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wrath of the king of Egypt, when he from time to time went to him with messages that so much provoked him; preserved at the Red sea, in the wilderness and in the midst of that perverse, invidious congregation, and delivered from the strivings of the people. This is agreeable to many things said in the prophecies of the Messiah. Moses was twice delivered out of great waters, when he was designed by his enemies for death; once in his being drawn out of the river, and another time in rising out of the Red sea. This is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's sufferings and death, and his rising from them. Misery, and wrath, and sore affliction, are often in scripture compared to great waters, to waves and billows, and great deeps, and the like; and the Messiah's sufferings in particular, as Ps. Ixix. 143. 14, 15, and his deliverance out of those sufferings is represented as his being delivered out of great waters. Ps. lxix. 14, 15. The region of the dominion of death and destruction is represented as being down under the waters. Job xxv. 5, 6. These deliverances of Moses, therefore, are agreeable to the prophecies of Christ's resurrection. Moses was not only delivered from his troubles and danger, but his deliverances were followed with great exaltation, resembling the exaltation of the Messiah that the prophecies speak of. After he was drawn out of the water, he was exalted in the king's palace, as his son and heir. After his banishment he converses with God in mount Sinai, a resemblance of heaven, and is made king over God's church. In about forty days afier his resurrection out of the Red sea, he ascends up to God in mount Sinai.
The things that are said of the burning bush, do wonderfully agree with the Old Testament representations of the Messiah. It was not a high tree, but a bush ; as the Messiah is called the low tree; Ezek. xvii. 24, and elsewhere, the twig and the tender plant. This bush was a root out of a dry ground; for it was a bush that grew in mount Horeb, which was so called for the remarkable dryness of the place. The word signifies dryness ; there was no spring about the mountain, till Moses there fetched water of the dry rock. It was in a thirsty wilderness, where was wont to be no rain. Therefore the children of Israel in that wilderness were supplied with water only miraculously. Hos. xiii. 5. “I did know thee in the wilderness, in the land of great drought.” See Deut. viii. 15. That bush was the growth of the earth, as the human nature of Christ in the Old Testament is represented to be. Yet it had the divine nature of Christ in it; for this angel of the Lord that is said to appear in the bush, has been proved to be the same with the Messiah from the Old Testament, in my discourse on the prophecies of the Messiah. This angel is said to dwell in this bush, Deut.
xxxiii. 16, the more to represent the divine nature of the Messiah dwelling in the human nature. This bush burnt with fire, agreeably to what the prophecies speak of the sufferings of Christ; great calamity and affliction in the Old Testament are often called fire. This was especially a resemblance of the wrath of God, that is often called fire in the Old Testament, and which the prophecies represent the Messiah as enduring (See fulfilment of prophecies, $ 70.) The bush was preserved from being consumed, though it burnt with fire, agreeably to the prophecies of the preservation and upholding of the Messiah. God's not suffering his holy one to see corruption, &c. The bush emerged alive and fresh out of the fire, agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah's resurrection from the dead, and deliverance from all his sufferings. The angel that dwelt out of that bush, who was the Messiah, comes out of the fire, and appears in the bush, and delivered alive from the flames, to work redemption for his people. See Exod. iii. 8. So the prophecies represent the Messiah rising from the dead, and exalted out of his state of humiliation, to work salvation for his people.
If we consider the remarkable agreement there is between the account Moses gives of the brazen serpent, Num. xxi., and the representation the prophet makes of the Messiah, we shall see good reason to think that the former was intended to be a type of the latter.
Doubtless God's appointing that way for the bealing of those that were bitten with fiery serpents, by making an image of those fiery serpents, and putting it on a pole, had some significancy. It was not wholly an insignificant appointment. There was doubtless some important thing that God aimed at in it. It was not an appointment without any aim or any instruction contained in it, as it seems as though it must be, unless some important spiritual thing was represented and exhibited by it. And whoever considers the remarkable agreement between this appointment and its circumstances, and the things spoken concerning the Messiah, will see reason to conelude, that these are doubtless the things signified and pointed forth by it. That sin, misery, and death that the Messiah is represented as coming to save us from, is represented in the Old Testament as being from a serpent. See Gen. iii. 1-6, and xv. and xx. The Messiah is represented as saving from all hurt by the most poisonous serpents ; Isai. xi. 8, 9, and Ixv. 25. Sin, our spiritual disease, is in the Old Testament compared to the poison of the serpent. Deut. xxxii. 33. Ps. lviii. 4, and cxl. 3. The brazen serpent is called a fiery serpent, Num. xxi. 8; because it was in the image of the fiery serpents. So the prophets represent the Messiah as set forth as a sinner, appearing in the form of sinners, and of a great sinner. Isai.
liii. 6. “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath made the iniquities of us all to meet in him," (for so it is in the Hebrew.) Ver. 9. “ He made his grave with the wicked,” Ver. 12. “He was numbered with the transgressors, and he bare the sin of many." He was treated as the greatest of sioners. The Messiah being set forth in the form of a great sinner, he was, as it were, exhibited in the form of a very venomous serpent, according to the manner of representing things in the Old Testament, for there great sinners are represented as poisonous serpents. Ps. lviii. 3, 4. “ The wicked are estranged from the womb; their poison is like the poison of a serpent ; they are like the deaf adder that stoppeth up her ear." Ps. cxi. 3. “ They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; adders' poison is under their lips." In order to the Israelites being saved from death through the poison of the fiery serpents, the brazen serpent was set up as an ensign to the congregation or army of Israel. For the word translated pole, signifies ensign, which is the much more proper English of the word. This is in exact agreeableness to the prophecies of the Messiah. Isai. xi. 10. " And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign to the people.” Here the word translated ensign, is the very same with that word translated pole in the xxi. of Numb. The brazen serpent was set up as an ensign, that it might be exhibited to public view, and the diseased are called upon to look upon it, or behold it. Thus in the prophecies men are from time to time called upon to behold the Messiah ; Isai. xl. 9.“ O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain ; 0 Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength. Lift it up; be not afraid. Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God.” We may well suppose, that when the brazen serpent was lifted up in the wilderness, there was proclamation made by heralds to that vast congregation, calling upon them to look on that. Isai. Ixv. 1. “ I said, Behold me, behold me, to a nation that was not called by my name." Chap. Ixii. 10, 11. “Lift up a standard for the people. Behold, the Lord hath proclaimed to the end of the world, say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh ; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before himn." Zech. ix. 9–12. “ Rejoice greatly, 0 daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy king cometh unto thee. He is just, and having salvation and he shall speak peace unto the heathen-by the blood of the covenant I will send forth thy prisoners-turn ye to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope." Isai. lii. 7, 8.“ How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth
peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth. Thy watchman shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing ; for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion." The way that the people were saved by the brazen serpent, was by looking to it, beholding it, as seeking and expecting salvation from it: as an ensign saves an army by the soldiers looking on it and keeping it in their view. Agreeably to this, it is said concerning the Messiah, Isai. xi. 10, “ There shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek.” And Isai. xlv. 22.“ Look to me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth.” And faith and trust in the Messiah for salvation is often spoken of in the prophecies as the great condition of salvation through him. The Chaldee paraphrasts looked on the brazen serpent as a type of the Messiah, and gave it the name of the WORD. (Basnage's History of the Jews, page 367.)
The great agreement there is between the history of Joshua and the things said of him in scripture, and the things said of the Messiah in the Old Testament, strongly argues Joshua to be a type of the Messiah. There is a great agreement between the names by which he is called in scripture and the names and things attributed to the Messiah in the Old Testament. His first name was Oshea, Num. xiii. 8—16, which signifies Saviour. So the Messiah is called by the same name, a Saviour, Isai. xix. 20. “ He shall send them a saviour and a great one. The word is of the same root with Oshea. So again the Messiah is called a saviour, Isai. xliii. 3. 11. Hosea xiii. 4. 9, 10. Obad. 21, and other places. So he is called Salvation, Isai. Ixii. 11. “Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him.” And this name is agreeable to what is abundantly spoken of in the prophets, as the great work and office of the Messiah, which is to be a Saviour and Redeemer, and to work out the greatest and most eminent salvation for God's people that ever was or will be; that which is therefore often called the Salvation. This name Oshea was by Moses changed into Jehoshua. Num. xiii. 16. “ And Moses called Oshea, the son Nun, Jehoshua, i. e. the Lord the Saviour, or Jehovah our Saviour; which makes his name still more agreeable to the name and nature of the Messiah. And it is difficult to assign any other reason why Moses thus changed his name by the direction of the Spirit of God, but that it might be so. This is agreeable to those names by which the Messiah is called in the prophets Immanuel, God with us, and Jehovah our Righteousness. So Joshua is called the Shepherd, the stone of Israel ; Gen. xlix. 24 ; agreeably to names by which the Messiah is often called in
the prophets. Joshua's name being the same with the Messiah's, and agreeable to his office, make it the more probable that it was that he might be a type of the Messiah ; because it was frequently God's manner to presignify future things by the signification of names; as is evident in many instances. Joshua was God's elect; he was called to his office and exalted to his high dignity by God's election and special designation, agreeably to what is said of the Messiah in the prophets. He resembled the Messiah in things spoken of him by the prophets in many things wherein Moses did so; particularly in near access to God in mount Sinai and in the tabernacle. Exod. xxxiii. 11, and xxiv. 13, and xxxii. 17. Joshua was a man in whom was the Spirit in an eminent manner. Num. xxvii. 18. “ Take thee Joshua, the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit ;” agreeably to what is often said of the Messiah in the prophets. It is said of Joshua that he was full of the spirit of wisdom. Deut. xxxiv. 9; agreeably to many prophecies of the Messiah. Joshua was both a king and a prophet. See Num. xxvii. 18, and Deut. xxxiv. 9, and Joshua the two last chapters. Herein he is like the Messiah. Joshua was the captain of the host of Israel, that fought their battles for them, and subdued their enemies, though many and mighty. He was their captain in their war with Amalek, and as we may suppose, the other enemies of Israel that they encountered in the wilderness; and he conquered the numerous and mighty enemies in Canaan; agreeably to what is represented of the Messiah every where by the prophets. He came up out of the Jordan when it was swelled with a great flood into Canaan ; as the Messiah is spoken of by the prophets as coming up out of great affliction, terrible sufferings and death, into heaven, a land of rest and great delight. Great sufferings are in the Old Testament represented by the swelling of the Jordan. Jer. xij. 5. Joshua brought the children of Israel out of the wilderness and out of Bashan, and out of great waters into Canaan, a laud of rest flowing with milk and honey, agreeably to Psalm lxviii. 22. “The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan, I will bring my people again from the depths of the sea :" and Isaiah xi. 10. "There shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people, and his rest shall be glorious.” Hosea ii. 14, 15. "I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness and speak comfortably to her, and I will give her her vineyard from thence, and the valley of Achor for a door of hope, and she shall sing there, as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt :” and agreeably to many prophecies that represent the salvation of the Messiah as a bringing of God's people into a state of liberty, rest, and joy, in Canaan, out of a state of bondage and great affliction in foreign lands,