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The agreement between what we are told of Daniel and Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and what is said in the prophecy of the Messiah and his people, is such as naturally leads us to suppose the former a designed type of the latter. Compare Dan. iij. and vi. with Isai. xlviii. 10, and xliii. 2. Ps. xxii. 20, 21, XXXV. 17. Cant. iv. 8.
It is remarkable that it should be so ordered, that so many of the chief women that we read of in the history of the Old Testament, and mothers of so many of the most eminent persons, should for so long a time be barren, and that their conception afterwards of those eminent persons they were the mothers of, should be through God's special mercy and extraordinary providence; as in Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, Manoah's wife, and Hannah. It is reasonable to suppose, that God had something special in view in thus remarkably ordering it in so many instances. Considering this, and also considering the agreement of such an event with several prophetical representations made of the church of God in the Messiah's times, there appears a great deal of reason to suppose the one of these to be designed as a type of the other. Psa. İxviii. 6. “God setteth the solitary in families.” Psa. cxiii. 9. “He maketh the barren woman to keep house and to be a joyful mother of children.” Isai. liv. 1. “Sing, O barren, and thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing and cry aloud; thou that didst not travail with child. For more are the children of the desolate, than the children of the married wife, saith the Lord.”
With respect to some of the principal persons spoken of in the Old Testament, there is this evidence, that they were types of the Messiah, viz: that the Messiah in the prophecies is called by their names. Thus the Messiah is called by the name of Israel. Isai. xlix. 3." And he said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.” And he is often called in the prophecies by the name of David. Hos. iii. 5. “ Afterward shall the children of Israel return and seek the Lord and David their king.” Jer. xxx. 9. “But they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.” Ezek. xxxvi. 24. “ And I the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them.” Chap. xxxvii. 24, 25. “ And David my servant shall be king over them, and they all shall bave one shepherd. They shall also walk in my judgments and observe my statutes and do them; and they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, even they and their children for ever, and my servant David shall be their prince for ever.” Ps. Ixxxix. 20. “ I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him.” Ver. 27. “I will make him my first-born," &c. The Messiah is called by the name of SoVOL. IX.
lomon. Cant. iii. 7. 11, viii. 11, 12. So the Messiah's great forerunner is called by the name of Elijah, Mal. iv. ; which argues that Elijah was a type of him. The Messiah is called by the name of Zerubbabel. Hag. ii. 23. “In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, saith the Lord, and I will make thee a signet: for I have chosen thee, saith the Lord of hosts."
And as the Messiah is called by the proper names of some of the more eminent persons of the Old Testament, so some of them are called by names that it is evident by the prophecies do much more eminently and properly belong to the Messiah. So Joshua is called the shepherd, the stone of Israel ; Gen. xxix. 44; which according to the prophecies, are appellations most properly belonging to the Messiah. So the name Israel, though it was the proper name of Jacob rather than of the Messiah, yet its signification, the prince of God, most properly and eminently belongs to the Messiah, according to the prophecies. So it is with the name of Abram, high father, and Abraham, the father of a multitude. David, beloved, and Solomon, peace or peaceable. God also calls Solomon his son, an appellation which most properly belongs to the Messiah.
There is such a commutation of names between not only persons, but also things, that we have an account of in the histories and prophecies of the Old Testament. Thus the people of the Messiah, though it is plain by the prophecies that they should chiefly be of the Gentiles, yet are very generally called by the name of Jacob and Israel. So the cliurch of the Messiah, though it is plain by the prophecies that they shall dwell all over the world, yet are often called by the name of Jerusalem and Zion. So we read in the prophecies of the Messiah's times of all nations going up from year to year to Jerusalem, to keep the feast of tabernacles, and of their being gathered to together to the mountain of the house of the Lord, which is utterly impossible. Therefore, we must understand only things that were typified by Jerusalem and the mountain of the house of the Lord, God's holy mountain, holy hill, mountain of the height of Israel, &c., and by the feast of tabernacles, and Israel's going up from year to year to keep that feast. So something appertaining to the Messiah's kingdom is called by the name of the altar of the Lord at Jerusalem, and it is represented as though all nations should bring sacrifices and offer them there on that altar. Yet this is utterly inconsistent with what the prophecies themselves do plainly teach of the state and worship of the church of God at that time. So something appertaining to the Messiah's kingdom is called by the names of the temple, and the tabernacle, and of God's throne in the temple, Zech. vi. 13. But it is plain by the prophecies that there should
indeed be no material temple or tabernacle in the kingdom of the Messiah. So we read also, Ezek. xlv. xlvi., of the passover, that grand memorial of the bringing the children of Israel up out of Egypt. But it is evident that there will be no such memorial of that event upheld in the church in the Messiah's times, by Jer. xvi. 14, 15, and chap. xxiii. 7, 8. Certain officers in the church of the Messiah are called priests and Levites, Isai. Ixi. 6, and Jer. xxiii. 18; and yet it is plain by the prophecies that the ceremonial law should be abolished in the Messiah's times. A work of grace that is wrought on the hearts of men is often in the Old Testament called by the name of circumcision; and it is evident by the prophecies ihat this should in a very eminent and distinguishing manner be wrought in the Messiah's times. Something that the Messiah was to be the subject of, is called in the xl. Psalm by the name of boring the ear; as was appointed in the law.concerning the servant that chose his master's service. Something in the prophecies of the Messiah is called by the name of oil and anointing, ihai, it is evident, is not any such outward oil or anointing as was appointed in the ceremonial law. Ps. xlv. 7. Zech. iv. 12–14. Isai. Ixi. 1. Ps. ii. 2. 6, and xx. 6, Ixxxix. 20, with cxxxiii. So we find something of a spiritual nature called in the prophecies by the name of the golden candlestick that was in the tabernacle and temple, Zech. iv. Something is called by the name of that cloud of glory that was above the mercy seat, Zech. vi. 13. Something is called by the name of God's dwelling between the cherubims, Ps. xcix. 1 ; and something in the Messiah's kingdom is called by the name of the precious stones that adorn the temple. Compare Isai. liv. 11, 12, with 1 Chron. xxix. 2, and 2 Chron. iii. 8. The name of the incense and the names of the sweet spices that were used in the incense and anointing oil in the sanctuary, are made use of lo signify spiritual things appertaining to the Messiah and his kingdom, in the book of the Canticles and Ps. xlv. 8; and something spiritual in that prophecy, Ps. xlv., is called needlework, the name of the work of the hangings and garments of the sanctuary. Exod. xxvi. 36, xxvii. 16, xxxvi. 37, xxxviii. 18, xxviii, 39, and xxxix. 29. The garments of the church of the Messiah are spoken of under the same representation as the curtains of the tabernacle and beautiful garments of the high priest. See also Cant. i. 5. Something in the Messiah's kingdom is called by the names of the outward ornaments of the temple, Isai. Ix. 13.
As the people of the Messiah are in the prophecies called by the name of God's people Israel, though they should be chiefly of the Gentiles, so likewise we find the enemies of the Messiah's people called by the names of the chemies of Israel; such as Edom, Moab, the children of Ammon, the Philistincs, &c. And
dence that they were made as types or representations of angels. The church and people of the Messiab are in the prophecies of the Messiah compared to and called a palm-tree, or palm-trees; Cant. vii. 7, 8. Ps. xcii. 12; which is an argument that they were typified by the figures of palm-trees in the tabernacle and temple. Something that should be in the Messialı’s time is represented by what appertained to the manner of God's appearance in the holy of holies. Ps. xcvii. " Clouds and darkness are round about him.” Compare 2 Sam. xxii. 12.
Some of the persons that we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, are expressly spoken of as resembling the Messiah. So Moses, “ A prophet will the Lord thy God raise up unto thee, like unto me,” Deut. xviii. 15. 13. So Melchizedek, Ps. cx. “ Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.” And the account we have, Isai. vii., concerning Shear-jashub, the son of Isaiah the prophet, is equivalent to expressly declaring him to be a type of the Messiah. And Zcrubbabel and Joshua are evidently spoken of as types of the Messiah. Haggai ii. 23. “ In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, I will take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, and make thee as a signet.” Zech. iv. 7. “ Who art thou, O great mountain ? Before Zerubbabcl, thou shalt become a plain ; and he shall bring forth the head-stone thereof with shoutings; crying, Grace, grace unto it.” Ver. 10. “For who hath despised the day of small things ? For they shall rejoice and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel with those seven. They are the
They are the eyes of the Lord," &c. Zech. ii. “ And he showed me Joshua the high priest—and unto him he said--I will clothe thee with change of raiment. And I said, Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee, (for they are men wondered at,) for behold, I will bring forth my servant the Branch.” Zech. vi. 11, 12. “ Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them on the head of Joshua, the son of Josedech the high priest, and speak unto him, Behold, the man whose name is the Branch."
It is an evidence, that some of the more eminent persons that we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, are types of the Messiah, that some of them and the Messiah are plainly spoken of under one. It is plain concerning David in the lxxxix. Psalm, where the name of David is mentioned once and again, and yet the psalm evidently looks beyond David to the Messiah. It is also plain concerning Solomon in the lxxii. Psalm, which the title declares to have respect to Solomon, and yet the matter of the psalm most evidently shows that it has respect to the Messiah ; many things in it being true of the Mes. siah, and peculiar to him, and not true of Solomon.
And here, by the way, I would observe, that to the many evidences that have already been taken notice of, that David and Solomon are types of the Messiah, this may be added, that the Jews themselves looked on them as types of the Messiah. (See Basnage's History of the Jews, page 367.)
Many things occasionally appointed of God, if they signify nothing spiritual, must be wholly insignificant actions, and so wholly impertinent. Such as the setting up a brazen serpent for man to look upon, in order to a being healed. God's appointing the princes of the congregation to dig a well with their staves, to supply the congregations with water, and a public record's being made of it by divine inspiration, and its being celebrated in a song of the people that is also recorded by divine inspiration. Num. xxi. 17, 18. Moses's holding up his hand by divine direction, that Joshua and Israel might prevail over Amalek : Elijah's stretching himself three times upon the widow of Zarephath's son, in order to raise him to life. i Kin. xvii. 21. Elisha's ordering his staff to be laid on the face of the Shunamite's dead child, and afterwards his lying upon the child, and putting his mouth on his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands, and stretching himself on the child, in order to raise it to life. And so many other like actions that God appointed might be mentioned.
But to say something more particularly concerning the ceremonial law. There is abundant evidence even in the Old Testament, that the things that belong to that law are typical of the things of the Messiah.
If the things of the ceremonial law are not typical of moral and spiritual things, they are wholly insignificant and so wholly impertinent and vain. For God does abundantly declare, even in the Old Testament, that he has no delight in them on their own account, and that they are in his esteem worthless and vain in themselves, and therefore it will follow that they must be worthless and vain to all intents and purposes, unless, they are otherwise by the relation they bear to something that God delights in on its own account, i. e. unless they are some way significant of things moral and spiritual. If the things of the ceremonial law were pleasing to God, and were not pleasing on their own account, or by reason of any thing that God saw in them; then it must be on account of something else that they represent and because they some way, stand in stead of them. For instance, when God went out through the land of Egypt to smite the first born, and saw the blood of the paschal lamb on the door posts of an house, it is represented as being something pleaing to God, for the sake of which he would spare the inhabitants of that house. But the Old Testament reveals, that