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commander of the prætorian cohorts, who had the charge of the state prisoners; as appears from the instance of Agrippa, who was taken into custody by Macro, the prætorian prefect who succeeded Sejanus. Josephus Ant. lib. xviii. cap. 7. $ 6.
No. 1332.-ROMANS vi. 13.
Neither yield ye your members as instruments of un
righteousness unto sin.
The word translated instruments signifies arms or weapons. The ancients formerly reckoned arms or weapons the members of soldiers. To this the apostle may allude. (Alex. ab Alex. Genial. Dier. I. i. c. 12.)
No. 1333.—xvi. 23. Gaius my host, and of the whole church.] Dr. Lightfoot (Hor. Hebraic. 1 Cor. xi. 21.) has a peculiar notion concerning the christian agapæ ; that they were a sort of hospitals for the entertainment of strangers in imitation of those which the Jews had adjoining to their synagogues. Gaius, who is called the host of the whole church, he supposes to have been the master of such a hospital; and that Phæbe, who is called the dexovos of the church at Cenchrea, and those other women mentioned Phil. iv. 3. were servants attending these hospitals.
No. 1334.-1 CORINTHIANS iv. 21.
Shall I come to you with a rod, or in love, and in the
spirit of meekness?
Here seems to be an allusion to a practice among the Jews, in punishing a drunkard or gluttonous person ; they first corrected him with words, or with a rod; but if he went on in his sin, then they stoned him. Perhaps the allusion may be to the judges in the Sanhedrim, one of the ensigns of whose office was a rod or staff, to smite with.
Gill, in loc.
No. 1335.-vi. 20. Ye are bought with a price.] This proves that believers belong to the Lord, not only as redeemed by a price, but as espoused to Christ: for one way of obtaining and espousing a wife among the Jews was by a price; and this was an ancient rite in marriage used among other nations. The husband and wife used to buy each other. (Servius in Virgil. Georg. 1. i. 31.)
GILL, in loc.
No. 1336.-viii. 10. For if any man see thee who hast knowledge sit at meat in the idol's temple. ] - Tables were common moveables in idol temples ; and they were used to eat at after the sacrifices were over. The apostle Paul forbids Christians to eat on such occasions and in such places.
No. 1337.-. 16. The cup of blessing.] This cup is so called in allusion to the cup of wine used at common meals, or at the passover among the Jews; which they used to take and bless God with, and give him
thanks for their mercies. It was commonly called the cup of blessing.
· Gill, in loc.
· No. 1338.-+x. 17. For we being many are one bread.) It was a custom anciently among the barbarians to meet together in a friendly manner over one bread. Jamblich.. Vit. Pythag. I lxxxvi. p. 71.,
No. 1339.-X. 25. Whatsoever is sold in the shambles.] The word maxeahoy, rendered shambles, is made use of by Latin writers in the same sense as it is here, for a place where food was sold. The original of the Mame is said to be this. One Macellus, a very wicked and profane man, being condemned to die, a place was built in his house by Æmilius and Fulvius for selling provisions, and from his name it was called macellum. Into these places the priests sent to be sold what was offered to their idols, if they could not dispense with it themselves, or thought it not lawful to make use of it. · Herodotus says, that the Egyptians used to cut off the
heads of their beasts that were sacrificed, and carry them into the market to sell to the Greeks; and if there were no buyers, they cast them into the river.
GILL, in loc.
No. 1340_X. 30. For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks.]
The custom of blessing both what was to be eaten and what was to be drank was transmitted from the syna. gogues to the first christian assemblies. These benedictions are also called thanksgivings or praises; and thus we are to understand these words of the apostle.
PICART's Religious Ceremonies, vol. i. p. 124.
No. 1341.-X. 31. Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.] “ Be
sides prayers, the Jews had likewise benedictions among them, of which every one was obliged to repeat a hundred every day. They said them over their bread and over their wine, when they were at table: and perhaps this is what St. Paul alludes to when he says, whether therefore ye eat,” &c.
LAMY's Apparatus Biblicus, p. 191. .
No. 1342.-xi. 4. Having his head covered.] This had become customary with some of them in public worship, and they did it in imitation either of the heathens who worshipped their deities with their heads covered, except Saturn and Hercules, whose solemnities were celebrated with heads unveiled; or of the Jews,
who used to veil themselves in public worship through , a spirit of bondage and fear.
GILL, in loc.
No. 1343.-xiii. 1. Sounding brass.] One of the most ancient, as well as most celebrated oracles of the pagan world was that at the island of Delos. In early åges, and at the first commencement of these absurd and ridiculous impositions on mankind, they were delivered by the murmuring noise of a fountain, or at the foot of an oak; and also from the oaks themselves. But in succeeding times they made use of the brazen kettle, which utensil the ancient Greek poet Callimachus calls the sounding brass.
These to the Delian god
May not St. Paul allude to these brazen kettles in these
words? Two reasons are given why these brazen kettles are said to be always sounding: one is, that many of them were so curiously arranged round the temple, that: by striking one of them the sound was communicated to all the rest : the other, and the most probable of the two, is, that there were two brazen pillars before the temple of Delos, on one of which was placed a kettle, and on the other a boy holding in his hand a whip with lashes of brass, which being by the violence of the wind struck against the kettle, caused a continual sound. These pillars seem to have a reference to 1 Kings vii. 21.
· GILLINGWATER, MS.
No. 1344.—xiv. 8. Who shall prepare himself to the battle.] The allusion is to the custom of many nations, who, when about to engage in war, made use of musical instruments, particularly the trumpet, to gather the soldiers together, prepare them for the battle, give them notice of it, and animate them to it. (Alex. ab Alex. Genial. Dier. I. iv. c. 2.) The sound of the trumpet was the alarm of war. Jer. iv. 5. There may also be a reference to the two silver trumpets, which the Lord ordered to be made of one piece for the Jews, for the journeying of the camps, and for war. Numbers x. 1. 2.
: GILL, in loc.
No. 1345.---xiv. 16. Say Amen at thy giving of thanks ?] It was usual to say Amen at blessing, or giving of thanks, privately at meals by those who were present. Concerning this practice the Jews have many rules. The apostle here speaks of blessing in public, on which occasion all the people, as with one voice, said Amen. The rule then was, that “the congregation may not answer Amen until the blessing is finished out of the mouth of the priests: and the priests may not