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preservation of all the lives in the world, that they suffer not, protect me, that I fall not into rivers formed by rains, and from all the congregated watery clouds, on the summits of lofty mountains ! May Siva, who, at the end of the Yuga, reduces all worlds to ashes with divine fire; and who, while the goddess Pārvati beats the cymbal, dances to it, preserve me from evil in the forest and from powerful winds ! May Siva, who has three pure eyes and four shining faces, whose hands hold the bounding deer and the battle-axe, who grants requests and dispels fear, who has four arms, and whose body shines like lightning, protect me in the Eastern quarter! May Akora-mõnti (one of Siva's faces) the formidable, in whose hands are the deer, battle-axe, trident, elephant hook, skull of Brahma, and the drum, who has four faces and three eyes with a black body, protect me in the Southern quarter! May Sacti-yosāthi (another of his faces), who while bearing in his two hands the female deer and the string of beads, raises them to dispel fears and grant prayers, and who has four faces and three eyes, protect me on the Western side! May Vāma-deva (his left face), who has four arms, and whose hands are employed in dispelling fear and granting requests, who bears the deer and the battle-axe dipped in blood, who has four faces and three eyes and a goldcoloured body, protect me on the North side! May Eesānadeva (light splendour, another face), who bears in his hands the rope, elephant hook, trident, symbols of granting requests and dispelling fear, chank, deer, beads, and drum, who has four large moon-like faces, protect toward the sky ! May Siva, whose matted knot of hair is adorned with the crescent moon ! * protect my head; the god who is author of the vedas, my eyes, my ears, my face; may he who recited the excellent vedas, protect my tongue; the azure-necked god, my neck; the bow-armed Siva, my hands, my arms, and shoulders; may he who made Maha-mearu † his bow protect my breast; the god who burnt Cama, my belly; the father of Ganesa, my sides, my navel, my waist, my knees, my ancles, and ruddy feet! In the first watch of the day, Makeasuram protect and keep me from evil! During the second watch, may the incomparable Vārna-deva, the three-eyed god, who bears the battle-axe, protect me!

* See Introduction on the Crescent or Horns. + The mountain of the celestials.

In the first watch of the NIGHT, may the crescent-crested god protect me! During the second, the lord of the Ganges; the third, the god with the lock of matted hair; and the fourth, the consort of the goddess ! May Ruttera-moorte, who kicked Yama, always protect me! May Sangren (the destroyer), who is head of all, protect the interior ; the immovable protect the sides; Parusapathi, the middle; and in all other places, may Satha-Siva, whom it is difficult to conceive, protect me! When I stand, may the gods of the world protect; when I go, may

he whose body is free from impurity, protect me; when I sit, may the incomparable keep me; when I walk, may Eesuran, author of the vedas, protect me; when I sleep, may Siva, the independent, protect me! Journeying by night, may Ruttera protect me; travelling over hills, may Ruttera-moorte, who burnt the three cities, protect me! May Veera-pattara, who in the close of the age*, laughs and dances so that all the andas t shake again, wholly protect me! When enemies come, may the battle-axe in the hand of Siva, whose left side! is Pārvati, and who, having a chariot to which long-maned horses are harnessed, with elephants, and other forces, destroy them all and grant me victory ! May the three-pronged trident, which may be compared to Athi-seda, as if by bearing the earth, with the sea and its rolling waves, his heads had all been worn away but three, defend me from robbers and kill them! May the bow of Siva kill all shaggy-maned lions, and other wild beasts !

“He who revolves this amulet of Siva f in his mind will be

* The end of the four ages; after which, there is a fresh creation. + Systems or worlds.

All the names invoked refer to Siva,

saved from the five * sins, his enemies will perish, and Yama, the god of death, will fear and do him service. Therefore receive this."

men.

XLVI. 1.- “ Their idols were upon the beasts.” This probably refers to the idols which were CARRIED by the beasts; though the deities are generally considered to be of such a sacred nature as to be fit only to be carried by

But many of the cattle of the heathen have the shapes of idols traced on their skins, something in the same way as the tattooing of the New Zealanders. Some people have the soolam or trident of Siva formed on the near fore leg : merchants have a representation of Libra; and the fishermen trace a boat on the side of the animal. Those cows that belong to a Pandāram have the following figure on the far fore leg, and those that are sacred to Siva have the Tamul letter S branded in the skin, and some have the representations of the different weapons of the gods, which indicate to whom they are consecrated.

3. — “ Which are borne by me from the belly, which

are carried from the womb." “ True, this fiendish son was borne from my belly. Ten long moons did I carry him in my womb.” “Is it for this I have carried him so long in my womb ?

womb? My

My fate! my fate! alas ! my fate!”

7. — “ They bear him upon the shoulder, they carry

him, and set him in his place.” This alludes to the way in which the heathen carry out their idols in procession at the time of their great festivals, and during the periods of general sickness. (See on Amos V. 26.

1. Murder; 2. Falsehood; 3. Theft; 4. Drunkenness; 5. The insulting of a Priest (some copies for the fifth have adultery).

FF $

XLVII. 2.-_ “ Take the millstones, and grind meal :

make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.” To grind flour in the East is the work of servants or slaves, and to make it by pounding with a pestle and mortar is the office of female servants or slaves. There being but few bridges, those who are in a low condition are obliged to ford the rivers ; hence may be seen large companies going to the opposite banks, who have been obliged to “ make bare the leg” and to “ uncover the thigh.” Thus were the “ tender and delicate” daughters of Babylon, who had been nurtured on a throne, to be reduced to the condition of menials, and to cross the rivers as people of the lowest degree.

13. — “ Let now the astrologers, the star gazers,

the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee.” (Dan. ii. 2.) “ The king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to show the king

his dreams.” (Chap. ii. 27.; iv. 7.) Babylon, the capital of Assyria, was the cradle of idolatry and all the occult sciences; and her name stands emblazoned on the page of history, both sacred and profane. She is gone! but her memory remains in the impurity and devilism of Eastern heathenism. The astrologers” and “ prognosticators," which she gave to India, are still in existence; and the following is a translation of their prognostications as appeared in the Hindoo Almanack for 1829* :

Puthan, i. e. Mercury, is this year the General, the King, and the Minister; and Sanne, i.e. Saturn, is at the head of days. Velle, i. e. Venus or Jupiter (as the planet may be situated),

* That is, a part of it: the whole is not fit to meet the public eye.

presides over all edible things; but Mercury over buying and selling, and also over the clouds. The fire-raining cloud governs.* The rains will extend to three hundred yosani. + Thirteen parts out of the seventeen of this year will be good, and out of the same proportion five parts of all kinds of grain will be prosperous. Of the weather, thirteen parts out of seventeen will be cool; and of the grass, fifteen out of the same proportion will be plentiful. Of the winds, there will be nine parts good; of the prosperity of the soul, the same number ; but of the king's cruelty there will be eleven parts (to suffer). Of anger, merit, and sin, there will be five parts. Of sickness, there are eleven parts; and of curing by ceremonies, there are three. Of deaths, there are fifteen; but of births only seven. Of adversities, there are seven : of fear of thieves, nine; and of their destruction, three. Of the fear of fire, and also (by the power of) its ceremonies, there are three.

The Good and Evil of the Year. “ Because Mercury is king, there will be justice; the small grains will increase; and because he is the minister, there will be prosperity for the nobles: but as the king and the minister are one planet, there will be suffering in the world through thieves and fire. As the general is also Mercury, the clouds will be driven away; and as Saturn is at the head of days, young plants will be tolerable. Because Venus presides over the grain, there will be plenty of rain ; and as Mercury is over the corn, the price will be reasonable. As the moon is over edible things, they will be cheap; and as Saturn is over all edible things which are black in colour,

* There are seven kinds of clouds: “ 1. The samvārtam, which rains precious stones; 2. The avārtām, which gives rain; 3. The poodakalavartam, which rains gold; 4. The sangāritam, which rains flowers; 5. The tooronam, which rains sand; 6. The kālmuge, which rains stones; 7. The neelvarunan ; i.e. the fiery rain.” See the Sathur-Agarāthe.

+ Two thousand rods make one call, and four calls make one yosani, – consequently a yosani extends to eight thousand rods.

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