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margin has, instead of the multitude of the bulls,
“ the beasts of the reeds." Bishop Horne says, the latter verse, if literally translated, runs thus,“ Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds, the congregation of the mighty among the calves of the nations, skipping or exulting with pieces of silver.”
Wicked men, or those who have much bodily strength, who insult and domineer over the weak, and all “lewd fellows of the baser sort,” are called mādukul, i.e. bulls.
• Of what country are you the bull ?” People of docile dispositions — those who live at peace with their neighbours—are called cows or calves : hence when violent men injure them, it is said, “See those bulls how they are oppressing the calves; look at them, they are always butting the cows.” Why has this mad bull of Point Pedro come hither? Go, bull, go, graze in thy own pastures.” David, therefore, prayed that the Lord would rebuke the bulls who thus troubled his people.
14.-“ My heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst
of Il s said of Mangalei in the book Scanda Purana, that her heart was " dissolving like wax in the fire.”
21. — “ Save me from the lion's mouth.” Those who are in great trouble from the power or cruelty of others, often cry out to their gods-“ Ah! save me from the tusk of the elephant! From the mouth of the tiger, and the tusks of the boar, deliver me-deliver me!” “Who will save me from the horn of the kāndam?” This animal is now extinct in these regions, and it is not easy to determine what it was: the word in the Sathur-Agarāthe is rendered jungle-cow, but it was probably the rhinoceros; and Dr. Boothroyd translates, “ from the horns of the rhinoceros, defend me.”
XXIII. 2. “ He maketh me to lie down in green pastures : In this figure the Psalmist had in his view a shepherd leading his flock into luxuriant fields, and causing them to quench their thirst and repose by gentle streams. In a tropical clime a tranquil stream and a green pasture are peculiarly pleasing to the eye. Hence many eastern allegories are taken from such scenes. “ Never, never will I forget my god: he has brought me into a plenteous pasturage, and folded me near an abundance of water.” “ Why does he like this country?”—“Because he has good grazing.” “Tamban has left his master, because there was not much grass.”—“Much grass ! why the bull was never satisfied.” “ Well, friend, whither are you going? in search of grass and water ?”— “ Yes; the fat one has become lean, because his grass has withered and his water failed."
he leadeth me beside the still waters.”
4. " Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.” “ He was indeed a good king; by his sceptre and umbrella he comforted his subjects." By the staff or sceptre he gently governed' and protected his people; and by his umbrella he defended them from the fierce rays of the sun. “ Yes; by these are we instructed, guided, supported, and defended; what have we to fear? great is our safety and confidence.” “ You are now becoming an old man,
and are young, what will become of them after your death ?”. “ Ah! friend, is there not a staff in the hand of god ?” “ Truly, my wife and children have gone; they have reclined in the place of burning, but my staff is still with me.” the wicked one, he has not a staff left.”
5. “ Thou anointest my head with oil.” On all joyful occasions the people of the East anoint the head with oil. Hence, at their marriages, and other festive times, the young and old may be seen with their long black tresses neatly tied on the crown of the head, shining and smooth like polished ebony. The Psalmist, therefore, rejoicing in God as his protector, says, “ Thou anointest my head with oil.”
It is an act of great respect to pour perfumed oil on the head of a distinguished guest ; hence the woman in the Gospel manifested her respect for the Saviour by pouring “ precious ointment” on his head.*
XXVII. 5. “ Set me upon a rock.” “ The Modeliar is now fixed in his situation,"_" Is he?” — “Yes, yes, he is on the mountain, and is like unto it.” “ Who will take me out of this mud, and place me upon the mountain?”
12. _ “ Breathe out cruelty.” “ Ah ! the savage man; he is continually breathing out fire against me.”
XXIX. 9. " The voice of the Lord maketh the
hinds to calve." Margin, “or be in pain.” (Job
xxxix. 1, 2, 3.) Ainsworth translates, – 66 Jehovah maketh the hinds tremblingly to travel.” The thunder of the East is far more terrific than that of England. The explosion is so sudden and so vast, that the earth literally trembles under its power : fierce animals rush into the covert, and birds fly affrighted to the shade. Then it is the people say, “ Ah! this will cause the womb to tremble." « This thunder will make the pains to come.” “ I fear there will be a falling this day.”
10. — “ The Lord sitteth upon the flood.” In the book called the Koorma-Purāna, is given a beautiful description of Vishnoo, as sitting on the waters of the sea.
Floating on the undulating waves of the cool ocean, and
* An English lady went on board an Arabian ship, which touched at Trincomalee, for the purpose of seeing the equipment of the vessel, and to make some little purchases. After she had been seated some time in the cabin, an Arabian female came and poured perfumed oil on her head.
reclining on the serpent Seasha, which has a thousand heads tinted with red, I enjoyed contemplative sleep.
After which, by the warm rays of the morning sun I awoke, and conceived the idea of creating worlds. As thus I thought, joy and benignity arose in my mind, and I saw Brahma arise, seated on the lotus, like the ascending of ten millions of suns.”
XXX. 5. —- For his anger endureth but a moment;
in his favour is life: weeping may endure for a
night, but joy cometh in the morning." The Tamul method of expressing a moment is to move the hand once round the head, and give a snap of the finger. Thus they say of any thing which endures but a short time, “ It is only as the snap of the fingers."
The people of the East have nearly all their festivities in the night; they say it is the sorrowful time, and therefore adopt this plan to make it pass more pleasantly away. To those who are in difficulties, or sorrow; to widows, orphans, and strangers, “night is the time to weep;" hence in passing through a village may be heard people crying aloud to their departed friends, or bitterly lamenting their own condition. They have, however, some very pleasing and philosophical sayings on the uncertainty of the sorrows and joys of life.
In the book Scanda-Purāna, it is written, “ The wise, when pleasure comes, do not greatly rejoice; and in sorrow they yield not to distress; for they judge that pleasure and pain are incident to life. The indigent become wealthy, and the wealthy indigent; and inferiors are exalted. Can wealth or poverty, pleasure or pain, be regarded as permanent to the soul? The phases of the moon remain not in one state ; they diminish and increase : so your afflictions will one day terminate.”
9. — “ What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit?"
“ When I go down to the pit, what fruit will there be in my body?” “Ah ! he has fallen into the pit,” i. e. he is dead. Of those whose bodies have been burned, it is said, they are all sāmbal, i. e. all ashes. “ Where is your father ?”—“ Alas! my lord, he is ashes.”
XXXI. 3. “ Thou art my rock and my fortress.”
As a mountain and a fortress have you been to me.”
When a man of rank dies, it is said, “ that konam (bastion or fortress) has fallen.”
8. — “ And hast not shut me up into the hand of the
enemy: thou hast set my foot in a large room.” Dr. Boothroyd translates this, “ hast set my feet in a wider place.” Many figures in the English language are unquestionably borrowed from the Scriptures, amongst which may be," he is in his hands;" for he is in his power. When Zedekiah ordered Ebed-melech to draw Jeremiah out of the dungeon, he was directed to take thirty men with him ; but the margin has it, “ in thine hand !” In Eastern language, therefore, to be in the hands of a person, signifies to be in his possession or power. But David was not given into the hand of his enemy, and his feet were at liberty in a large place, so that he could walk whithersoever he pleased. In another verse, he says, “ Thou hast enlarged me;" he was increased and at liberty: and again, in speaking of his enemies, and the misery he suffered, he says, “ He brought me forth into a large place ;” so that his feet were at liberty. The feet (as well as the hands) are sometimes taken for the whole man : thus, the Lord “ will keep the feet of his saints," finds an illustration here. “ Have I not had a protector through this journey?"_“ Yes, the gods have kept my feet.” “ Well, have you heard from your son ?” — “ Yes; he has arrived in safety, and has written to me, saying, he will return next month, if the gods keep his feet.” A man who