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blood was not at all pleasing on its own account. For that declares that God hath no delight in the blood of beasts; and therefore the way in which it was something pleasing to God must be its being something, which represented or stood in stead of something that was truly in itself pleasing. So the sweet savour that was made in offering incense is spoken of as something sweet and pleasant to God; and a white clean garment as something pure, and so pleasing to God. But we know that these things were not pleasant or acceptable on their own account, and therefore it must be only as related to something else that was so. But in what way is a sweet smell related to any thing really sweet to God, except as it is a type, or has some signification of it? And which way has the purity of a garment any relation to spiritual purity, but as it has a representation of it?
This leads me to observe, that there is an apparent and designed resemblance between those things that were instituted, that were in themselves worthless, and those moral and spiritual things that in themselves were valuable in the sight of God.
Thus it is apparent, that outward cleanliness and purity resemble and shadow forth that which is in the sight of God real purity; and outward sweetness resembles real sweetness to God. So the light of the lamps in the sanctuary had a resemblance of spiritual light; and the preciousness of gold and pearls, that were used in the sanctuary and priests' garments, had a resemblance of some real preciousness in the sight of God; and the beauty and ornaments of the sanctuary and its vessels and holy garments, &c. had a resemblance of real beauty, and of those things that were ornaments in the sight of God. So that seeming atonement for sin, that was in the legal sacrifices, had a resemblance of that only true atonement the prophecies speak of. The seeming vicariousness there was in the sufferings of beasts for sinners had a resemblance of a true vicariousness and substitution. And it is also manisest, that God chose those things, or had respect to them in his choice and appointment of them, because they did resemble or shadow forth those correspondent spiritual things, that have a real value and excellency in themselves in his sight. The very nature of the thing makes it manifest. Thus it is manifest that God chose pure garments rather than filthy ones, because outward purity did more resemble real purity. He chose a sweet smell to be offered as a pleasant savour unto him, because sweet smell has more resemblance of what is really sweet to him. It is manifest that he chose the suffering of beasts as an atonement for sin, rather than the feeding and pampering of them, because this has more of a resemblance of a true atonement, which the prophecies speak of as being by the sufferings of a surety. It is evident that God chose the blood or life of the creature to be offered, to make atonement
for the soul rather than the hair, because it has a greater resemblance of the life of a surety, which is a true atonement for the soul, as the prophecies of the Old Testament do represent. But if it be evident, that God in the institution of the things of the ceremonial law, had respect to the resemblance that was in them of spiritual things and things of the Messiah, and appointed those rather than things of a diverse nature, for the sake of that resemblance, this is the same thing as to say, that the fornier are appointed as types of the latter.
All the people of Israel, if they exercised consideration, must suppose and understand that these things pertaining to the ceremonial law were appointed and used as representations and symbols of something spiritual, and not for the sake of any innate goodness in them, or any value God had for them. As for instance, that God appointed white garments rather than yellow, green, or black, vot for any excellency of the colour, but as a more proper representation of righteousness and spiritual purity; and the making a sweet odour with spices, not that God smelt that odour and so was pacified towards men as though he were recompensed by the great pleasure they thereby gave him ; but to represent something spiritual that was highly acceptable to bim ; and so that God appointed them to offer the flesh of beasts and bread, as the food or bread of God, as these things are called, and the drink offering of wine, not that God eat and drank those things, and was pleased with the taste of them, and received refresbinent and benefit, as a hungry and thirsty man does by meat and drink; but that these things were mystical and symbolical representations of things of a higher and more divine nature. They must know, that laying hands on the head of the sacrifice, and what was called laying sins on the scape goat, was no real laying sins on those beasts. And besides, God did expressly and abundantly teach his people under the Old Testament the contrary of these things. They must naturally therefore suppose, that they were used as things significant of something of a nature higher than themselves. They must naturally suppose, that the eating the passover with the staff in the hand and with bitter herbs, and putting the blood of the sacrifices upon the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot, were mystical, and symbolical, and sigoificant of something in itself of value and importance.
With respect to the legal sacrifices, the evidence that they were types of the Messiah is very strong; wbich will appear if we consider the following things.
It is evident there is some real and proper atonement for sin, which is in God's account requisite, and which he insists upon order to the pardon of sin, and which he accepts as a true atoneVOL. IX.
ment, and is willing to forgive sin on account of it. Otherwise, God never would designedly have taken a course by such an abundance of institutions, to bring up his people of the nation of Israel in the notion of the need of some atonement for sin, and some vicariousness and substitution of suffering for the sinner, in order to satisfy divine justice, and not only to bring up the Jews in this nation, but his church and people from the beginning of the world, insomuch that all nations received this notion from the first progenitors and founders of the nations and families of the earth.
It is also very manifest that the legal sacrifices of beasts and birds were no real atonement. This appears not only from the nature of the thing, but it is what God abundantly taught his people under the Old Testament, of whom he required these sacrifices. Ps. xl. 6, 1. 5 to the end, li. 16. Isai. i. 11, &c. lxvi. 2, 3. Hos. vi. 6. Jer. vii. 21-23, and especially Mic. vi. 6-8.
It is apparent by the prophecies of the Old Testament, that the Messiah was to offer a true and real atonement for the sins of men. That the Messiah should offer up himself a sacrifice for sin, is very clearly implied in many places there mentioned. But this doctrine is not only implied, but it is declared, that the Messiah should atone for sin, or expiate it by sacrifice. Isai. liii. 10. " When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin.' Dan. ix. 24. “ Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city”-to make reconciliution for iniquity, or to expiate iniquity by sacrifice, or to make atonement for iniquity; for the word in the original is the very same that is used from time to time in the law about sacrifices for making atonement.
In what follows, it is declared how this atonement was to be made, viz., by anointing the most holy and the coming of the Messiah, and by his being cut off, but not for himself, and making the sacrifice and oblation to cease in the last half of the seventieth week. And it is evident that the atonement for sin here spoken of is a proper atonement, that makes real satisfaction for sin, and truly pays and finishes the debt, by the other expressions that are added, “ To finish the transgression, and make an end of sin, and bring in everlasting righteousness;” and making the sacrifice and oblation to cease, i. e. by making sin to cease, making an end of sin and finisbing the transgression, that there shall be no further occasion for sacrifice and oblation. And making atonement for sin is here prophecied of as that which was to be, but never yet was: it was a new thing, as the prophecy must be understood. But it could be a new thing in no other sense but that, viz., that a true and proper atonement for sin should be offered. For atonement in other senses beside this had been abundantly offered from the beginning of the world.
What is translated to finish the transgression, might have been rendered to consume transgression. But
that expiation for sin that consumes transgression and makes an end of sins, and brings into a state of perpetual righteousness, so as to make all further sacrifices, or attempts, and means, and representations of atonement to cease, and should abolish them as now needless, that is undoubtedly a proper atonement for sin.
Again, it is not only manifest by the Old Testament that the sacrifice of the Messiah is a true real atonement, but that it is the only true and real atonement for sin. For the Old Testament speaks of no other sorts of sacrifices of expiation for sin but those two, viz., the ancient legal sacrifices of beasts, and the sacrifice of the Messiah. What the prophecies sometimes say of sacrifices that should be offered by God's people, after the Messiah's ascension, must be understood figuratively; because it is expressly foretold, that the Messiah by his sacrifice should cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease. And besides, as I observed before, the Messiab's making expiation for sin, is prophecied of as a new thing; and as it is foretold as a new thing, or the first thing of that nature, so it is also prophecied of as the
last thing of that nature, as is implied in those expressions of his making an end of sin, finishing the transgression, and making the sacrifice and oblation to cease. And these two things put together, imply that this is the only truly expiatory sacrifice. See also Zech. jii. 8, 9. And then, that this is the only sacrifice by which the sins of God's people are atoned, and that never any one is forgiven and accepted on account of any other atonement, is implied in Isai. liii. 6. “ All we like sheep have gone astray: we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."
Another thing that is very manifest, is, that the legal sacrifices had a manifold resemblance and representation of that great, true, and proper sacrifice that the prophecies foretold that the Messiah should offer. Thus those beasts that were offered were without blemish, as the prophecies represent the Messiah to be, Isai. liii., and other places. These sacrifices were not of unclean but clean beasts, therein representing that spiritual purity that the prophecies speak of in the Messiah. A very great part of those sacrifices were of lambs, as the paschal lanh, Exod. xxix. 39; and very many other of their sacrifices, which had a resemblance of what the prophecies represent of the feebleness, innocence, meekness, and gentleness of the Messiah. Most of the sacrifices were males, as the Messiah is represented as of the male sex. They were offered by a priest in white robes, representing the purity and holiness of the Messiah; who, when spoken of, Dan. ix., as the great priest that should offer that atonenient that should make an end of sin, is called " the Most Holy." Seventy weeks are determined to make reconciliation for iniquity—and to anoint
the Most Holy.” The priests were anointed: herein there was a reseinblance between them and the great Messiah, or anointed. The sacrifices suffered as the Messiah, the great sacrifice, is represented to suffer. The sacrifices suffered death, and a violent death, as the Messiah suffered death the sacrifices were burnt by fire from heaven; as the prophecies represent the Messiah as suffering from the immediate band of God. In most of the sacrifices, their inward parts were to be burnt on the altar, that are abundantly made use of in the Old Testament to represent the soul; which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the Messiah's making his soul an offering for sin. The fat of the inwards of the sacrifices was melted, and consumed, and burnt up in the fire ; which is agreeable to Ps. xxii. 14, 15. “I am poured out like water my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels; my strength is dried up like a potsherd;" and Ps. cii. 4. “My heart is smitten and withered like grass ;" and Isai. liii. 12.“ He hath poured out my soul unto death.” There was the resemblance of the substitution of the sacrificed beast in suffering for the sinner, as the prophecies represent concerning the Messiah. There was an appearance of laying the iniquities of those for whom the sacrifices was offered, on the animal sacrificed, especially on some of the sacrifices on the head of which the hands of those for whom they were offered were laid, that they might lay their sins upon them. This is agreeable to Isai. liii. 6. “ 'The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.” The scapegoat is represented as bearing the sins of those for whom he was offered into the wilderness; which is agreeable to Isai. liii. 4. “ Surely he hath borne our griefs, he hath carried our sorrows." The Messiah is expressly spoken of as being like a lamb, in his being slain, and offered as a sacrifice for sin, Isai. liii. The high priest made intercession for the people with the blood of the sacrifices, agreeably to Isai. liii. 12.
Beside all that has been already observed, this further is manifest, viz., that they are by God called an atonement, and are said to be an atonement, times without uumber. (See the Concordance under the word Atonement.) Seeing therefore, that the legal sacrifices are declared expressly and abundantly to be no real atonement, but have evidently a great resemblance of the true atonement, and are plainly representations of it, and are abuudantly spoken of by him that instituted them, as being an atonement, and as instituted by him that they might be an atonement; it is very apparent, that they were appointed figures and representations of the true atonement. For there are but these two ways of any thing's being consistently with truth said to be such a thing, by the name of which it is called, viz., either its being that thing truly and properly, or figuratively and by representation.