תמונות בעמוד

his subjects saw him alive again, they “cried aloud, Our king is come; our king is come:" and their minds, swelling like the ocean, on seeing the full moon, they shouted, “O king, prosper, prosper."

They believe the moon causes the sea to flow or swell, and that the sun makes it ebb or subside. (See on Psalm cxxi. 6.)


Chap. II. verse 11.- 6 Our hearts did melt; neither did
there remain any more courage


man." In the book called Scanda Purāna, it is said, that Sooran, the demi-god, who was at the head of the Assurs, enquired of Velle, their Gooroo, “ What is your object in coming hither? my very bones melt, so that I am not myself; my whole mind is fixed on you: my feet cannot urge me forward.”

18. “ Thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread.” The scarlet thread, in this instance, might be nothing more than a sign: it is, however, sacred among the Hindoos. When the devotees hear the history of the god Pulliār, which takes up twenty-one days, a scarlet thread is tied round the right arm, which shows that they are engaged in a sacred duty, and that during that period “they will not commit sin." When the priest whispers the ubatheasam in the ear of a youth, it is tied in the same way, to denote the same thing. On the day of marriage, the scarlet thread is bound round the right wrist, but is taken off on the fourth day. When a person learns to fence, or goes into battle, the thread is fixed round the right arm or right ankle. The priest also sometimes binds it round the wrist of a person in the article of death. It is called kāpu, which signifies guard or protector, and is applied, also, in the same sense to bracelets, armlets, or anklets. A person having on the scarlet thread will not be interrupted; and during the period he will neither shave nor bathe, and will endeavour to be very moral. (Gen. xxxviii. 28.)

VI. 4. — “ Ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets."

No heathen priest would blow a trumpet, or any other wind instrument, as that service is performed by a particular caste. For a priest to touch any thing with his lips which has been near the mouth of another, would at once make him unclean.

For the sacrifice of the yāgam, seven priests are especially required. A man who has been long absent from his temple goes round it, on his return, seven times from the left to the right. When devotees have a particular favour to ask of the gods, they walk round three or seven times, with their hands clasped before them.


VII. 6.-And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the

earth upon his face before the ark of the Lord, until the even tide, he and the elders of Israel, and put

dust upon their heads.” (Job ii. 12.) Joshua and the elders of Israel were in great distress, because they had been defeated by the men of Ai, and because they saw in that a token of the divine displeasure. therefore fell prostrate before the ark of the Lord, and put dust on their heads as an emblem of their sorrow. (1 Sam. iv. 12. 2 Sam. i. 2. Neh. ix. 1.)

How often is the mind affectingly thrown back on this ancient custom by similar scenes at this day. See the poor object bereft of wife, children, property, friends ; or suffering under some deep affliction of body: he sits on the ground, with his eyes fixed thereon, a dirty rag round his loins, his arms folded, his jewels laid aside, his hair dishevelled and covered with dust, and bitterly bemoaning his condition, saying, Iyo ! iyo! iyo!— " Alas! alas ! alas !”

IX. 11. - " Take victuals with you for the journey."

The Hebrew has " in the hand.” When people are directed to take any thing with them, it is always said un-kailea, “ in your hand take.”

X. 12. — “ Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou moon, in the valley of Ajalon.” (Hab.

iii. 11.) In the Scanda Purāna it is recorded of the demi-god Sooran, that when he heard of the death of his brother, he

was plunged into a sea of grief, he fell from his throne on the earth, and cried out like the roaring of thunder. The earth and the sea began to quake, the infernal Yama trembled, the god of fire was bereft of power, the god of wind was troubled, and the sun and moon ran off astounded at the scene."

When the sun stood still over Gibeon, and the moon over Ajalon, a great battle was being fought betwixt five kings on the one side, and Joshua and the Gibeonites on the other.

In the book called Pāratham, there is an account of a battle which was fought betwixt five princes on the one hand, and one hundred on the other; on which occasion the light of the sun was concealed, for the purpose of allowing the one party to conquer the other.

“ In the regions of Attanāp-Oor lived two kings, who were brothers. The one had one hundred sons, but the other had only five. He with the large family, finding great difficulty in providing for them, wickedly endeavoured to despoil his brother and five children, in order that his own sons might reign in their stead. After many false accusations for the purpose of seeking a quarrel: a relation of the one hundred princes slew one of their five cousins. The father, on hearing of the death of his son, became enraged, and said, Before the morrow's sun shall set, I will slay the murderer, or cast myself into the fire. The message being sent to the offenders, they prepared for the contest. The murderer was a giant, being four cubits taller than the rest of his fellows, and therefore would be easily distinguished by the bereaved father, who would forthwith direct all his energies against him. They therefore, after due consultation, resolved to dig a hole in the ground four cubits deep, and cause the giant to stand in it, so that he might not be distinguished from the rest. The day came on which the father was either to kill


the murderer, or cast himself into the fire; his vow had gone forth, and either the one or the other must be accomplished. The contest began, and long was it continued, but all to no purpose, for the giant could not be found out. The case became desperate, for the princes had not only lost a brother, but had the melancholy prospect of losing their beloved father, whose vow could not be broken. At that time the god Vishnoo, in his incarnation of Chrishna, knowing their cause was a just one, took his shield and placed it before the sun, which caused instant darkness. The one hundred princes and the giant, thinking the sun had set, said, “The old man has not accomplished his purpose : let us now go see him burn himself,' and came with triumph to the scene, when in a moment the four brothers arose and despatched the giant on the spot. Then the one hundred princes began to abuse the father and his four sons, saying, “The vow was to kill him before the sun went down, but you have broken it;' they then greatly reviled them, and were about to slay them, when the god took off his shield from the sun, and showed the full blaze of day. The favoured ones then slew the one hundred princes, took their cities, and made the inhabitants their slaves."

19. — " Smite the hindmost.” The Hebrew has for

this, “ Cut off the tail.” Servants, dependants, or courtiers, always follow their superiors. Should one of them cease to serve or follow his master or patron, having gained his end“, another, on seeing this, asks,“ Where is your tail ? "_" The tail has been long in my way, I have cut it off.”

21. — “None moved his tongue against any of the

children of Israel."

A man wishing to gain a favour of a great man, will follow him for days or weeks as a dependant, stooping to the most humble offices till he shall have gained his end.

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