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how they might entangle him in his talk. And they senti mut unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in-truth; neither carest thou for any man, for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, what thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give-tribute -unto Cæsar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said. Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites ? Shew, me the tribute-money; and they brought unto hym a pennys : And he saith unto them, whose, is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Cæsar's. Then saith he unto them, Rena der therefore unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that are God's. When they heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way. In order to understand the insidious natura of the question here proposed to Jesus, it must bei abserved that the Jews were at this time, as they had been for many years, under the dominibal of the Romans, and as an acknows bedgment of their subjection, paid them an annual tribute in money!: The Pharisets however, were adverse to the payment of this
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fribute ; and contended, that being the pecus liar people of God, and he their only rightful sovereign, they ought not to pay tribute to
foreign prince whatever they considered themselves as subjects of the Almighty, and Feleased from all obedience to any foreign power! There were many others toho inatoa tained i contrary opinion, and it was a con much agitated among different partiesu Who the Herodians were that accompanied the Pharisees, and what their sentiments were on this subject, is very doubtful; nor is it a matter of any moment. It is plain from their name, that they were in some way or other áttached to Herod; and as he was a friend to tiré Roman government, they probably maintäified the propriety of paying the tribute *."
In this state of things both the Pharisees and Herodians came to Jesus, and after some flattering and hypbéritical compliments to his love of truth; his intrepidity, impartialityslands disregard to power and greatness (caloulatech: evidently to spirit him up to some sold and SIS mult bisa titoloure tis.it to Jaybd 2 Those whom St. Mark calls the Legyenjof Herade
St. Matthew in the calls Sadducees. Hence, perhaps, we may Hetourtis and the Sadducees were the same persons.
offensive declaration of his opinion) they put this question to him : “ Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, or not?” They were persuaded, that in answering this question, he must either render himself odious to the Jewish people, by opposing their popular notions of liberty, and appearing to pay court to the emperor; or, on the other hand, give offence to that prince, and expose himself to the charge of seđition and disaffection to the Roman government, by denying their right to the tribute they had imposed. They conceived it impossible for him to extricate himself from this dilemma, or to escape danger on one side or the other; and perhaps no other person but himself could have eluded the snare that was laid for him.' But he did it completely; and shewed on this occasion, as he had done on many others, that presence of mind and readiness of reply to difficult and unexpected questions, which is one of the strongest proofs of a superior wisdom, of a quick discernment, and a prompt decision. He pursued, in short, the method which he had adopted in similar instances; he compelled the Jews in effect to answer the question themselves, and to take from him all the odiam attending the determination of it. He perceived their wickedness, and said, “Why tempt ye me? Why do you try to ensnare me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute money. 4 And they brought unto him a penny; a small silver coin of the Romans, called a Denarius. And he said unto them, whose is this image and superscription ? And they say unto him, Cæsar's.” By admitting that this was Cæsar's coin, and by consenting to receive it as the current coin of their country, they in fact acknowledged their subjection to his government. For the right of coinage, and of issuing the coin, and giving value and currency to it, is one of the highest prerogatives and most decisive marks of sovereignty; and it was a tradition of their own rabbins, that to admit the impression and the inscription of any prince on their current.coin, was an acknowledgment of their subjection to him. And it was more particularly so in the present instance, because we are told that the denarius paid by the Jews as tribute-money had an inscription round the head of Cæsar to this effect; Cæsar Augustus, Judæa being subdued* To
pay this coin with this inscription, was the scompletest acknowledgment of subjection, See Hammond in loc.
and of course of their obligation to pay the tribute demanded of them, that could be ima. gined. Our Lord's decision therefore was a necessary consequence of their own concese non.
“ Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Casar's, (which you yourselves acknowledge to be Cæsar's), and unto God the things that are God's."
And when they heard these words, they marvelled; they were astonished at his prudence and address; and left him, and went their way. .
But in this answer of our Saviour is contained a much stronger proof of his consummate wisdom and discretion than has yet been mentioned. He not only disengaged himself from the difficulties in which the question was meant to involve him, but without entering into any political discussions, he laid down two doctrines of the very last importance to the
peace and happiness of mankind, and the stability of civil government.
He made a clear distinction between the duties we owe to God, and the duties we owe to our earthly rulers. He shewed that they did not, in the smallest degree, interfere or clash with each other; and that we ought never to refuse what is justly due to Cæsar, under pretence of its