תמונות בעמוד

VII. 14. — “ Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and

hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood.” (Job xv. 35. Isa. xxxiii. 11 and lix. 4. Jam.

i. 15.) Dr. Boothroyd translates this, “ Lo, the wicked hath conceived iniquity, and is big with mischief; but an abortion shall he bring forth : " which certainly corresponds better with the order of the figure of the text.

6 What induces that man to come so much to this place? depend upon it, he is preparing some plans.”—“ Yes, I am of opinion his womb has conceived something." Does the person begin to disclose his purposes, it is said, “ Ah! it is this you have been conceiving the last few days.” But when he puts his plans into practice, “ Yes, he is now in parturition.” 66 Well! how has the matter ended ?"_" Ended ! he has brought forth poykul,i. e. lies.

VIII. 6. — “ Thou hast put all things under his feet.” This is a common figure of speech to denote the superiority of one man over another ; hence the worshippers of the gods often say in their devotions, “ We put your feet upon our heads." “ Truly, the feet of Siva are upon my head.” “My Gooroo, my Gooroo, have I not put your feet upon my head ?” My lord, believe not that man ; your feet have always been

“Ah! a mighty king was he; all things were under his feet.”

upon my head.

X. 5. — “ As for all his enemies, he puffeth at them.” Of a proud and powerful man, it is said, “ He puffs away his foes;" i. e. they are so contemptible, so light, that like a flake of cotton he puffs them from his presence. Great is the contempt which is shown by puffing through the mouth and blowing through the nostrils.

15.--" Break thou the arm of the wicked.” This member is often selected as an object for imprecations.

“ Ah ! the kallan, the thief, his hand shall be torn off for that.” “ Evil one, thou wilt lose thy hand for this violence.” But the hand or arm is also selected as an object for blessings. “ My son (says the father), may the gods keep thy hands and thy feet.”

XI. 6. — Upon the wicked he shall rain-fire.” The gods are described as doing this upon their enemies; and magicians in cursing each other, or those who are the objects of their ire, say, the fiery rain shall descend upon them.

XII. 6. - 66 The words of the Lord areas silver.” Truly, he is a just judge; his words are like letters of gold. Yes, his mouth pours out gold.

XIV. 4. — “ Eat up my people as they eat bread.” “ Wicked one, the fiends shall eat thee.” “ That vile king eats the people as he does his rice.” “ Go not near that fellow, he will eat thee.” But, strange as it may appear, relations


of those of their friends who are dead, they have EATEN them.

Thus, a son, in speaking of his deceased parent says, “ Alas! alas ! I have eaten my father.” “ My child, my child !” says the bereaved mother, “ have I eaten you ?” The figure conveys extreme grief, and an intimation that the melancholy event has been occasioned by the sins or faults of the survivors. In cursing a married man, it is common to say, “ Yes, thou wilt soon have to eat thy good wife.” And to a poor widow, “ Wretch ! hast thou not eaten thy husband ?”

XVI. 7. — “My reins also instruct me in the night

seasons." Night is the time for the chief joys and sorrows of the Hindoos, and it is then they are principally engaged in the worship of their gods; because they believe praise is more acceptable to them then than at any other period. It is

believed, also, that the senses have more power in the night, that then is the time for thought and instruction; hence they profess to derive much of their wisdom at that season. The Psalmist says, " Thou hast visited me in the night;" and the heathen priests always pretend to have their communications with the gods “ when deep sleep falleth on man.” See them at their bloody sacrifices — they are nearly always held at the same time—and what with the sickly glare of lamps, the din of drums, the shrill sound of trumpets, the anxious features of the votaries, the ferocious scowl of the sacrificer, the bloody knife, and the bleeding victim, all wind up the mind to a high pitch of horror, and excite our contempt for the deities and demons to whom night is the time of offering and praise.

XVII. 2. — “ Let my sentence come forth from thy

presence ; let thine eyes behold the things that are

equal." David in his integrity thus cried to the Almighty, and so here people who are innocent when pleading in court say, “ Let us have YOUR sentence;" i. e. in contradiction of that of their enemies. “ See, my lord, the things that are right.” “ Justice ! justice !”


“ They are inclosed in their own fat.” To say a man is fat, often means he is very proud. Of one who speaks pompously, it is said, “ What can we do? tassi-kullap-ināl,i. e. from the fat of his flesh he declares himself. “Oh! the fat of his mouth ; how largely he talks!” care, fellow, or I will restrain the fat of thy mouth.” the intoxication of his blood he thus talks to you."

66 Take « From

11.—“ They have now compassed us in our steps:

they have set their eyes bowing down to the

earth.” A man who has people watching him to find out a cause for accusation to the king, or great men, says, “ Yes, they are

around my legs and my feet; their eyes are always open ; they are ever watching my suvadu," i. e. steps ; i. e. they are looking for the impress, or footsteps, in the earth. For this purpose, the eyes of the enemies of David were “bowing down to the earth.”

XVIII. 5. - “ The sorrows of hell compassed me

about: the snares of death prevented me.” The margin has for sorrows, “ cords.” (2 Sam. xxii. 6.

Prov. xii. 14. and xiv. 27.) Dr. Boothroyd translates, “ The cords of hades inclosed me; the snares of death were laid for me." The Psalmist says in another place, He “shall rain snares” upon the wicked. From the parallel texts in Samuel and Proverbs, it is evident that DEATH, by the ancients, in figure at least, was PERSONIFIED and described as having Snares, with which to catch the bodies of men.

The Hindoo Yama, “the catcher of the souls of men,” bears some resemblance to the Charon and Minos of the Egyptians and Grecians. Yama rides on

Yama rides on a buffalo, has a large snare in his hand, and is every way a most hideouslooking monster. In his anxiety to fill his caves with mortals, he was often involved in great disputes with the gods and others; as in the case of Marcander, who was a favourite of the supreme Siva. He had already cast his snare upon him, and was about to drag him to the lower regions, when the deity appeared, and compelled him to relinquish his prey.

When people are in the article of death, they are said to be caught in the SNARE of Yama. (See Matt. xxiii. 33.)

XX. 5.—“ In the name of our God we will set up our

banners." In all religious as well as warlike processions, the people carry banners. Hence on the pinnacles of their sacred cars, on the domes or gateways of their temples, and on the roof of a new house, may be seen the banner of the caste or sect

floating in the air. Siva, the supreme, also is described as having a banner in the celestial world.

When a person makes a solemn vow to go on a pilgrimage, to perform a penance, or to bathe in holy water; or when a man has a dispute in a court of law, or in any other way, or when a disobedient son has resolved to act as he pleases; it is said, “ Why try to move him from his purpose ? tussil-katti, he has tied up, and stands by his banner:” which implies, he must and will abide by his purpose.

XXII. 6.-" I am a worm.” When a man complains and abhors himself, he asks, “ What am I? A worm ! a worm !” “Ah! the proud man; he regarded me as a worm: well should I like to say to him we are all worms.” ,“ Worm, crawl out of my presence."

7.-“ All they that see me laugh me to scorn: they shoot

out the lip, they shake the head.” Ainsworth has this - "s All they that see me, doe skoff at mee: they make-a-mow with the lip, they wag the head.” It is exceedingly contemptuous to protrude the lower lip; and, generally speaking, it is only done to those of a mean condition. Those who cannot grant a favour, or who have not the power to perform something they have been requested to do, “shoot out the lip.” To shake the head is a favourite way of giving the negative, and is also a mark of disdain.

10.-" I was cast upon thee from the womb." “ What !” asks the old slave, “ will you dismiss me now? Have I not been cast upon you from the ketpum ??womb.

12.-“ Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of

Bashan have beset me round.” (Ps. Ixviii. 30. “Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till every one submit himself with pieces of silver.”) The


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