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by the prophets, Ps. Ixviii. 30, “Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till every one submits himself with pieces of silver.” Zech. xiv. 14. " And Judab also shall fight at Jerusalem, and the wealth of the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel in great abundance.” Isai. Ix. 5, 6. 9, 10. 13. 16, 17, and chap. lxi. 6, which was fulfilled in the days of Constantine the Great, and will be more gloriously fulfilled at the fall of Antichrist. Thus the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just, and Christ shall bave a portion divided to him with the great, and shall divide the spoil with the strong.

It is to be noted that the tabernacle in the wilderness was made of these spoils the children of Israel took from the Egyptians. It was made of those jewels of silver, and gold, and raiment ; so all the utensils and holy vessels of the tabernacle, the ark, and the mercy-seat, and the cherubim, and the candlestick, and table of shew-bread, and altar of incense and laver, and his seat, and also the priests' vestments, the twelve precious stones of the breastplate, as afterwards the temple, was built chiefly of these vast treasures that David took from his enemies, whereby is signified several things.

1. That God's church, that in scripture is represented as Christ's house or temple, and as his raiment and ornament, and as a golden candlestick, &c., is wholly constituted of those saints that are his jewels, that are the spoils of his enemies, that were once his cnemies' possession, but that he has redeemed out of their hands. Those precious gems that are near his heart, and are as it were his breast-plate.

2. That Christ himself, that is the antitype of the tabernacle and temple, and especially of the ark and the altar, is one that has been rescued out of Satan's hands, and comes to be an ark and altar, no other ways than by his resurrection and ascension, whereby he was delivered from captivity to Satan.

3. Hereby is signified that the church of Christ, when it shall be fully redeemed from the tyranny of Rome, that is spiritually called Egypt, shall be adorned and beautified with the wealth of her enemies; that vast wealth that has hitherto been improved to gratify the avarice and pride of the church's enemies, shall then be improved to holy purposes, to build up the church of Christ, to beautify the place of God's sanctuary, and to make the place of bis feet glorious, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honour into the church. Thus Satan shall be spoiled of his wealth and glory, and that which used to be improved in his service, shall be taken from him, and shall be improved in the service of Christ, so that what he hath swallowed down he shall yomit up again.

[463] Exod. xiii. 2. Concerning the pillar of cloud and fire, or the cloud of glory. This pillar of cloud and fire, and also the cloud of glory on mount Sinai, and in the tabernacle and temple, was a type of Christ in the human nature. The cloud was a fit representation of the human nature, being in itself a dark body, a vapour, a weak light thing, easily driven hither and thither by every wind, or the least breath of air, while it continues, is a most mutable thing, sometimes bigger, and sometimes less, constantly changing its form, puts on a thousand shapes, and it quickly vanishes away, is easily dispersed and brought to nought; a little change in the air destroys it, a little cold condenses it, and causes it to fall and sink into the earth. See 2 Sam. xiv. 14. A little increase of heat rarifies and causes it wholly to disappear. A cloud is a most fit representation of the human nature of Christ, because it is derived from the earth, but yet is an heavenly thing.

The bright, glorious, and inimitable fire or light that was in the midst of the cloud, represented the divine nature united to the human. The cloud was as it were a veil to this fire, as Christ's flesh was a vest to the glory of the divinity. When Christ took the human nature upon him he vailed his glory, the bright and strong light of the glory within, which otherwise would have been too strong for the feeble sight and frail eyes of men, was moderated, and as it were allayed and softened, to make it tolerable for mortals to behold. Thus the glory of God is exhibited in such manner in our incarnate Saviour, so as it were to moderate, soften, and sweeten the rays of divine glory, to give us a greater advantage for free access to God, and the full enjoyment of him.

[456] Another thing signified by God's glorious appearing in a cloud, was probably the mysteriousness of the divine essence and subsistence, and of the person of Christ, and of the divine operations. Thus it is said, Ps. xcvii. 2, “ Clouds and darkness are round about him, righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne.” 1 Kings viii. 12. ^ The Lord said that he would dwell in the thick darkness.” P's. xviij. 11. “ He made darkness his secret place. His pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies." Prov. xxx. 4. “ What is his name, and what is his Son's name, if thou canst tell?” Isai. ix. 6. “ His name shall be called Wonderful.” Judg. xi. 18. “Why asketh thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret?" God's nature is unsearchable, 'tis high as heaven; what can we do? 'Tis deeper than hell; what can we know? His judgments are a great deep, which we cannot fathom, and a cloud that we cannot see through; we cannot order our speech by reason of darkness." Job xxxvii. 19. In the cloud of glory there was an excellent

lustre, but it was vailed with a cloud; there was a darting forth of glorious light, and an inimitable brightness. But if any overcurious eye pried into it, it would find it just lost in a cloud. God clothes himself with light as with a garment, but yet he makes darkness his pavilion. Thus the blessed and only potentate dwells in the light which no man can approach unto, and is he whom no eye hath seen ror can see, 1 Tim. vi. 16.

[130] Exod. xv. 25, 26. “ And the Lord showed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet,” &c. “I am the Lord that healeth thee." This tree is the tree of life, and signified Jesus Christ; it signifies God himself, and the waters are God's people, as it is here explained in the 26th verse; the trees being cut down, represented the death of Christ, and being cast into the water, his uniting himself to his people by coming down from heaven, by taking our nature, and by his Spirit.

[172] Exod. xv. 27. “And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm-trees; and they encamped there by the waters.” These twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm-trees, are a representation of the church. The twelve wells of water answer to the twelve tribes, twelve patriarchs, twelve heads of the tribes, and twelve apostles. They signify the church itself, and then they answer to the twelve tribes. The church is compared to a fountain or spring of water, Cant. iv. 12. The hearts of believers are like wells of living water, the water being the grace of the Spirit. Or they signify the ministry of the church, and so they answer to the twelve patriarchs, and twelve apostles; the twelve patriarchs were the fathers and fountains of Israel, according to the flesh; and the twelve apostles, and gospel ministers, are the fathers of Israel, spiritually. Through the twelve apostles, Christ delivered his pure doctrine to the world, as through so many fountains of pure water, and through gospel ministers in general, Christ communicates the living water of his Spirit to the church, as through so many springs, or pipes, or conveyancers, Zech. iv. 12. The twelve fountains signify Christ himself; he is represented by twelve fountains, as the Holy Ghost is represented by seven lamps, Rev. iv. And he is called twelve wells, according to the number of the instruments by which he communicates himself. However, in which sense soever we take it, the water represents the Holy Spirit. Christ communicates himself to his church only by his Spirit; he dwells in their hearts by his Spirit, the ministers of the gospel are instruments of the conveyance of the Spirit, the hearts of particular believers are fountains of living waier, that is of the Spirit.

The seventy palm-trees signify the church, which is compared to a palm-tree, Cant. vii. 7,8. Deborah, the type of the church, dwells under the palm tree. Believers are compared to palm trees, 1 Kings, vi. 29. “And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubims, and palmtrees, and open flowers, within and without;" which represented saints and angels; the number seventy answers to the seventy elders which were representatives of the whole congregation of Israel, and are called the congregation ; Numb. xxxii. 12, Josh. XX. 6; or church, which is a word of the same signification.

It is probable the palm-trees grew so about these twelve fountains, that their roots were watered and received nourishment from them.

[59] Exod xvi. 19, 20. “Let no man leave of it till the morning,” &c. Hereby perhaps we are designed to be taught our absolute dependence every day upon God, for the supplies of his grace and spiritual food. We not only depend on him for the first conversion of the soul, but daily depend on him for grace afterwards. This manna must be given us every day, or we should be without food. We are taught not to rest in and live upon past attainments, but to be continually looking to God, and by faith fetching from him fresh supplies. We must not lay up in store the grace of this day for to-morrow, to save us the trouble of seeking and gathering more. We never have any to spare; hereby we shall make a righteousness of what we receive and do ; and when we make that use of it, it is like manna that breeds worms and stinks.

[473] Exod. xvii. 9. “I will stand on the top of the hill, with the rod of God in my hand.” Moses's rod, as has elsewhere been observed, signifies three things, each of which it signifies in this case. 1. It signifies Faith, by which God's people overcome their enemies : "for this is the victory that overcomes even our faith."

Mr. Henry says this rod was held up to God by way of ap. peal to him.

Is not the battle the Lord's ? Is not he able to help, and engaged to help? Witness this rod, the voice of which thus held up was that of Isaiah li. 9, 10. Put on thy strength, O arm of the Lord; Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab?

2. It represents the word of God, the rod of his strength, which is the weapon by which Christ, the antitype of Moses, overcomes his church's enemies. This is the sword which proceeds out of his mouth.

3. Christ himself lifted up as the banner of his militant church. Christ is prophecied of in Isai. xi. as a Rod, "a rod out of the stem of Jesse;" and in the same place it is said, " He sball stand for an ensign of the people, and their ensign as an army brought out of Egypt, and fighting and conquering their enemies; the children of Edom, in particular, are mentioned, ver. 1-10, 11, 12. 14, 15, 16. This ensign and banner is Jehovah-Nissi, Jehovah our banner, agreeable to the name of the altar Moses built on this occasion, ver. 15. Moses stood on the top of an hill, and there lift up tbis ensign, the wonderworking rod, which had brought such plagues on their enemies, and such marvellous deliverance for them before, that the people at the sight of it might be animated in the battle. Christ himself, when he was lifted up on the cross, that he might draw all men to him, was lifted up on an hill. He stood and cried on the top of an hill, even the mountain of the temple at the feast of tabernacles. God hath exalted him to heaven, set him on his holy hill of Zion; hath caused him to ascend an high hill, as the hill of Bashan; hath set this rod in the mountain of the height of Israel, and from thence his glory is manifested to gather men to him, and to animate his church to fight his battles. From thence his glory was manifested on the day of Pentecost after his ascension, and from thence it will be manifested to his church, when they shall go forth to their victory over Antichrist and all their enemies. He will shine forth on that mountain of the house of the Lord, from behind the veil, from between the cherubim; and all flesh shall behold it, and so all nations shall flow together to the mountain of the Lord-shall be gathered to this ensign; and then shall that be fulfilled in Isai. xi. 10. "At that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek”; ver. 12; “ And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah, from the four corners of the earth."

[205] Exod. xvii. 15. " And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-Nissi," (i.e. The Lord my banner.) Altars were types of Christ, and therefore were sometimes called by the name of God, as Jacob called the altar he built in Bethel, El Bethel, or the God of Bethel. The special reason of Moses's calling this altar, that he built on occasion of their victory over Amalek, the Lord my Banner, was that Christ in that battle was in a special type represented as the banner of his people, under which they fought against their enemies, to which they should look, and by which they should be conducted VOL. IX.

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