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The long and beautiful hair in which they took so much pride was to be destroyed by the scab, and they were to be exposed to the public gaze, in allusion to the barbarous custom of some of the Eastern conquerors.



18.-“In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of

their tinkling ornaments about their feet, and their

cauls, and their round tires like the moon.” Tinkling ornaments," i. e. those which have been described. “Cauls;" margin, “net works.” The caul is a strap, or girdle, about four inches long, which is placed on the top of the head, and which extends to the brow in a line with the

The one I have examined is made of gold, and has many joints; it contains forty-five rubies and nine pearls, which give it a net-work appearance.

66 Round tires like the moon.” The shape of an ornament like the crescent moon is a great favourite in all parts of the East. In Judges viii. 21. it is said that Gideon “ took away the ornaments that were on their camels' necks;” but in the Septuagint, the words ornaments is rendered, like the moon ; so also in the margin of the English Bible. The crescent is worn by Pārvati and Siva, from whom proceed the LINGAM, and the principal impurities of the system. No dancing girl is in full dress without her round tires like the moon.

19. — “ The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers.” These consist, first, of one most beautifully worked, with a pendent ornament for the neck; there is also a profusion of others, which go round the same part, and rest on the bosom. In making curious chains, the goldsmiths of England do not surpass those of the East. The Trichinopoly chains are greatly valued by the fair of our own country. The “ bracelets ” are large ornaments for the wrists, in which are sometimes enclosed small BELLS. The mufflers are, so far as I can judge, not for the face, but for the breasts.


20. — “ The bonnets and the ornaments of the legs, and

the head-bands, and the tablets, and the ear-rings.” « Bonnets." I cannot find an article of dress which corresponds with this; and in some translations it is rendered DIADEMS. Dr. Boothroyd has, I believe, given the proper word, TIRES, which is confirmed by the Tamul translation, ornaments for the head. The principal one is made of gold, and crowns the top of the head like a skull-cap. It is beautifully engraved in circles, and is sometimes studded with precious stones, and is connected with another oval ornament which touches the caul. Ornaments of the legs." We have not any custom which illustrates the articles alluded to, for nothing of the kind is worn on any other part of the leg (excepting the toes), than those described in the sixteenth

If we give credit to other translators, it ought to have been rendered, “ornaments of the ARMS:” thus the German, the Dutch, the Danish, the Portuguese, and Tamul translations, have arms instead of legs. The Septuagint has it, xno@ūras; and according to Schrevelius, ARMILLA, i. e. a bracelet or jewel worn on the left arm, and given to foot soldiers, was also worn by WOMEN.” The same ornaments are also worn here on both arms, just above the elbows, and are generally made of silver or gold, to correspond with those round the wrists.

“ Head-bands." A gold girdle, most curiously worked, which is studded with rubies and beautiful pearls. It surrounds the head like a girdle or belt, and serves to bind and connect some other parts of the ornaments of the head.

“ Tablets;" margin, houses of the souls.” Bishop Lowth, “perfume boxes;" but this I greatly doubt, for perfume boxes are not common. When the APPARENT etymology of a word is contradicted by custom, there is reason to doubt its accuracy; but when the etymology and the custom agree, there is good reason for accepting the interpretation. “ Houses

Ladies of rank have servants, whose business it is to carry the incense and other perfumes.

of the soul.Is there any thing which corresponds with these in the dress of an Eastern female? There is! The dancing girls, the wives of the pandārams, and MANY other women, wear an ornament resembling a house, and sometimes a temple which contains an image, corresponding with the Danlos of the Greeks, and the priapus of the Romans. The following are representations of two in my possession. (See on Deut. iv. 16.)

I think it, therefore, more than probable, that these were what the prophet alluded to by houses of the soul.*

“ The ear-rings.” Dr. Boothroyd says, “ Schroeder has proved that D'unho does not signify ear-rings, but the images of serpents, which were worm as charms, to secure from, and to drive away evils.” But would the dress of an Eastern female be complete without EAR-RINGS ? Certainly not. May not the signification, “ images of serpents,” rather refer to the devices of serpents which are made on the ear-rings, and used for the purposes alluded to ?

“ The rings and nose jewels.” Rings.” These are worn on the first, third, and fourth fingers. “ Nose jewels.” From the septum, or middle filament, is a pendant which sometimes contains three rubies and one pearl; and it nearly touches the upper lip. The left nostril is pierced, and contains a ring about an inch in diameter; another lies flat on the nose, and occasionally consists of a fine pearl surrounded with rubies.

21. 6

* These ornaments are generally made of silver or gold, and are sometimes highly embellished with precious stones.

22. — “ The changeable suits of apparel, and the mantles,

and the wimples, and the crisping-pins.” The Eastern ladies take great pride in having many changes of apparel, because their fashions NEVER alter. Thus, the rich brocades worn by their grandmothers, are equally fashionable for themselves. “ The mantles.” A loose robe which is gracefully crossed on the bosom. Wimples.” Probably the fine muslin which is sometimes thrown over the head and body.“ “ Crisping-pins.” This has been translated the “ little purses,” or CLASPS ! When the dancing girl is in full dress, half her long hair is folded in a knot on the top of the head, and the other half hangs down her back in three tails. To keep these from unbraiding, a small clasp! or gold hoop, curiously worked, is placed at the end of each tail.*

23. — “ The glasses, and the fine linen, and the hoods,

and the vails." I have seen a dress in which were six pieces of silvered glass, about an inch square: but this may mean something bright or burnished, to assist in dressing. The Tamul word Kan-āde, translated “looking-glass,” conveys no such meaning. It is derived from Kan the eye, and Ade to play. Dr. Adam Clarke


the word which in Exod. xxxviii. 8. is translated “ looking glass,” ought to be “ mirror.”

66 Fine linen.” Perhaps muslin of the most delicate texture, which was formerly so famous in all parts of the world. 66 The hoods." I cannot find any thing which agrees with these. - Veils.” When Rebekah saw Isaac for the first time," she took a vail and covered herself;" and from that time to the present the custom has not varied.

* See the Egyptian dancing girl in the sixty-second plate of Calmet.

24. “ And it shall come to pass, that instead of sweet

smell, there shall be stink; and instead of a girdle, a rent: and instead of well-set hair, baldness; and instead of a stomacher, a girding of sackcloth ;

and burning, instead of beauty." 66 Sweet smell.” No one ever enters a company without being well perfumed; and in addition to various scents and oils, they are adorned with numerous garlands made of the most odoriferous flowers. “A girdle.” Probably that which goes round the waist, which serves to keep the garments from falling whilst the girls are dancing. It is sometimes made of silver. « Well-set hair." No ladies pay more attention to the dressing of the hair than do these; for as they never wear caps, they take great delight in this their natural ornament. Baldness,” in a woman, makes her most contemptible; and formerly, to shave their head was a most degrading punishment. “Stomacher.” I once saw a dress beautifully plaited and stiffened for the front, but I do not think it common.

Here, then, we have a strong proof of the accurate observations of Isaiah in reference to the Jewish ladies; he bad seen their motions, and enumerated their ornaments : and here we have a most melancholy picture of the fallen state of “ the daughters of Zion."

V. 18. — “ Woe unto them that draw iniquity with

cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart

rope.” Dr. Boothroyd — “Woe to them who draw out iniquity as a long cable, and sin as the thick traces of a wain.” Some think this metaphor is derived from rope-making; others that sin and INIQUITY denote the punishment. Dr. Adam Clarke believes the prophet refers to IDOL SACRIFICES.

66 The victims they offered were splendidly decked out for the sacrifice. Their horns and hoofs were often gilded, and their heads dressed out with fillets and garlands. The cords of vanity


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