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ing of death on Adam, as in the verse immediately foregoing, “till thou return to the ground, for dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return;" while Adam is under the terror of this sentence of death, he comforts bimself with the promise of life couched in what God had said to the serpent. Adam gave Eve a new name on this occasion, from that new thing that appeared concerning her after the fall : as she had her first name from the manner of her creation, so she had her new name given her from Christ's redemption, and Adam gave her her name from that which comforted him, with respect to the curse that God had pronounced on him and the earth; as Lamech named Noah, Gen. v. 29. “ And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work, and the toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord bath cursed.”

It was a common thing for the progenitors of Christ to have names given them from something that had respect to bim or his redemption, or some of his benefits : so were Seth, and Noah, and Abraham, and Sarah, and Israel, and Judah, and others named.

And besides, we have no parallel place in the Bible to justify our understanding this expression, living, of all mankind that shall hereafter live upon the earth, or including them with those that are now living.

[399] Gen. iii. 20. There are also these further arguments to confirm that Adam does not give his wife the name of Eve, which signifies Life, because she was the mother of all mankind, but because she was the mother of Christ, and of his living seed, who are the seed of the woman of whom God had just spoken. 1 st. This name is exceedingly proper and suitable to signify the latter, because, “ in Adam all die, but in Christ shall all be made alive; by man came death, so by man also came the resurrection of the dead;" “ the second Adam is made a quickening Spirit;" “ in him was life, and he is the life." All mankind by the first Adam are in a state of death, dead in trespasses and sins, but Christ is the bread of life, of which he that eats should live for ever; and he is thus the fountain of life to the children of men, by bruising the head of the serpent, or destroying him that has the power of death, even the devil; which God had just before promised should be by the Seed of Isha, the name that Adam gave his wife at first.

2. It is not likely that Adam would give this name, viz. Living One, as a distinguishing name for mankind, to distinguish them from other creatures; for the same name is, from time to time in the preceding chapters, given to other creatures, as chap. i. 21. 24. 28, and chap. ii

. 19, where the word is radically the same ; and so afterwards the name is often given to other animals, chap.

vi. 19, vii. 4. 23, viii. 1, and in many other passages of scripture. And especially it is unlikely that he would give this as a distinguisbing name to mankind immediately upon man's fall, whereby he was ruined, and bad brought that threatening on himself, in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die ; and immediately after he had been told by God that he was dead, (i. e. in effect so,) dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return. Adam could not mean by the phrase all living, what indeed we sometimes use that expression to signify, viz. mankind; but yet we do not intend by it, all that have had, and now have, the human nature, as though life was a distinguishing property of that nature, but we merely mean by it those that are now alive, to distinguish them from those that are dead, or are not yet born. And it is exceeding unlikely that Adam would now first find out this name to distinguish mankind, even those that yet had no life or being, as though life was a distinguishing property and dignity of human nature, on the occasion of so great, awful, and affecting an event, as the first entrance of any such thing as death into the world, to waste, and destroy, and make fearful havock of all mankind, all Eve's posterity, and that originally by her means. If Adam had meant by all living, all mankind that then had a being in this world, the name was very improper for her; for he that was living of mankind was the only person of all mankind that she was not the mother of: he was rather the father of her. But in the other sense it is true, Eve was the mother of all living universally, of every living one, as it is in the original. There is not one that has spiritual and eternal life of all mankind, who in this sense is excepted, not Adam, nor Christ, no, nor herself, for in this sense, as she was the mother of Christ, she was her own mother.

3. It is remarkable that Adam had before given his wise another name, viz. Isha, when she was first created and brought to him; but now, that on the occasion of the fall, and what God had said upon it, he changes her name, and gives her a new name, viz. Life, because she was to be the mother of every one that has life; which would be exceeding strange and unaccountable if all that he meant was, that she was to be the mother of mankind. If that was all that he intended, it would have been much more likely to be given to her at first, when God gave them that blessing, viz. “ Be fruitful and multiply,” by virtue of which she became the mother of mankind; and when mankind was bitherto in a state of life, and death had not yet entered into the world. But that Adam should not give her this name then, but call her Isha, and then, after that, change her name, and call her name Life, immediately upon their losing their life and glory, and coming under a sentence of death, with all their posterity, and the awful, melancholy shadow and darkness which death has brought on the whole

world, occasioned by Eve's folly, is altogether unaccountable, if he had only meant, that she was the mother of mankind.

4. That Adam should change her name, and call her name Life, after he had given her another name, doubtless was from something new that appeared, that was very remarkable concerning Eve; and doubtless we have an account of what that remarkable thing was. The scriptural history is not so imperfect as to give us an account of such an event as a person's name being changed, without mentioning the occasion of that change. We have several times elsewhere an account of the change of persons' names in scripture, but always have an account of the reason why, but we have no account of any thing new concerning Eve, that could give Adam occasion thus to change her name, and call her Life, but only what God said concerning her and her seed after her fall. We have an account of this change of her name immediately upon it, and therefore must understand that as the occasion of it. This was an exceeding proper occasion for such a name, and it is natural to suppose that Adam's mind might now be so affected by the curse of death just pronunced by God, and the promise of life by Eve, as to induce him to change her name from Isha to Life.

It is most probable, that Adam would give Eve her name from that which was her greatest honour, since it is evident that he had respect to her honour in giving her this name. The name itself, Life, is honourable ; and that which he mentions concerning her being the mother of every living one, is doubtless something he had respect to as honourable to her. Since he changed her name from regard to her honour, it is most likely he would signify in it that which was her peculiar honour; but that was the most honourable of any thing, that had ever happened, or that ever would happen concerning her—that God said that she should be the mother of that SEED, that should bruise the Serpent's head. This was the greatest honour that God had conferred on her; and we find persons' names changed elsewhere to signify something that is their peculiar honour, as the new names of Abraham, Sarah, and Israel.

6. All new names, of which we have an account in scripture, as given prophetically, are given with respect to some great privilege persons have by some special relation to Christ, or interest in him, and his redemption. So Abraham's and Sarah's new names were given them of God, on occasion of the promise made to them, that in their seed all the families of the earth should be blessed; and Jacob's new name of Israel is given because as a prince he had prevailed with Christ in wrestling with him, and had obtained the confirmation of Abraham and Isaac's blessing to him and his sced, when he and his posterity were in danger of being cut off by Esau.

[466] Gen. iii. 20.“ And Adam called his wife's name Eve, because she is the mother of all living.” To suppose the living here to mean those that are restored to spiritual life, and shall be saved from death, and have everlasting lise, is agreeable to the denomination the apostle gives true Christians, 2 Cor. iv. 11. Os gwires, the living, or the livers ; and again chap. v. 15.

[82] Gen. iv. 1. And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the Lord.” In Eve's expressing herself thus, it is probable she had an eye to what God said, that her seed should bruise the Serpent's head: and now seeing she had a son, her faith and hope was strengthened that the promise should be fulfilled.

[453] Gen. iv. 3, 4. Cain's and Abel's Sacrifice. Abel when he comes before God is sensible of his own upworthiness and sinfulness like the publican, and so is sensible of his need of an atonement, and therefore comes with bloody sacrifices, hereby testifying his faith in the promised great Sacrifice.

Cain comes with his own righteousness like the pharisee, who put God in mind that he paid tythes of all that he possessed. He comes without any propitiation, with the fruit of his ground, and produce of his own labours, as though he could add something to the Most High, by gifts of his own substance; and therefore he was interested in no atonement, for he was not sensible of his need of any, nor did he trust in any, and so being a sinner, and not having perfectly kept God's commandments, sin lay at his door unremoved, and so his offering could not be accepted, for guilt remained to binder. This reason God intimates, why his offering was not accepted, in what he says to him, verse 7th, “ Ifthou doest well-if thou keepest my commandments, thou and thine offerings shall be accepted, but seeing thou doest not well, as thine own conscience witnesses that in many things thou hast offended, the guilt of sin remains to binder thy being accepted without an atonement, thy righteousness cannot be accepted, whatever offering thou mayest bring to me. See Bp. Sherlock's Use and Intent of Prophesy, p. 74, 75, and Owen on Heb. xi. 4, p. 18.

[344] Gen. iv. 7. “If thou doest well, shalt not thou be accepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door.” Cain was not accepted in his offering, because he did not well-Because, 1. He was a wicked man, led an ill lise under the reigning power of the world and the flesh, and therefore his sacrifice was an abomination to the Lord, Prov. xv. 8, a vain oblation Isai. i. 13. God had no respect to Cain himself, and therefore no respect to his offering, as the manner of the expression (v. 5.) intiVOL. IX.

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mates. But Abel was a righteous man: he is called righteous Abel, Mati. xxiii. 35. His heart was upright, and his life was pious; he was one of those whom God's countenance beholds, Ps. xi. 7, and whose prayer is therefore his delight, Prov. xv. 6. God had respect to him as a holy man, and therefore to bis offering as a holy offering. The tree must be good, else the fruit cannot be pleasing to the heart-searching God.

2. There was a difference in the offerings they brought. It is expressly said, Heb. xi. 4, Abel's was a more excellent sacrifice than Cain's : either, 1. In the nature of it. Cain's was only a sacrifice of acknowledgment offered to the Creator; the meat offer. ings of the first of the ground were no more, and for ought I knor might have been offered in innocency. But Abel brought a sacrifice of atonement, the blood whereof was shed in order to remission, thereby owning himself a sinner, deprecating God's wrath, and imploring his favour in a Mediator: or, 2. In the qualities of the offering. Cain bronght of the fruit of the ground, any thing that cane next to hand, what he had not occasion for himself, or was not more charitable. But Abel was curious in the choice of bis offering, not the lame or the lean, or the refuse, but the firstling of the flock, the best he had, and the fat thereof, the best of those best. 3. The great difference was this, that Abel offered in faith, and Cain did not—"Abel was a penitent, like the publican that went away justified ; Cain was unhumbled, and his confidence was in himself, like the pharisee who glorified himself, but he was not so much justified before God.”

Henry on verses 3, 4, 5.

[“ If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door.''] Not at Cain's door, but at God's door. His wicked doings lay, as it were, at the door of God's temple, to prevent his admittance and acceptance with God: they stood as a partition wall between God and bim. Wicked men's sins are a cloud which their prayers cannot pass through, and which hiuders their offerings from being brought into the holy place : they are a thick veil before the door of the holiest of all, to hinder their access to God. 1 John iii. 21, 22. “ Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then bave we confidence towards God, and whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight.”

[51] Gen. iv. 14. It seems to me no way improbable that Cain's house was intended, and by him understood, not only of him personally, but of his posterity. Such he might learn from his father Adam, seeing the covenant that was made with him was made not only for himself, but for his posterity. If Cain understood it only of himself personally, it seems somewhat strange that he should express himself after such a manner. The inhabited

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