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feparated from the fold. Thus also it was with Christ, if we reckon prophetic days, for years : see Ezek. iv. 6. For at his thirtieth year, he left his mother's house, as a fold; where he was born and brought up, and was crucified the fourth after. But it likewise deserves observation, that Christ came to Jerusalem to the feast, and to his last pafsover, on that very day, on which God had commanded the lamb to be kept up in Egypt ; namely, the tenth of the month Nisan. For, fix days before the passover, he came to Bethany, John xii. 1. That is, on the ninth of the month Nisan: the day after he went to Jerusalem, ver. 11. to present himself to be offered to God.
XXXVIII. Let us now consider the sufferings of Christ, the manner, place, and time, these being all signified by the paff
XXXIX. As to the manner. ist, The lamb was to be killed, and that by the whole multitude of the congregation of Israel. So the priests, scribes, and pharisees, with the whole body of the people conspired to the slaying of Christ; for not being satisfied with mockings, smitings, and scourgings, they ceased not, till he was given up to death, Luke xxiii. 18. and « they cried out, all at once, saying, away with this man. 2dly, There is likewise an argument as to the kind of death. For, as the blood of the lamb, so that of Christ was also shed: both for the people. Nor was the blood of the lamb poured out on the ground, but, as fomething precious, received in a bafon; because it represented the “ precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without spot," 1 Pet. i. 19. For, that blood is the perpetual treasure of the church, which Christ even at this day offers to the Father, and is for ever to offer, or present. 3dly, The lamb was not to be eaten raw, or not sufficiently done. Christ was also to suffer indeed, and not in a superficial manner. His cup was not to pass, till it was drunk up to the bottom. 4thly, The roasting of the lamb at the fire, expreffes the burning heat of divine wrath, justly kindled against sinners, with which Christ, who presented himself as surety for finners, was to be scorched. Hence those complaints, Psal. xxii. 14, 15. “ My heart is like wax, it is melted in the midst of
bowels : my strength is dried up like a potfherd, and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws.” See what we have observed concerning the peculiar manner of this roasting, Book II. Chap. 10. 8. 26.
XL. The place, where both the paflover and Christ was flain, is exactly the fame. For the paschal lamb, was, from the days of David, to be killed at Jerusalem; the place which God had chosen for himself, to cause his name to dwell there. But it was there' that Christ suffered, as himself foretold. “ It cannot
be that a prophet perish out of Jerufalem,” Luke xii. 33. And Luke xviii. 31. “ Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things. that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man, shall be accomplished.”
XLI. There is also a manifest similitude with respect to the time. The paffover was killed in the middle of the month Nisan, at the full moon, between the two evenings, that is, according to Jofephus, from the ninth to the eleventh hour. On that very month, day and hour, Christ was cut off; as is remarked, not without reason, by Matthew, chap. xxvii. 46, 50. Some obferve, that, in the month Nisan, after the equinox, the days come to be longer than the nights; to fignify that a new light then arose upon the world, when Christ dispelled the darkness of error, and ignorance. And there are others, who, by the full moon, will have the fulness of time, and by the two evenings, the evening of the world, and the last times to be shadowed forth, in which Christ offered himself a sacrifice, according to that of the apostle, Heb. ix. 26. “ once in the end of the world hath he appeared, to put away sin by the facrifice of himself.” Which, are at least ingenious, if not folid reflections.
XLII. It now follows, that we consider the consequences and fruits of this facrifice; and indeed, they are most excellent and abundant. For, first, the posts and lintels of the Ifraelites were sprinkled with the blood of this lamb, that they might avoid the common calamity, and be preserved from the destroying angel: to teach us, that the justice of God spares all, whose consciences are sprinkled with the blood of Christ, Ifa. lii. 15. “ he shall sprinkle many nations." This is that sprinkling of the blood of Christ, this is that blood of sprinkling, spoken of by Peter and Paul, 1 Pet. i. 2. Heb. xii. 24. We are therefore no longer to dread the sword of the avenging angel. For, whether an angel of darkness, “ God hath delivered us from the power of darkness, through the blood of his Son,” Col. i. 13, 14. or an angel of heaven, “ having made peace through his blood, he hath reconciled all things unto himself, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven,” ver. 20.
XLIII. Secondly, On the night the lamb was flain, the Israelites received full power to deliver themselves from the Egyptian bondage: to teach us, that Christ, by his blood, has redeemed us from the bondage of the devil, the world and fin, in order to call us to the glorious liberty of the fons of God, Heb. ii. 14, 15. John viii. 36.
XLIV. Thirdly, In that very night the God of Israel inflicted his judgments on the gods of the Egyptians, Exod. xii. 12.
Numb. xxxiii. 4. namely, four judgments, if we may credit Jonathan, whose words in his paraphrase are these: “ Their molten images were melted down, their idols of stone cut down, those made of earth, ground to powder; in fine, those of wood reduced to ashes.” Though we cannot avouch this for truth, as the scripture is filent; yet it is certain, God's threatenings were not without their effect. And whatever they signified, we see an illustrious fulfilment of them in the death of Chrift; whereby, the middle wall of partition being broken down, by which many nations, who had been separated from the Jews, being called to the knowledge of the true God, cast their idols to the moles, and to the bats, Isa. ii. 20.
XLV. Fourthly, As the month Abib, before the institution of the paffover, was the seventh month of the Jewish year: but when God inftituted the paffover, he commanded, that it should for the future, be accounted the first, and from it begin to reckon their facred or ecclesiastical year. This month began with the spring; at which time, when God sendeth forth his Spirit, all things are created, and the face of the earth is, rear newed, Psal. civ. 30. And this may also be applied to Christ, who introduced a new age, and abolished old things, in order to change them for the better : behold, says he, I make all things new, Rev. xxi. 5. So that now we justly reckon time, not from the first creation of the world, which seems to have happened on Tisri, the first month of the civil year, but from the rising of a more auspicious ftar, at the illuitrious epiphany or manifestation of our Saviour: for, such new miracles of divine goodness cause former things, in comparison of these, not to be remembered, nor come into mind, Isa. Ixv. 17.
XLVI. Moreover, we are to fhew, in what manner the Israelites were made partakers of the benefits they obtained by means of the lamb. And here two things were required. ist, That they were to sprinkle the lintel and door-posts of their houses with the blood of the lamb. 2dly, To eat its flesh. For if any of the Israelites neglected either of these, they thereby rejected the grace annexed to these commands.
XLVII. By the door-posts of the houses are meant our hearts, because God sprinkles these with the blood of his Son, Heb. x. 22. “ our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience.” And the hearts of men lie as open before God, as the door-posts of our houses to us, 1 Sam. xvi. 7. the doors of our hearts are to be set open, that by them the king of glory may come in, Pfal.
7. Rev. iii. 20. But we may be said to sprinkle our hearts with the blood of Christ, when, by a stedfast faith, we embrace the doctrine of the cross, and apply to ourselves the merits of
This sufferings. We are however, to take care that we do not
sprinkle on the threshhold, what we are commanded to sprinkle on the lintel, and posts of the door, that it may not be trampled under foot, least the apostle's threatenings should be executed on us, which he denounced against thole, who “tread under foot the Son of God, and account the blood of the covenant, wherewith they were sanctified, an unholy thing," Heb. x. 29.
XLVIII. By the same faith also, the flesh is to be eaten, For why haft thou teeth, and a stomach ? [Is it not to eat?] Believe, and thou hast eaten. This eating is absolutely necefsary to salvation, John vi. 53. “Verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the felh of the Son of man, ye have no life in you.
XLIX. The flesh of the lamb was to be eaten neither alto, gether raw, nor half done. And they are guilty of this crime, who digest not these. mysteries by proper and diligent meditaţion: meditation is to the soul, what concoction or digestion is to the stomach. Hence according to Petronius, to publish to the public indigested thoughts, is to publish things not yet properly concocted and digested by an attentive meditation.
L. The whole lamb was likewise to be eaten, that nothing might remain: neither is it fufficient to receive Christ in part: as if one would be willing to enjoy his glory, but not partake of his sufferings. Or to have him for his Redeemer, but not for his Lawgiver and Lord: or as if one, not thinking it sufficient to trust in the merits of Christ, should place his hope of falvation, partly in his own works, or in the intercession and mediation of others,
LI. What remained that could not be consumed, because of the small number of guests, was not suffered to be reserved to the next day; but was to be burnt with fire. This
applied partly to the type, partly to the thing signified. The type was not to be reserved to another time. From the day the light of the gospel appeared, what regarded the shadows, was to cease and, be abolished. As to the thing signified, whoever feeds upon Christ by a true faith, will not be found empty, or hungry on the morrow; nor does he stand in need of a new Christ, or a new offering of him. For as “ by one offering he hath
perfected for ever them that are fanctified,” Heb. x. 14. lo “ he that cometh to him shall never hunger, and he that believeth opi him shall never thirst,” John vi. 35. Wherefore, thou art under no necessity to reserve any thing of thine own for thyself, with which to make up a deficiency in Christ, when thou hast once apprehended him by faith. LII, In the mean time, they were fo to eat the flesh of the
lamb, as not to break a bone of it. To break the bones of the : lamb, is to pry and search into things that exceed our capacity.
As if it was not sufficient for faith to be fed with things obvious, unless we attempted to search into those things, the knowledge of which is forbidden, and the discovery dangerous. To pry into such things, is to come off with damage in the attempt. This brings to mind, that saying of Mofes, Deut. xxix. 29. “ the secret things belong unto the Lord our God; but those things which are revealed, belong untó us and to our children for ever:" and that excellent saying nf Jerome, Prov. XXV. 27. though not fo agreeable to the Hebrew, the curious pryer into his majesty, shall be overwhelmed with his glory."
LIII. The bitter herbs, with which the lamb was to be eaten, fignify the neceslity of communion with him in his sufferings, Phil. iii. io. if we would have communion with him in his gloTy: we are to wear a crown of thorns with Christ, that a crown of glory may fucceed; " if we suffer, we fall also reign with him," 2 Tim. ii. 12. Nor are these things to be applied only to the external afflictions of the body; but also to the internal distresses of the vexed foul, grieving for fin in a godly manner, fearing the wrath of God; without which the sweet consolations of the Lord Jesus, which he applies only to the mourners in Zion, Isa. Ixi. 3. are usually neither tafted nor felt.
LIV. Nor is it in vain, that leaven is so often, and fo expressly forbid those, who are invited to eat of the lamb. For in Scripture leaven is the symbol of corruption, and especially of hypocrisy, Luke xii. 1. Paul has writ very properly to this purpose, 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. “ Christ our pafsover is facrificed for us: therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of fincerity and truth.” Leaven might also be applied to pride, because the leavened lump directly rises or puffs up; or to hatred and animosity, which embitter the foul. Now whoever has communion with Chrift, ought doubtless to be purged from all these vices; because he, in whose mouth was found no guile, 1 Pet. ii, 22. cannot endure hypocrites; nor he, who became obedient even unto the death of the cross, Phil. ii. 8. the proud; nor he, who is our peace, Eph. ii. 14. the contentious; and therefore he offered himself, in order to reconcile us both to God, and to one another.
LV. But strangers, the defiled, the uncircumcised, were excluded from the pafchal lamb : because righteousness hath no fellowship with unrighteousness, nor light any communion with darkness, nor Christ any concord with Belial, 2 Cor. vi. 94, !5. Nevertheless whoever he bę, that from a sense of his