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which Mr Baker says he chooses to copy :-so naturally does it come to him to avail himself of the labours of other men. “Convey the wise it call. Steal ? Foh! A fico for the phrase!'

In the remainder of his Introduction, Mr Baker assumes a controversial tone, and calls in question some of the judgments which the author has passed on the Chinese sage and his doctrines. He would make it out that Confucius was a most religious man, and abundantly recognized the truth of a future life; that the worship of God was more nearly universal in China than in the Theocracy of Israel ; that the Chinese in general are not more regardless of truth than Dr Legge's own countrymen; and that Confucius' making no mention of heaven and hel. is the reason why missionaries object to his system of practising virtue for virtue's sake! Mr Baker has made some proficiency in the art of "adding insult to injury." It is easy to see to what school of religion he belongs; but the author would be sorry to regard his publication as a specimen of the manner in which the members of it“ practise virtue for virtue's sake.”

In preparing the present volume for the press, the author has retained a considerable part of the prolegomena in the larger work, to prepare the minds of his readers for proceeding with advantage to the translation, and forming an intelligent judge ment on the authority which is to be allowed to the original Works. He has made a few additions and corrections which his increased acquaintance with the field of Chines, literature enabled him to do.

He was pleased to find, in revising the translation, that the alterations which it was worth while to make were very few and unimportant.

He has retained the headings to the notes on the several chapters, as they give, for the most part, an adequate summary of the subjects treated in them. All critical matter, interesting and uscful only to students of the Chinese language, he has thrown out. In a few instances he has remodelled the notis or made such additions to them as were appropriate to this popular design of the edition.

Ilong-Kong, 26th October, 1866.

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PRELIMINARY ESSAYS:

CHAPTER I,

OF THE CHINESE CLASSICS GENERALLY,

SECTION I.

BOOKS INCLUDED UNDER THE NAME OF THE CHINESE CLASSICS.

1. The Books now recognized as of highest authority in China are comprehended under the denominations of “The five King,and “The four Shoo.The term king is of textile origin, and signifies the warp threads of a web, and their adjustment. An easy application of it is to denote what is regular and insures regularity. As used with reference to books, it indicates their authority on the subjects of which they treat. “The five Kingare the five canonical Works, containing the truth upon the highest subjects from the sages of China, and which should be received as law by all generations. The term 'shoo simply means writings or books.

2. The five King are :-the Yih, or, as it has been styled, “ The Book of Changes;" the Shoo, or "The Book of Historical Documents ; " the She, or “ The Book of Poetry;" the Le Ke, or

Récord of Rites;” and the Ch'un Ts'ew, or “Spring and Autumn,” a chronicle of events, extending from B.c. 721 to 480. The authorship, or compilation rather, of all these works is loosely attributed to Confucius. But much of the Le Ke is from later hands. Of the Yih, the Shoo, and the She, it is only in the first that we find additions said to be from the philosopher himself, in the shape of appendixes. The Ch'un Ts'ew is the only one of the

VOL. 1.

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five King which can, with an approximation to correctness, The described as of his own “making.

" The four Books” is an abbreviation for "The Books of the four:Philosophers.” The first is the Lun Yu, or “Digested

Conversations, **being occupied chiefly with the sayings of Confucius:: :He is thọ philosopher to whom it belongs. It appears in this Work under the title of “Confucian Analects.' The second is the Ta Höð, or “Great Learning," now commonly attributed to Tsăng Sin, a disciple of the sage. He is the philosopher of it. The third is the Chung Yung, or Doctrine of the Mean,” ascribed to K‘ung Keih, the grandson of Confucius. He is the philosopher of it. The fourth contains the works of Mencius.

3. This arrangement of the Classical Books, which is commonly supposed to have originated with the scholars of the Sung dynasty, is defective. The Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean are both found in the Record of Rites, being the forty-second and thirty-first Books respectively of that compilation, according to the usual arrangement of it.

4. The oldest enumerations of the Classical Books specify only the five King. The Yo Ke, or "Record of Music," the remains of which now form one of the Books in the Le Ke, was sometimes added to those, making with them the six King. A division was also made into nine King, consisting of the Yih, the She, the Shoo, the Chow Le, or “ Ritual of Chow," the E Le, or“ Ceremonial Usages," the Le Ke, and the three annotated editions of the Ch'un Ts'ew, by Tsok'ew Ming, Kung-yang Kaou, and Kuh-lëang Ch‘ih. In the famous compilation of the classical Books, undertaken by order of Tae-tsung, the second emperor of the Tang dynasty (B.C. 627–619), and which appeared in the reign of his successor, there are thirteen King ; viz., the Yih, the She, the Shoo, the three editions of the Ch'un Ts'ew, the Le Ke, the Chow Le, the E Le, the Confucian Analects, the Urh Ya, a sort of ancient dictionary, the Heaou King,

Classic of Filial Piety," and the works of Mencius.

5. A distinction, however, was made, as early as the dynasty of the Western Han, in our first century, among the

Works thus comprehended under the same common name; and Mencius, the Lun Yu, the Ta Hëõ, the Chung Yung, and the Heaou King were spoken of as the seaou King, or

or

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