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may require, are humorously called OTTAR, i. e. diggers. I think, therefore, the figure is descriptive of the glory of the church in the acquisition of the PEOPLE of Midian, Ephah ; of Sheba, of Kedar, and Nebaioth.
8. — “ Who are these that fly as a cloud ?” (Heb. xii.
1. “ Cloud of witnesses.") Of any thing on an extensive scale of great multitudes, it is said, “ Ah! they
“ Ah! they are as a cloud.” 66 As a cloud did it appear to my eyes.”
11. — “ Therefore thy gates shall be open continually:
they shall not be shut day nor night: that men may
bring unto thee the forces of the Gentiles.” Dr. Boothroyd says, “ That they may bring to thee the wealth of the nations.” Of a wealthy man who is continually adding to his stores, it is said, “ His gates neither day nor. night, AKO-RĀT-TIRAM, are closed.” Also it is said of a charitable king, “ His gates are always open.” So in those days of glorious accession to the church,
66 Her doors shall be open continually, and day and night shall the Gentiles be gathered into her pale.”
13. — “ I will make the place of my feet glorious.” (See
on Chap. lii. 7.) Nearly all Hindoo books commence with an invocation to the feet of some deity. Thus those which are dedicated to science, history, or poetry, are sacred to the feet of Ganesa (the elephant-faced deity), whilst some on war are in honour of the feet of Scandan, the god of war; and those on love are sacred to the feet of Manmathon, i.e. Cāma, the Oriental Cupid.
14.-" The sons also of them that afflicted thee shall come
bending unto thee; and all they that despised thee
shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet.” “ Come bending unto thee.” Who in the East has not seen the humble suppliant come BENDING to ask forgiveness or to entreat a favour? See him go stooping along, with his hands spread out, till he come near his superior, and then, as in the next words, he bows himself down at his feet.
16. " Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles." The people of the East take great delight in having plenty of milk, and those who have that article in abundance are in fact rich, as they must have numerous herds of cattle.”
LXI. 3.-“ The oil of joy for mourning." Perfumed oils are very expensive, and are believed to possess MANY virtues. Except for medicinal purposes they are used only on joyous occasions. My friend, why are you so dejected ? the gods shall give you PARE-MALATIYALUM," i. e. precious or odoriferous ointment.
10. — “I will greatly rejoice in the Lord; my soul
shall be joyful in my God, for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation; he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride
adorneth herself with her jewels.” It would be considered unfortunate in the extreme for a bride to be married without having on numerous jewels : hence the poorest females, those who have not a farthing in the world, may be seen on such occasions literally covered with jewels. The plan is this :- the neighbours and friends of the poor girl lend their ornaments, in order to make a splendid show; and I have not known an instance (except when lost) of their not being returned ; which may be considered a remarkable fact amongst people who are not very famed for honesty. But the bridegroom also has numerous ear-rings, neck-rings, chains, breast-plates, and finger-rings. “I will greatly rejoice as a bridegroom.”
appear to be very happy, Chinnan?”—“Indeed I am happy ; and it is like the joy of a kalle-yānum,” i. e. marriage. “Ah ! my heart has a wedding to-day,” says the man who is in great pleasure. “ Have you heard of the joy of old Kandan?” “ No, why is he so happy?” “ Because his daughter has kālmāre-pottāl,” i. e. literally, changed her legs; meaning, she has got married. Happy man should I have been if my daughter had not changed her legs,” says the father whose daughter has been unfortunately married.
LXII. 4. - “ Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken ;
neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah, and thy land Beulah; for the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married.” The margin has for Beulah,
married. A sovereign is spoken of as being married to his dominions; they mutually depend upon each other. When a king takes possessions from another, he is said to be married to them. Thus in that day shall God's people, and their inheritance, be married to the Lord.
5. “ For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry
thee.” In general, no youth marries a widow: such a thing I scarcely ever heard of, nor will it ever be, except under some extraordinary circumstance, as in the case of a queen, princess, or great heiress. Even widowers also, if possible, always marry virgins.
LXIV. 5.-— “ Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and
worketh righteousness.” Does a man expect a guest for whom he has a great regard ? LXV. 4, 5.-" Which remain among the graves, and
forth to meet him. Not to do so would show a great deficiency in affection and etiquette.
lodge in the monuments : which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels; which
Stand by thyself, come not near to me; for I am holier than thou." “ Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments.”
“ Come not near to me, for I am holier than thou.” Here we have another instance of the glaring wickedness of the Jews, in their imitation of the heathen devotees, who resembled the Hindoo Yogees. Those men are so isolated by their superstition and penances, that they hold but little intercourse with the rest of mankind. They wander about in the dark in the place of burning the dead, or “ among the graves;" there they affect to hold converse with evil and other spirits; and there they pretend to receive intimations respecting the destinies of others. They will eat things which are religiously clean or unclean; they neither wash their bodies, nor comb their hair, nor cut their nails, nor wear clothes. They are counted to be most holy, among the people, and are looked upon as beings of another world.*
11. — “ But ye are they that forsake the Lord, that
forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for that troop, and that furnish the drink offering unto that number.” The margin has, instead of “ troop,” “or Gad," and in place of “number,”
“or Meni.” (Jer. vii. 18.; and chap. xliv. 17, 18.) There have been many disputes among the learned, as to the meaning of the words TROOP and NUMBER. I think, however, it will appear, both from the testimony of several minent commentators, and from facts, to be adduced, that the words Gas and Meni, as found in the margin, are the proper readings, and that they actually refer to DEITIES of Calmet says on X Mene or Mane, as found in Daniel v. 25., it is a Chaldean word, “ signifying, he has numbered, he has counted.” But on the word 'yo Meni, as it occurs in Isaiah lxv. 11., — “ The goddess Meni is the moon! her worship was popular in Palestine, and among the Hebrews. Meni is probably Astarte, and Venus Celestis, honoured among the Phænicians and Carthaginians.”
* See on 1 Sam, xix. 24.; and the note on John xiv. 2.
Parkhurst has “933, Meni, a name or attribute under which the idolatrous Jews worshipped the material heavens.” We find other traces of this attribute, Meni, among the idolaters. The Arabians worshipped the idol Mona, in order to obtain seasonable showers. Festus relates that the Salentines, a people of Italy, threw a horse alive into the fire, in honour of Jupiter Menzan, i. e. Jupiter ja, Meni.” 6. His name in Greek, was Myy, Men.” “We see, also, the god Men, or Lunus, on several medals of the towns of Lydia, Pisidia, and Phrygia. On a medal of Antiochus, struck in Pisidia, the god Lunus hath a spear in one hand, and holds a victory in the other, and hath a cock, a symbol of the RISING SUN, at his feet.”
The Rev. Thos. Hartwell Horne, on Isaiah lxv. 11., says, “ Gad is unquestionably joined with Meni (or the Moon), and both are names of idols.”
“ Ye..... have deserted Jehovah,
And have forgotten my holy mountain ;
Bishop Lowth's Version.
It is an interesting fact (in reference to this passage) that the idolaters of the East have a deity of the same name, MENI, in whom, or her daughter, all the attributes and symbols alluded to find a parallel. Let it be well impressed on the reader's mind what it was the Jews were accused of
• The people of the East believe that rain is produced by the moon!