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amongst my cattle last night, and great is the slaughter." “ The king is angry with Rāman — his hand is now on his mouth." 66 I


well put my hand on my mouth; I have been taken by the neck, and driven from the presence of my lord. My requests have all been denied.” Job xxi. 5.

Mr. Benson says,

XIV. 10. — “ One log of oil.”

“A log is a measure containing about six eggs.” The Tamul translation has, for log, Alāku, i. e. the eighth of a measure. The Eastern measure contains one quart, which, according to this, gives the one eighth of a log.

XVI. 6. — “ Make an atonement for himself, and for

his house." The Hindoos make offerings for each other ; thus a husband for his wife, or a brother for his brother. Should a person at a distance be in doubtful circumstances, his friends will make an offering for him. Whilst Käsināden was being tried for his life, before the Supreme Court, his mother was making offerings for him at the different temples; and, after his acquittal, he employed two days in making additional ones, before he returned to his house.

A father in the offerings for his family mentions the names of the different members. It is, however, more common for the priest to do this; and when he presents them, he repeats the name of the individual, as, “ In the name of Múttoo."

10.- ." Let him


а scape goat. When a person is sick, he vows on his recovery to set a goat at liberty, in honour of his deity. Having selected a suitable one from his flocks, he makes a slit in the ear, or ties a yellow string * round its neck, and lets it


whithersoever it pleases. Whoever sees the animal knows it to be a Nate-kadi,

“ The high priest fastened a long fillet, or a narrow piece of scarlet, to the head of the scape goat.” — Calmet.

the vowed goat, and no person will molest it.

will molest it. Sometimes two goats are thus made sacred; but one of them will be offered soon, and the other kept for a future sacrifice.

But it is not merely in time of sickness that they have recourse to this practice; for does a man wish to procure a situation, he makes a similar vow. Has a person heard that there are treasures concealed in any place, he vows to Virava (should he find the prize) to set a goat at liberty, in honour of his name.

When a person has committed what he considers a great sin, he does the same thing ; but, in addition to other ceremonies, he sprinkles the animal with water, puts his hands upon it, and prays to be forgiven.

In large flocks there is generally a he goat, or ram, sacred to the deity, which will never be either sold or killed. The object is to prevent evil coming on the rest of the flock.

In former years it was customary to liberate a bull, in the same way, and for the same purpose, with this exception, that he could never be offered in sacrifice. He wandered about as he pleased, and no one would molest him. * From this practice has arisen the proverb, which is applied to a young man who does as he pleases, or to whom no one will give his daughter; “ Ah ! he is the temple bull, or the vowed goat." A rude or wanton fellow sometimes boasts (putting his right hand on his breast), “ I am the bull of the temple; ” meaning he is a privileged character, no one has a right to interrupt him.

Sometimes peacocks, or the domestic cocks, are also made sacred to the deity.

29. “ Ye shall afflict


souls.” Dr. Boothroyd translates the above, “ Ye shall humble your souls,” which I have no doubt is the true meaning.

The Hindoos believe self-torture to be an effectual way of propitiating their deities, and of acquiring future happiness.

* Bishop Heber mentions having seen several of these sacred bulls in Bengal.

In the sacred Scanda Purāna, it is said, “ There is nothing greater than penance, there is nothing equal to it; there is no treasure worth seeking in comparison with it. If I must say it, to penance — penance itself is the only) comparison."

With such an authority, can it be wondered that the heathen attach great merit to voluntary afflictions? Hence may be seen some with the right arm pointed towards heaven, like a stiff and fruitless branch; others swinging, with hooks in their flesh, on a lofty pole; others walking on sharp points in their sandals, or fretting away life in a thousand useless and cruel ceremonies.

XVIII. 25. “ The land itself vomiteth out her inha

bitants." When the small-pox or cholera morbus carried off such multitudes, the village or town where they lived was said to have vomited them out. “ Alas, alas ! the country has vomited its thousands."

Should a person, who goes to visit another, not be received, he says,

“ Ah, sir, do you vomit me from your presence?”

XIX. 14. 66 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a

stumbling block before the blind.” The Hindoos say abuse not the deaf; make not a hole before the blind, nor exasperate the dumb.

Boys, and indeed men, take great pleasure in abusing the deaf, in a voice high enough for the afflicted person to catch now and then a word. To the blind, they pretend to offer presents, or lead them astray. To provoke the dumb, boys scratch their own noses; and it is astonishing to see the anger thus produced

19. — “ Thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled

seed.” Deut. xxii. 9. - 66 Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds.”

Large fields inay be seen in the East, which are sown with two kinds of seeds. Thus Ellu or Gingelly and the Green Gram are often mixed, and sown together : also the Tinne and Kurraken in the same way.

One kind requires much water, the other but little ; so that whether there be a scarcity or an abundance of rain, the farmer is almost sure to have a crop. Another reason is, there may be a doubt as to which kind the land is most adapted; and therefore recourse is had to this plan. Some plants also require shade, and therefore they sow such together as thus

as thus agree.* In gathering, this method makes but little difference, as they simply lop off the heads of those alluded to.

The object of the prohibition to the Israelites may have been to induce them fully to trust in the providence of God, and not to make provision for a dry or wet season, by sowing their fields with mingled seed.

your heads.

27. — 6 Ye shall not round the corners of Historians inform us that the ancient heathens were in the habit of shaving their heads, so as to leave a tuft on the crown in honour of some deity.

The Hindoos often dedicate their children to the gods, in order to secure their protection; and they vow that the hair of the child shall be sacred to the deity till he shall arrive at a certain age. Hence the custom of shaving the whole of the hair off, in hot weather, is in those cases dispensed with, as

Bishop Heber says, of Monghyr, vol. i. 294., “ They get three crops in succession every year from the same lands, beginning with Indian corn, then sowing rice, between which, when it is grown to a certain height, they dibble in pulse, which rises to maturity after the rice is reaped.” Again, page 305., “ Abdullah enquired of the Bishop, whether a mixture of seeds was not forbidden in the Purāna ? An old man answered, with a good deal of warmth, that they were poor people, and could not dispute, but he believed the doctrine to be a gloss of Budha: striking his staff with much anger on the ground at the name of the Heresiarch.”

the sacred tuft on the crown is allowed to remain till the

age of ten or eleven years.

But it is not merely the practice of those who have been dedicated to the gods; for the priests and people generally shave completely round the head, leaving only the tuft on the crown. See on Jeremiah ix. 26.


28. — “ Nor print any marks upon you.” The heathen print marks on their bodies (by puncturing the skin), so as to represent birds, trees, and the gods they

Some also, especially the sacred females of the temples, have representations on their arms of a highly offensive nature. All Hindoos have a black spot, or some other mark, on their foreheads. And the true followers of Siva rub holy ashes every morning on the knees, loins, navel, arms, shoulders, brow, and crown of the head.

29.-"Do not prostitute thy daughter to cause her to

be a whore." Parents, in consequence of a vow or some other circumstance, often dedicate their daughters to the gods. They are sent to the temple, at the age of eight or ten years, to be initiated into the art of dancing before the deities, and of singing songs in honour of their exploits. From that period these dancing girls remain in some sacred building near the temple; and when they arrive at maturity (the parents being made acquainted with the fact), a feast is made, and the poor girl is given into the embraces of some influential man of the establishment. Practices of the most disgusting nature then take place, and the young victim becomes a prostitute for life.

32.-" Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and

honour the face of the old man.” When an aged man enters a room or public place, the

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