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Hence, he that looketh on a woman to LUST after her, hath committed adultery already with her, in his heart. An appetite must be excited, or some desire felt, before lust can be brought forth. Hence we read, not only of the lusts of the flesh, but of the lusts of the eye. Something must be seen by the mind's eye, some possession must be contemplated, it may be wealth, or splendour, or beauty,) and must be desired, before we can experience one of the lusts of the eye.
We have now given an account of those passions which occurred to us, and for which we have names; but are sensible that the list might be enlarged.
Any passion which ordinarily induces evil volitions is called a malevolent passion. The greater part of the passions are operative in this way.
Any passion exercised in relation to a suitable object, in a reasonable degree, is called a suitable, reusonable, law. ful, or sacred passion.
It has been already intimated, that the exercise of every affection is in its own nature agreeable; but it should be considered as
Rule X. That every inordinate affection produces some passion which is in some degree painful. Thus, if we love ourselves too much, our selfishness will be the occasion of our feeling pride, grief, anger, resentment, shame, or some other painful emotion.
Passion we have described as always painful to us, in its own nature; but we record it as
Rule XI That suitable, reasonable, lawful and sacred passions, always occasion some agreeable affection. Hence we may be said to find happiness in hating evil, feeling aversion from sin, fearing God, having holy resentment, being disgusted with obscene conduct; and in grief, sad. ness, sorrow, and even shame, for such things as we know ought to excite these emotions in us; not because the passions themselves are agreeable, but because they are instantly followed by some affection which is. We love, esteem, or respect ourselves for having these passions; or we feel some degree of gladness, contentment, or satisfaction because we have felt as our consciences tell us we
ought to have done; or the hope of approbation, or of other reward, springs up in the soul.
Another law of feeling may be recorded, which evinces God's determination that we should be social beings. It is this:
Rule XII. The contemplation of a feeling in others is commonly followed by such a feeling in ourselves as we imagine them to experience; whether it be a sensation, an affection, or a passion. This is denominated a fellowfeeling. Those feelings which are conceived at the time to be evil are exceptions; for they generally excite disgust, rather than a fellow-feeling.
When our thought of any passion, felt by another, is the occasion of our experiencing a similar passion, it is called an act of SYMPATHY, or a sympathetic emotion.
Most men experience, frequently, fellow-feelings, for the joys and sorrows which they contemplate; and those who do not are styled unfeeling; while the state of their mind is denoted by APATHY.
Any sympathetic emotion occasioned by the despair, sorrow, grief, sadness, or fear of another, we call Com
It will readily be understood, that although the faculty of feeling existed both before and after the apostacy, yet several new modes of operation have resulted from it; and when man is restored to the perfection of his nature, these shall cease for ever. For an instance, we name fear, and shame, which could not have been felt, had perfect love reigned in our hearts, and the consequences of sin never entered our world. Perfect love to God, and confidence in him, will banish every fear; even filial fear, for in heaven we shall be perfectly sure that Jehovah will keep us from all temptation to offend him; and fear of offending our Father is filial fear.
It is our firm persuasion that the view which has now been given of the different operations of the mind denominated feelings, is both philosophical and scriptural; and if they will deign to study it, will greatly promote the efforts of the philosopher and of the divine, who would exbibit truth, for the benefit of mankind.
Should it be said that we have written a dissertation on
Feelings ourselves, instead of reviewing the works of Smith and Cogan, we grant it; and plead the example of the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews for the liberty we have taken.
These authors, however, are not to pass without due notice. Dr. Smith has not attempted to analyze our feel. ings, but using the words, “passion, affection, sensation, sentiment, feeling, emotion, and impression,” indiscriminately, has endeavoured to show what influence our feelings have upon our judgments “concerning the conduct and character” of our neighbours, and of ourselves. He has written ingeniously, and with no small degree of ele. gance. His volume may be readily procured (while Dr. Cogan's cannot) and is deserving of a place in the library of every literary man. Dr. Cogan has attempted both an analysis and a classification of human feelings; but while he has partially succeeded in the first, he has, in our opinion, wholly failed in the latter. He starts too, upon a wrong theory, that Love and Hatred are “ the parents of every other passion and affection;" whereas half a hundred emotions at least, may claim to be coeval with them. The attempt to reduce all our feelings to self-love, is as unphilosophical, as the theory of the Hopkinsians is unscriptural, which reduces all the Christian graces to disinterested love for God and being in general.
(To be continued.)
ARTICLE XIII.- Proposals for publishing a Hebrew Lexi.
con, translated from the Hebrew-German of W. Gesenius, D. D. Prof. of Theol. at Halle. By Josiah W. Gibbs, of Andover, Massachusetts.
IF Mr. Gibbs can accomplish the great work which he has undertaken, in a manner worthy of the object, he will deserve the public thanks of all the American church. For ourselves, we really doubted his ability, until we had attentively examined his prospectus and specimens of the work. If he wrote the short piece subscribed by himself, which lies before us, and we cannot question it, our doubts are dissipated, and he must be able, from the
materials which Dr. Gesenius has presented him, to produce the best Hebrew and English Lexicon which has ever been published.
It is a consideration which gives the work a decided pre-eminence, that all the Hebrew words are to be arranged in alphabetical order, without regard to the fanciful “ triliteral roots” of other Lexicographers.
Most heartily we wish Mr. Gibbs success in obtaining subcribers; and for his benefit, but more especially for their own, we inform our patrons, that the Lexicon is to be printed in royal octavo, on a new Hebrew and English type; and to be delivered, in good binding, at the moderate price of twelve dollars. “ 'The original work is comprised in two volumes large 8vo. of 700 pages each.
The translation will contain the same matter," arranged under one vocabulary, instead of five, as in the German; and each article will be broken into paragraphs, corresponding to the different significations of the word at the head of it.
From the specimen submitted, it would appear, that Mr. G. intends to use the Arabic figures to denote not only divisions, but subdivisions of articles. We advise him to use Roman capitals to express the former, after the manner of Parkhurst; and if possible to procure He. brew type of a larger size than he uses in the body of an article for the word which occupies the commencement of it. A reference to Buxtorf will explain our meaning; and we doubt not the advantage of the kind of type which we recommend.
The work proposed deserves the patronage of learned men, and particularly of our Theological Colleges. If it ever appears, we shall be among the first to confess, that a great good has come out of Andover.
ARTICLE XIV.- The Christian Journal, and Literary Re
gister, a periodical work, published in New York, by Ï. and 7. Swords.
One object of this work is to circulate religious in. telligence respecting the Protestant Episcopal Church. So far it is commendable.
Another, and a principal, object it evidently has in view, is to prove that Sabbath Schools are dangerous things, if not under the control of some Rector of the Episcopal Church; and that Bible Societies which will not circulate the Common Prayer Book, in conjunction with the Scriptures, ought not to be encouraged. The reason for the Right Rev. Bishop Hobart's opinions on these subjects are summarily given by the Bishop of Landaff
, who is quoted with signal approbation, in Vol. II. p. 155. He says, “ Though the use of the Bible makes us Christians, it is the use of the Prayer Book also which makes us Churchmen." No doubt of it!
We rejoice, however, that Bible Societies and Sabbath Schools, upon a more benevolent scale, have an able advocate in New York, in the truly amiable and evangelical Rector of St. George's Church, the Rev. James Milnor. His fame will live, when that of his Bishop dies the death.
List of Late American Publications. 1. Extracts from an Eulogium on William Shippen, M. D. delivered by Caspar Wistar, M. D. in the Medical College.
Philadelphia, 1811. pp. 20. 8vo. 2. Elements of English Grammar, deduced from the English Language alone; without regard to the grammatical principles of other languages. Intended for the use of learners.
By James Gray. D. D. Baltimore, 1818. pp. 144. 18mo. 3. The First Annual Address, read before the Religious Historical Society, May 20th, 1817: by Samuel B. Wylie, D. D. With an Appendix. Philadelphia, 1818. pp. 22. 8vo. 4. The North American Review, and Miscellaneous Journal.
Nos. XVIII. and XIX. Boston, 1818. University Press. 5. Horrors of Slavery: in two parts: By John Kenrick. Cam
bridge, 1817. pp. 59. 12mo. 6. The Essence of English Grammar. By Samuel Houston, A. B. Principal of the Rural Valley Seminary, in Rockbridge, Virginia. Harrisburg, 1817, pp. 44. 12mo. 7. Theology; explained and defended in a series of Sermons. By Timothy Dwight, S. T. D. LL. D. late President of Yale College, with a Memoir of the Life of the Author. In five volumes. Vol. I. Middletown, Conn. 1818. pp. 545. 8vo.