of an extensive scale in that part of the black pepper, and there were exported globe. It is a clinibing plant, and is sup- 2,160,889. (See Cayenne Pepper.) ported on a pole or small tree planted for PEPPERELL, sir William, a lieutenantthis purpose, which gives to the pepper general in the service of the British king grounds an appearance somewhat similar before the American revolution, was born to the hop fields in northern climates. in the district of Maine (Massachusetts), The stems are smooth and spongy, pro- and, about the year 1727, was chosen one vided with broad, ovate, acuminate, seven- of his majesty's council, to which he was nerved leaves, and bearing little globular annually reëlected until his death-a periberries, which, when ripe, are of a bright od of thirty-two years. He possessed a red color, The pepper of Malacca, Java, vigorous frame, and much energy and and especially of Sumatra, is the most firmness of character, which rendered esteemed. Formerly, the export of this him of great utility to a country exposed article to Europe was exclusively in the to a ferocious enemy. He was bred a hands of the Portuguese, but it is now merchant, but the principal portion of his open to all nations. Its culture has been time was spent in the discharge of the introduced into the Isle of France, and duties of a soldier. He rose to the highest thence into Cayenne and other parts of military honors. When the expedition tropical America, where it has succeed- against Louisburg was contemplated, he ed perfectly. Black pepper has always was commissioned by the governors of formed an extensive branch of commerce; New England to command the troops, the ancient Greeks and Romans were and, investing the city in the beginning of acquainted with it, and, at the present day, May, 1745, soon forced it to capitulate. no spice is so generally used; the con- To reward his services, the king created sumption is prodigious in all parts of the him a baronet of Great Britain. He died globe, but the southern Asiatics seem to at bis seat in Kittery, Maine, July 6, 1759, employ it the most frequently. White aged sixty-three. He was distinguished pepper is nothing more than the best and for his social qualities. soundest of the berries, gathered when

PEPPERMINT. (See Mint.) fully ripe, and deprived of their external Pepys, Samuel, secretary to the admiskin, by steeping them in salt water for ralty in the reigns of Charles II and James about a week, at the end of which time II, was born at Brampton, in Huntingthe skins burst; they are then dried in donshire, and educated at Cambridge. He

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VOL. X.

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PEPYS–PERCUSSION LOCKS. early acquired the patronage of Montagu, with a pistol, in the lobby. The assassin, afterwards earl of Sandwich, who em- who avowed that he bad been waiting ployed him as secretary in the expedition with the view of destroying lord Leveson for bringing Charles II from Holland. Gower, the ambassador to the court of St On his return, he was appointed one of Petersburg, made no attempt to escape, the principal officers of the navy. In and was instantly arrested. Although a 1673, when the king took the admiralty plea of insanity was set up by his counsel into his own hands, he appointed Mr. he was found guilty, and executed on the Pepys secretary to that office. He was 18th of the same month. employed under lord Dartmouth, in the Percussion Locks; a late and very useexpedition against Tangier, and often ac- ful invention. The percussion lock has no companied the duke of York in his naval pan. In the place of the pan, a small tube visits to Scotland, and coasting cruises. projects horizontally from the side of the On the accession of William and Mary, gun. In this tube another small tube stands he published his Memoirs relating to the perpendicularly. The cock, instead of be navy for ten years preceding, and led a ing formed to hold a flint, is shaped someretired life from this time till his death, in what like a hammer, with a hollow to fi 1703. He was president of the royal so- upon the tube last mentioned. On this ciety for ten years. He left a large collec- tube a little cap of copper is placed, in the tion of manuscripts to Magdalen college, bottom of which is a chemical mixture Oxford, consisting of naval memoirs, that kindles by percussion. This percus prints, and five large folio volumes of an- sion is produced by the cock, which there cient English poetry, begun by Sel- fore requires a very strong spring. The den, and carried down to 1700, from powder is made in various ways, and of which the Reliques of Ancient English different materials ; among others, of mer. Poetry, by doctor Percy, are, for the most cury, purified nitric acid, and spirit of part, selected. His Diary affords a curious wine freed from water.

The copper cars picture of the dissolute court of Charles II. in which this chemical powder is place.

Pera; a suburb of Constantinople, are two and a half lines long and twi connected with the suburb of Galata, and lines wide. Sometimes the powder is aki formerly the quarter of the principal formed in pills, and then a somewhat difGreeks, Armenians, Jews and Franks, ex- ferent contrivance is required to place the cept the French who resided in Galata. pills, covered with a little wax, to protet There were here four Greek churches, them from moisture, in the small tub! and one Roman Catholic, and some mon- The advantages of a percussion lock ar asteries. The Christian ambassadors also great: 1. Provided the spring of the cock i resided here, and the European style of is strong, and the chemical powder good! dress and living prevailed bere; it was the gun cannot miss fire (as to the latherefore called by the Turks Swine's ter, the sportsman must choose a goox Quarter. It was almost entirely destroyed chemist); while common locks are expose by fire in August, 1831. The palaces of the to miss fire from many causes—bad Hlint Austrian and Swedish missions escaped. bad steel, bad priming, and weak spring

PercevAL, Spencer, second son of John 2. The chemical powder explodes muci Perceval, earl of Egmont, born 1762, re- more rapidly and forcibly than comma i ceived his education at Harrow, and powder, and therefore explodes the pow.. Trinity college, Cambridge, of which he der in the gun itself more forcibly, so ast; became a member about the year 1775. produce a prompter and more effectu: On quitting the university, he studied law. discharge. 3. The moisture of the air bar He soon distinguished himself as a sound hardly any influence: in a violent rair! constitutional lawyer, and obtained a silk the lock is as sure to give fire as in uri gown. In 1801, he became solicitor-gen- driest day. 4. The danger of an uninteneral, and, in 1802, attorney-general. On tional discharge is avoided : as long as the the formation of the new ministry, in 1807, copper cap is not placed on the little tube after the death of Mr. Fox, he was ap- the gun cannot go off, even if the cock is pointed chancellor of the exchequer. In swapped by mistake; while, with other this post he continued till May 11, 1812, guns, there is always danger, even wher when, while in the act of approaching the no priming bas been put in the pan, be! door of the house of commons, a person

cause some grains may always escape named Bellingham, who had for some through the touchhole, and the cock may time previously presented a variety of me- always be accidentally snapped. The cape morials respecting some alleged ill treat- or pills which the sportsman must carry ment received in Russia, shot bim dead, with him are not dangerous, because :

requires a very strong percussion to ex- with parricide, and was obliged to flee. plode the powder. (For its manufacture, He went to Palestine, became a Christian, see Mercury, vol. vii, p. 421.) Percussion and, by bis zeal, which brought him to a locks have come very much into use, and dungeon, gained the name of a martyr. attempts have even been made to introduce He received support and sympathy from them into armies, though the expense of every quarter, till the prefect of Syria set the chemical powder may be an objection. bim at liberty. He now recommenced

Percy, Thomas, bishop of Dromore, in his wanderings, was excluded from the Ireland, a descendant of the family of church for his vices, and then gave himNorthumberland, was born in Bridge- self up to the most disgraceful excesses. north in 1728, and was graduated at An object of universal abhorrence, he deChrist-church, Oxford, in 1753. In 1769, sired at least to finish his career in an exhe was appointed chaplain to the king, traordinary manner. He accordingly and, in 1778, raised to the deanery of gave out that he should burn himself Carlisle, which he resigned four years alive at the Olympic games. This he did, after for the Irish bishopric of Dromore. in presence of an immense multitude The most popular of his works are his A. D. 168. Much interest has been given Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (in 3 to the history of this singular character by vols., 8vo.), and a poem, the Hermit of the romance of Wieland. Warkworth. He was well skilled in the PERENNIAL, in botany, is applied to Icelandic and several of the Oriental lan- those plants whose roots will abide many guages, especially the Chinese, from years, whether they retain their leaves in which he made some translations. His winter or not. Those which retain their other writings are a key to the New Tes- leaves are called evergreens ; but such as tament, a new version of Solomon's Song, cast their leaves are called deciduous. with translations of Mallet's Northern An- PERFECTIBILITY; the capacity of being tiquities, and of some pieces of Icelandic made perfect. It is a word used in poetry. He also published a curious do- philosophy, religious and moral, with mestic record, long extant in the Percy reference to individuals and to society, to family, and known as the Northumberland the present and the future state. Moral Household-Book-a document valuable duties include not only the duties which for the light it throws on manpers. His we owe to others, but also the great duty death took place at Dromore, Sept. 30, which we owe to ourselves, to strive uni1811.

interruptedly for the improvement of our Perdiccas; the name of several kings mental and moral faculties. This supof Macedonia, and, at a later period, of poses that our own improvement is in our the most distinguished general of Alexan- own power, wbich has been doubted by der, a noble Macedonian, who attended certain philosophers, materialists and othhim on his campaign to Asia, and enjoyed ers, who make our whole moral condition his confidence above all others. Alexan- dependent upon causes beyond our conder, just before his death, gave him his trol, thus denying, in fact, a moral condisignet-ring, the emblem of regal power, tion. The question whether we can ever and, by this action, seemed to fix upon him attain, on earth, to a state of perfection, as his successor to the throne. Perdiccas resolves itself into this-whether we can was ambitious enough to desire this eleva- ever, in this world, acquire a perfect tion; but the influence of his enemies and knowledge of our duties, and a perfect rivals prevented bim from receiving a will to perform them. The consideration higher rank than that of guardian of the of the hinderances to such a will and heir to the throne. He succeeded, how- knowledge belongs to the great question ever, in making himself second only to the of the origin of evil. But, however imking. But he aspired still higher, and was perfect may be all the attainments that we engaged in a war with his rival Ptolemy, can make in this world, on which point when his soldiers mutinied, partly owing every one's own coliscience will satisfy to his own arrogance. Ile was assas- him better than the most elaborate reasonsinated by his soldiers in Egypt B.C. 321, ing, no one should be deprived by such three years after he had been appointed considerations from striving for all the guardian to the successor of Alexander. improvement within his power. To stop,

PÈRE DE LACHAISE. (See Lachaise.) or to go backwards, is to be wretched.

PEREGRINUS PROTEUS, a notorious char- Secondly, as to the perfectibility of sociacter, who flourished in the first half of the ety. It was loudly inaintained by some second century, was born at Parium, in My- French writers, at the beginning of the sia. After many excesses, he was charged revolution of the last century, that society was making a progress which must ulti- PERICARPIUM, among botanists; a cov mately end in a perfect state. Whether ering or case for the seeds of plants. they meant that the individuals composing PERICLES, one of the most celebrated society would become perfect, or referred statesmen of Greece, whose age (about to some unintelligible perfection in the B. C. 444) was the most flourishing period social system, distinct from the individu- of Grecian art and science, was born at als composing it, history and the experi- Athens. His father was Xanthippus, a ence of every reflecting man sufficiently general celebrated for his victory over the prove the notion to be visionary. For Persians at Mycale. Damon, Anaxagoras, some centuries, the European races seem and Zeno of Elea, were his instructers. to have been improving in several re- Connected by family relations with the spects; in others, however, they have es- aristocracy, he at first avoided taking part sentially retrograded; and, however great in the concerns of state, both on account the improvement, on the whole, may be, of the jealousy with which the multitude few, we believe, think that the state of viewed this party, and because Cimon was human society will ever become perfect; already at its head. He therefore aimed, but this is no more discouraging than the at first, only to gain the favor of the popcorresponding imperfection in the case of ular party. Cimon was munificent and the individual. (See Civilization.) Thirdly, affable; Pericles, on the contrary, shunned as-to perfectibility in a future state. Of festivals and all public amusements. Hle course, we cannot mean by future perfec- was never seen abroad, but in the Prytation the possibility of attaining unlimited neum and the popular assembly, and his power, wisdom and goodness, because manners were characterized by gravity this would destroy all difference between and dignity. As he was not a member of ourselves and God. The word perfecti- the Areopagus, he used all his influence bility, used in reference to man, can, of to diminish the consideration of that body, course, mean nothing more than a capaci- and instigated his friend Ephialtes to make ty of unending improvement, and reason that tribunal an object of jealousy in the does not rebuke the hope of such a prog- eyes of the people, and to procure the ress. It has been asked whether the hap- passage of a decree transferring the inpiness to be expected from constant prog- vestigation and decision of most cases to ress in a future state would not be coun- other courts. His eloquence was so ele. terhalanced by a despondency arising from vated and powerful, that it was said of the consciousness of imperfection, which him that he thundered and lightened in would only increase with the increase of his speeches, and his countrymen called knowledge. Such a question seems suf- him the Olympian. lle carefully avoided ficiently answered by the happiness which all that could displease the people, and virtuous effort, and a consciousness of even submitted to indignities with the improvement, gives on earth. The beau- greatest patience. It is said that a comtiful illustration of Leibnitz, when he mon citizen followed him to his house compared the relation between blessed one evening from a popular assembly, respirits and the Deity to that existing be- viling him at every step. He ordered a tween the asymptote (9. v.) and the hy- servant to light the man home with a perbola, the former of which is mathemat- torch. When the popular party procured ically proved to approach the latter ad in- the accusation of Cimon, Pericles was one finitum, without ever reaching it, is well of the judges. He conducted, however, known; but, though a beautiful compar- with great moderation, and spoke of bis ison, it throws no light upon the question. distinguished fellow-citizen with due re“ Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither spect. The banishment of his rival rehave entered into the heart of man, the moved all obstructions to the execution of things which God hath prepared for them his ambitious designs. As Cimon had fed that love him."

and clothed the people, Pericles also proPERGOLESI. (See the last page in the vided for the wants of the needy from the Appendix, end of this volume.)

public treasury. In the war which broke Peri. The Peris, in Persian mythology, out between the Athenians and Lacedæare the descendants of fallen spirits, ex- monians, B. C. 458, Pericles exposed cluded from paradise until their penance himself to the greatest dangers in the unis accomplished.

successful engagement at Tanagra, and PERICARDIUM, in anatomy, is a mem- soon after invaded the Peloponnesus with branous bag filled with water, which con- a fleet and a small army. To please the tains the heart in man and many other people, who desired the return of Cimon, animals.

he caused a decree to be passed for his

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