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why the godly are called the seed of the woman, and not the seed of the man : because as the woman was wholly indebted to á gracious prontise, that she was appointed to oppofe and fight against the ferpent, not without the desired success : so also, it was not those children in general, who were to be born of her, according to the law of nature, by matrimonial commerce ; but those only, whose mother she was to be by the Iame grarious promise, who are here accounted for her feed. For, though Eve; as she was joined to Adam in marriage, is the natural mother of all mankind, even of those, who are called the feed of the serpent. Yet the same Ëve, being, by virtue of this divine promise, set in opposition to the serpent, by whom she was overcome, is the mother only of the blessed feed; which was to proceed from her, not according to the law of nature, but in virtue of the promise of grace : this is therefore called the seed of the woman; even of that woman, who is, and in so far as she is, placed in opposition to the serpent.
XXV. The mean, by which the appointed heirs become actually partakers of the promised benefits, is faith in the sure ty, as is intimated by a twofold enigma or dark saying.. ift, As all the heirs are called by the common name, seed; this denotes the mystical union and communion of the seed, which is fanctified, with that which fanctifies ; so that what the latter has done or suffered, the former is accounted to have done or fufferd in him. But the band of that union is faith, by which we receive Christ, adhere to him, and become one spirit with him, I Cor. vi. 17. 2dly, As the bruising the serpent's head is ascribed to the seed : which, indeed, Christ alone does by the merit of his obedience, and the infinite efficacy of his Spirit; yet the elect also in Chrift, and by the power of Christ, conquer him through faith. Christ is the general in this combat, the seed of the woman by way of eminence, who overthrows and triumphs over the enemy: but next to Christ, and under him, believers also fight and overcome by his power, “ And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb," Rev. xii. 11.: that is, because on that very account the blood of the Lamb was fhed for them. The victory, which the rest of the feed gains over the serpent, cannot but follow upon the shedding of the blood of the Lamb, who is the feed of Eve. Moreover, that victory is obtained only by faith; “ whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world,” (consequently the devil, who is e alled the prince and god of this world, Eph. vi. 12. 2 Cor. iv: Vol. II. Q
4.) be * A way of speaking, when we place that after, which should come before,
4.). « And this is the victory, that overcometh the world, even our faith.”
XXVI. It is not to be thought improbable, that so many and so great mysteries of faith are expresied in few words. For, the words are both very proper to signify, and elsewhere in scripture do signify what we have here faid, and it became the wisdom of God, to lay before the primitive church some short abridgement, which, by its well contrived brevity might comprehend the sum of the things to be believed; and then it is our duty, to form high and honourable thoughts of what God speaks. Neither is it unreasonable, that the whole should be wrapped up in fome enigmatical or obscure expressions. For, the bright thining light reserved for noon-day, was not suitable to the first dawn of the day of grace. Moreover, God had not then desisted from appearing to our first parents ; but explained to them, by frequent instruction and the gracious illumination of their mind, those things which belonged to faith and godliness. And indeed it was wholly reasonable, that above all they should carefully keep this promise of salvation, as a most valuable treasure, diligently meditate thereon, and explain it by mutual conversation to each other and to their chil. dren. Some other things seem to belong to this subject, which being briefly related by Moses, we shall explain a little more particularly:
XXVII. Mofes, having distinctly related, what God had said to the serpent, to the woman, and to Adam, subjoins Gen. iii. 20. “ and Adam called his wife's name EVE, because she was (or was constituted] the mother of all living.” It is not necessary, we here suppose with some a * proteron-huyteron, as if this name had been given before the fall; at the same time, when Adam called that help; which had just been given him, Ischah woman; for there is no reason, why we should contend, that things were done at the same time, which Moses relates on different occasions, and after other intermediate narratives. We own, indeed, that sometimes a thing is related after, which had been done before : but this is not usual, unless the affinity of the subject with what goes before or follows makes it neceffary. But there is no such affinitý here; unless we would say, that this denomination bears some respect to the words of God, before narrated by Moses, in the sense we are presently to fhew. Nor can we prove, that the word rendered, and he called, is to be rendered in the
preterpluperfect tense, and he had called ; that Moses's meaning should he, Adam was greatly deceived, who had promised life to himself and his posterity from his wife ; whom he afterwards found to prove the cause of death. For, ift, The following words, which explain the reason of this denomination, are not the words of Adam, deceived in his expectation : but of Moses, shewing the truth of the matter. 2dly, If we will have them to be the words of Adam, we ought to change it, she was, into i7n, Mhe will be, and to have something understood as, he imagined, or the like; to this effect, Adam had called her name Eve, because he imagined, she would be the mother of all living, but, from the event, 'he learned the reverse. But we do not take upon us so boldly to make free with the facred text : let us therefore dismiss this ungrounded #qweussgov.
XXVIII. But why was she called Chavah, Eve? Some of the Rabbins ridiculously derive that name from myn, which in Piel denotes to signify or disclose, “ because she was a great talker, according to Baal Hatturim. Fagius writes, the Jews thus express it, because she was a great talker and uttered many empty words to the serpent, till being ensnared in her. talk she finned ; and as soon as the made her husband to fin, he called her Chavah, or Eve, as we render it. But these things are repugnant to the express declaration of the Holy Spirit, who gives a quite different reason for the name; for he thews, that this name is derived from min to live, not from in; and the jod is changed into vau, to put some difference between the name of the woman and of a beaft, which in He. brew is called min as Aben Ezra has not improperly observed.
XXIX. No less ridiculous is Lyranus, who says, that Eve in Hebrew denotes life, but subject to penalties ; most of all Peter Comestor, author of the Scholastic history; that Adam then deploring the misery of his posterity, called his wife Eve, alluding to the cries of infants; the male newly born crying A, but the female E ; as if we fhould fay, all born of Eve will say A or E. This perhaps might be pardonable in poor Comeftor, and in the age in which he lived: but it is highly ridiculous, that amidst so great a light of knowledge, Cornelius a Lapide, in his commentaries should not blush to call such trifling, by the name of pious contemplations. There is nothing in the word Tin, that can denote anguish or penalty. But let us proceed to what is serious.
XXX. Mofes explains the reason of the denomination in these words; “ because she was, or was constituted, the mother of all living." By all living, sometimes is understood all men in general, as Pfal. cxliii. 2. And it is certain, that, except 22
Adam, all that ever did, do now, or shall hereafter live, derive their origin from our mother Eve. But if this alone was inten. ded, here it might be aked, ift. Why Adam chose to call his wife the mother, rather than himself the father of all living, as the natural origin of all is equally due to both ? 2dly, Why as we have shewn from the series of the Mofaic history, he gave this name to his wife, not till after the fall; seeing, if we attend to natural generation only, she became the parent, not to much of the living as of the dead ? 3dly, Was this a thing so very worthy of notice, fince it was self-evident, that all, who were to exist, were to descend from her, who was the only woman in the world.
XXXI, It seems therefore more adviseable, and more becoming both the faith and piety of Adam, and the wisdom of the Holy Spirit, who accurately relates those things, to understand by all living, both the Lord Christ, who is the fountain of life, and the elect, who, being united to him, are quickened by his Spirit.. The woman was constituted the mother of these living, by the word of promise, by which she was expressly appointed to have that seed, who was to bruise the serpent's head. Wherefore Adam, who by sin became the father of all who die,'ı Cor. xv. 22. called his wife Eve, from his faith in God's promise, believing, according to the word of God, that no man should have true life, but what would be derived from her. However the original of this was not in the woman herself, but in the principal feed, that was to descend from her. This name therefore contains a confession of Adam's faith, and hhews, what Adam taught his children, and to what hope he formed them by the word of God: who, in the very name of his wife, as often as he repeated it, would have a lasting monument both of the promise of God and of his own hope.
XXXII. PETER MARTYR, that most excellent interpreter of of scripture, saw and taught these things long ago : who thus comments on the place. “ Adam knowing that her feed, would bruise the devil and death, juftly and with propriety, chose to call her by that name, by whịch this falutary promise of God might at all times occur to his mind. Now Adam had entertained hopes of life by Chrift, and when he perceived, that his wife was to be the mother of him, and of all those who were to be quickened by him, called her name Eve, because she was the mother of the living." Fagius in like manner : “ we doubt not but Adam, by giving that name to his wife, had a view to the promise concerning the seed, that was to bruise the serpent's head! ; by which he hoped, that his wife was to be that person, Wherefore he named her Chavah, which we call Eve, as if you would say an enlivener ; because dead mankind was to be made alive by her offspring.” See also Paræus and others, all agreeing in the same thing.
XXXIII. Eve discovered the same hope, when, upon bringing forth her first born, the cried out, 79/70 DX w* •1937, Gen. iv. 1. which words are variously rendered by interpreters. That which we think most agreeable, is, with Reuchlin, Pelicanus, Fagius, Foriterius, Luther, Clarius, Scindlerus and many others, to take nx, as usual, for the fign of the accusative cafe, and the meaning be, I have gooten a MAN JEHOVAH. Remarkable is the Chaldæ paraprase of Jonathan. 66 And Adam knew Eve his wife, who was taken with a longing for that angel, and conceived and bore Cain, and said, I have gotten the man, that angel of the Lord.” Certainly our pious mother continually revolving in her mind that promise of God, which was
the ground of all her consolation, as soon as the bore that male child, observed in his birth a fign or token, that the promise would be performed. She therefore joyfully exclaims, she had now obtained that promised seed: not that she imagined Cain was that feed, but that, in his birth, the could see the first multiplication of mankind, and, in that multiplication, an argument for her hope concerining the feed, eminently so called, who was to arise in his appointed time. Seeing the laid hold of this with a great assurance of faith, and made it, as it were present to her mind, she now so speaks, as if in the birth of Cain, she was actually poffefsed of that feed, which, by an argument taken from that birth, she expected with an assured faith. For, had she thought that Cain was the promised Meffiah, and Jehovah himself, the would have paid him, though her own son, religious worship, and by this means incurred the guilt of a horrid idolatry ; till being apprized, either by the vicious disposition of the child, or by some other means, the had owned her mistake. Which our pious respect to our common parent forbids us to believe. She moreover publishes an eminent confeffion concerning the perfon of the Mefliah, whom she acknowledges to be God-man. She declares him to be man, by calling him man; at the same time pointing out his excellence above other men : for, oxi Adam and sx lsh. are usually distinguished, so that the last viz. Ijb, implies excellency; and the first, viz. Adam, meanness. Christ, indeed, in his humiliation, was “ a worm and no man,” Pf. xxii. 6. but considered in himself he is “ the man of the right hand of the