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Either it must be that thing that it is said to be in reality, or by representation of the reality, or not at all. We have often in the law of Moses this expression used with regard to the sacrifices, The priest shall make an atonement for him. Now one of these two meanings must be put upon the words, either that he shall make a real proper atonement, or that he shall make an atonement figuratively or significantly. It is either a true atonement or a seeming atonement: otherwise it could not be an atonement in any sense, nor would it be so called by God. If there be such a thing as a real atonement for sin, and the legal sacrifices be not a real atonement for sin, yet are appointed and accepted as an atonement, then they are appointed and accepted instead of an atonement, for that is the same thing. So that it is evident, that God appointed the legal sacrifices to stand in stead of, or to represent the real atonement. If a man be appointed to stand for another that is absent, and be accepted for an absent friend, then he is his representative. When the prophet called the arrow that the king of Israel shot out of his window, the arrow of the Lord's deliverance, nothing else could be meant, but that it was a sign of the arrow of the Lord's deliverance. So when the man that interpreted his fellow's dream, said of the barley cake, “this is the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash ;" he could mean nothing else, but that this signified the sword of Gideon. So when Joseph said “ The seven lean kine are seven years of samine.” And so in innumerable other instances that might be mentioned. It is evident from what has been already observed, that here are certain resemblances and shadows of sacrifices, and substitutions in suffering for sinners, and atonements for sin : and it is manifest that it was out of regard to this resemblance there was in the shadow of the atonement, that the shadow was appointed. God himself has decided it by calling the shadow by the name of the substance, and by declaring that he appointed the shadow, that it might be for the substance, which he has done in declaring that he appointed it, that it might be for an atonement, i. e. instead of the real atonement, which is the substance.
These shadows of atonement are not merely called by the name of an atonement, but they are spoken of from time to time as beiog an atonement, and are said to be appointed, that they might be an atonement. Now what other way there is of being an atonement, but either being so really, or being so in figure, and significance, I know not.
The incense appointed in the law had a sweet smell, and was acceptable to the senses, and so had a shadow of that which was acceptable to God and a sweet savour to him. And seeing that it is expressly declared by God in the law, that he appoints this incense for a sweet savour to him, this demonstrates that God
in the appointment has respect to that resemblance, that it is appointed to be a standing representation of a true sweet savour to him. Sweet smell is appointed, because it resembles what is truly acceptable to God. When external whiteness and purity, that is a shadow of true purity in the sight of God, is called by the name of true purity; and is declared to be appointed that it might be for purity in the sight of God; this demonstrates that it is appointed to be a standing representation of true purity. So, likewise when the shadows of sufferings for singers, and atonements for sin are called by the name of real sufferings for sinners, and atonements for sin, and are said from time to time, to be atonements for sin, and to be appointed that they might be for atonements for sin: it demonstrates clearly, that these shadows of atonement are appointed out of respect to the resemblance they have to the real atonement, and that they might be instead of it, and standing representations of it; or which is the same thing that they might be types of it. God appointed the suffering of the creature, rather than the feeding or fatting of it, for the making atonement, because the suffering of the creature has a greater resemblance of that suffering that makes a real atonement for sin. God in thus calling these shadows from time to time by the name of the things resembled, and speaking of them from time to time as being the things resembled, does thereiv plainly put them in their stead, and does make use of them as representations of them; as if any should on design call one by another's name, that was not his own name, and ordinarily speak of him and treat him as being that other, this would be the same thing as to substitute bim for the other, and to make use of him as the other's representative.
It is an argument that the sacrifices were types of the Messiah, that when Manoah offered sacrifice by God's appointment, he that is called the "angel of the Lord," and who was the Lord, ascended in the frame of the sacrifice, Judg. xiii. 20. And so did, as it were, offer up himself in the flame of the sacrifice, intimating that he was the great sacrifice, that was the antitype of those sacrifices of beasts. The beasts that were sacrificed to God, ascended up in the fame before God for a sweet savour. So the matter is represented in the Old Testament. But here we see, that when the sacrifice was ascending in the flame, the angel of the Lord ascends in the same, to show that that was the end of the sacrificing fire, viz., to cause bim to ascend as a sweet savour unto God.
Again there is clear proof, that the legal sacrifices were types of the great sacrifice of the Messiah in Dan. ix. 24. “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, lo finish the transgression and to make an end of sios, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the
Most Holy;" taken together with ver. 27. “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week, and in the midst of the week shall he cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease.” What is translated in ver. 24, “And to make an end of sins,” might have been translated, “He shall seal up the sin offerings.” The word translated sins in the original is Chattaoth, the very same word that is made use of in the law of Moses, to signify sin-offerings. So that the word might as well be translated sin-offerings here as there. And it is the more likely, that sin-offerings should be meant here, because the word is in the plural number; whereas if what was intended was the same with iniquity in the clause preceding, and transgression in the clause following, thus varying the expression for eloquence sake, it would be more likely this word would have been in the singular number as those are. And besides, it is the more likely that the word signifies sin-offerings, because it is evident that this text is a prophecy of the sacrifice that the Messiah should offer for sin. In the next words it is said, “He shall make reconciliation for iniquity.” The word rendered reconciliation (as has been already observed) signifies expiation by sacrifice; it being the same that is so often rendered atonement in the law of Moses, when speaking of sacrifices for sin. But what argues yet more strongly that this should have been translated, he shall make an end, or seal up, sin-offerings, is, that in the 24th verse there seems to be a reference to what had been said before in this verse, when it is said, In the midst of the week, or in the half of the week, he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease. In the 24th verse it had been said, that the sacrifices or sip-offerings should be made an end of or sealed up
seventy weeks; and the 25th 26th and 27th verses are evidently exegetical of that 24th, to explain how the anointed Holy One or Messiah should make atonement for iniquity, and seal up the sin-offering and sacrifices in seventy weeks, viz., from the commandment to build Jerusalem there should be seven weeks and threescore and two weeks, that is 69 weeks, and then in the remaining week he should establish the covenant with many, and in the half of the week be should make the sacrifice and oblation to cease, or make an end of the sin-offerings, as was said before. Now let us mind the expression; the word translated make an end, in the original is he shall seal up. “He shall seal up the sin-offerings.” It is the very same word that is used in the following clause concerning vision and prophecy. “He shall seal up the vision and prophecy.” The same word being thus used twice in like manner, in different clauses of the same sentence, once concerning the vision and prophecy, and the other time concerning the sin-offering, there is all reason to understand it in both places in the same selise. But the plain meaning of that clause, lo seal up the vision
and prophecy, is this; then shall be accomplished the grand event so often exhibited by the prophecies of the prophets, and so often represented and signified by the visions which they saw, and so the vision and prophecy shall be finished and brought to their grand accomplishment; that which they ultimately aimed at. Then shall be fulfilled the sum of what was signified in the vision and prophecy. (Ezek. xxviii. 12. “ Thou sealest up the sum full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.") So when in the same sentence it is said, to seal up the sin-offerings, and make atonement for iniquity, we must in a like sense understand it thus, to offer that grand sacrifice or atonement for iniquity, that is so much exhibited and represented by the sin-offerings. So that the sin-offerings shall be made to cease, their design being obtained and finished, that grand event, that great and true atonement for sin, which was aimed at in them, and which they all signified and represented, being now accomplished.
Again it is evident, that the priests of old, in their office of offering sacrifices, were types of the Messiah in offering his sacrifice: otherwise there is no truth in that prophecy that God declares in so solemn a manner, and confirms with an oath, in Jer. xxxiii. 18. “Neither shall the priests, the Levites, want a man before me to offer burnt offerings, and to kindle meat offerings, and to do sacrifice continually." See how solemnly this is confirmed and sworn to, in the following words. Unless this be fulfilled in the true sacrifice or atonement, which the Messiah offers, and in the accomplishment of that prophecy of the Messiah, Psa. cx. “The Lord hath sworn and will not repent, thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedeck;" it is not fulfilled at all; and is neither agreeable to fact nor to other prophecies. Unless this prophecy be fulfilled thus, it is not agreeable to fact. For the priests and Levites have had no man literally to offer sacrifices literally, for a much longer time than ever they had a man to offer sacrifices. And it is not agreeable to other prophecies, particularly that fore-mentioned, Dan. ix. 24. 27. That speaks of the Messiah's causing the sacrifice and oblation to cease; and sealing them up, which is directly contrary to this prophecy of Jeremiah xxxiii. if this latter be understood literally. For this very prophecy of Jeremiah is evidently a prophecy of the Messiah. See ver. 15. “I will cause the branch of righteousness to grow up to David.” So that upon this supposition Jeremiah foretells the Messiah's abundantly confirming the priests and Levites in their business of offering sacrifice and oblation, so as to perpetuate it for ever; and Daniel foretells his finishing the business wholly, sealing it up and making it to cease. And it is elsewhere foretold that there should be no temple made with hands, no ark, no sacrifices of beasts, in the Messiah's times.
From wbat bas been now.observed of the prophecies foretelling that the Messiah should abolish the legal sacrifices, it is manifest that whenever the prophecies of the Messiah's times do speak of sacrifices then to be offered, they are to be understood mystically, i. e. of spiritual things typified by the sacrifices, as Isai. xix. 21, Ix. 7. Ezek. xx. 40, 41. Mal. i. U.
The blood of the legal sacrifices is called the blood of the covenant by Moses, Exod. xxiv. 8. “And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words." But God calls the blood of the Messiah the blood of the covenant that he had made with his people, or the blood of their covenant.
Zech. ix. 11. “ As for thee also, by the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein there is no water.” It is evident that the blood of the Messiah is that blood by which the church will be redeemed, when the Messiah comes, which is the time here spoken of. See ver. 9, foregogoing, “ Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem : behold, thy King cometh,” &c. Therefore, as both these, viz., the blood of the legal sacrifices, and the blood of the Messiah, are called the blood of the church's covenant, it is manifest that one is represented by the other. The same sacrifice must be intended in that prophecy of the Messiah's times, Ps. I. 5. “Gather my saints together, those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." Thus plain it is that the legal sacrifices were types of the Messiah, the great sacrifice and true atonement for sin, and were appointed as such.
And by some things that have been already observed, it is also manifest that their legal purifications were types of that spiritual purity that should be by the Messiah, and the sweet incense a type of that which is spiritual and truly sweet to God. And concerning the incense, I further observe, that spiritual things are expressly compared to it in the Old Testament, Ps. cxli. 2. “Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice." And the Messiah is expressly compared to a cloud of incense ; Cant. iii. 6.
White and beautiful garments were appointed the priests by the law of Moses. These garments on the priests are expressly spoken of as representing, something in the Mess iah, and particularly are there spoken of as representing righteousness. Again, the righteousness of the Messiah is compared to beautiful garments, Isai. Ixi. 10. “He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with his ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her
Job xxix. 14. "I put on righteousness, and it clothed God is represented as clothed with a garment white as