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ceive of three; which conception is one idea: we conceive of two; which conception is a second idea; and if words are not used without meaning, when we use the word are we have an idea of predication, or affirmation, which is a third; and when we use the words more than, we have an idea of the comparison of numbers; so that in the understanding of the proposition, three are more than two, at least four ideas are included, and are essential prerequisites to the judgment that the proposition is true.
We are equally unable to determine what Mr. Locke means by a man's knowing that any idea in his mind is such as he perceives it to be; and that two ideas, wherein he perceives a difference, are different: unless he intends, that a man is conscious of every perception, conception, and other mental act, and judges that one mental operation is not another mental operation. We thus judge, without any comparison of conceptions, or ideas; for when a man knows that he perceives a horse, it is in consequence of his actual perception of one, his constitutional judgment that what he perceives really exists, and the immediate operation of his faculty of consciousness, which takes cognizance of what the mind is doing; and not from any comparison of his perception of a horse, with his perception of a cow. The same is true of conception, for our consciousness that we conceive of a falsehood results not from any act of the mind in comparing the idea of a falsehood with the idea of a truth, or of any thing else.
While we differ from President Bates about intuitive knowledge, we have no disposition to deny the importance of education. It is true, that " in the uncultivated mind intellectual powers do indeed exist; but, like the unpolished diamond, they exist in obscurity. Education brings them to light, displays their brilliancy, unfolds their beauty, and exhibits their real value; it excites their latent energies and controls their operations; it gives them activity, and applies them to the purposes, for which they were designed, and to which they are adapted, by Infinite Wisdom.” It is also true, that in the uncultivated mind of man there is some knowledge,
so soon as he opens his eyes, perceives external objects, judges that they exist, and is conscious both of his perceptions and judgments. But the intuitive knowledge of man would be of little service to him as a moral agent, without the addition of that which results from experience and education.
The reverend author proceeds to say, “We can, indeed, discern nothing in the human mind, distinct from the effects of education, but a capacity to receive instruction-a faculty to learn--a power to acquire and retain knowledge." p. 3. The two last clauses, are exegetical of the terms, a capacity to receive instruction. And can the president discover in man no capacity for feeling, volition, and efficiency? A capacity to learn, to acquire and retain knowledge, may include the faculties of conception, reasoning, memory, perception, judgment, conscience and consciousness, for by all these we derive knowledge from instruction, even while all of them frequently operate without any other guidance than that of the hand which made them: but it would be an unwarrantable stretch of metaphors to say, that the faculties of feeling, volition and efficiency, are capacities to receive instruction. We never attribute thought to the will: and it would be ridiculous to affirm, that our feelings learn, and that the exertion of our mental faculty of agency is the reception of knowledge. Yet the mind includes seven faculties, by which seven kinds of mental operations, called thoughts, are performed; in conjunction with three others, by one of which we feel, by another will, and by the third effect what we will, so far as we have natural ability. “Distinct from the effects of education,” we can discern in the human mind, not only ten faculties; but the power of exerting most of them in various ways, so that men need not be taught, in order to be conscious, to feel, to will, to form many judgments, to remember much of the past, to perceive external objects, and execute a multitude of purposes. That fallen man may think, feel, will, and act aright, education, and even a divine education, is indispensable.
Our only remaining objection against the oration before us, is levelled against the sentiment, that a knowledge of the rudiments of learning, such as may be acquired in almost every village of New England, is all that is beneficial to the cultivators of the soil, commercial men, and those who live by mechanic arts. p. 5, 6. In every village in New England, all young people may learn at the public school, “ to read with facility, write with propriety, and compute with accuracy;" (p. 6.) which in other sections of our country is not a common privilege; but should the farmers, mechanics, and merchants of New-England possess “a more refined education and a highly cultivated taste," with a proportionate degree of human prudence, we are per. suaded it would not unfit them for excellence and energy in the ordinary departments of human life. Should they be favoured with that wisdom which is from above, we should consider every degree of intellectual improvement as beneficial to them; for all their knowledge would turn to some good account, when all sublunary labours shall have ceased. The effects of sanctified learning, even in a husbandman, we should suppose would be directly opposite to those of “unsanctified learning," of which our author has justly observed, that “ so far from adding to the happiness or usefulness of a man,” it “serves only to increase his capacity for suffering, and extend his pernicious and corrupting influence in society.” The author deserves praise for avoiding the great
display of learning, which is frequently made in orations on occasions similar to that which produced this. Let it be recorded as something remarkable, that a President of a College has delivered his inaugural address, and uttered to his English audience no more than four quotations in a dead language. He has even ventured to quote the Christian poet, Cowper, twice, and the Bible frequently. With some, this will be deemed a proof that President Bates is not a learned man; but it may be counterbalanced by finding in his pages the names of Seneca, Æsculapius, Deucalion, Omar, Copernicus, Diana, Circe, Homer, Laocoon, Parnassus, Lycæum, Buffon, and Linnæus.
The style of the oration is pleasing, and the predominant characteristic of it, piety. At the time of the re
moval of President Davis, we thought Middlebury Col. lege had experienced a discouraging loss; but now we are happy to persuade ourselves, that the institution has been compensated for it, by the acquisition of its present excellent Principal. One extract we give, as a correct specimen of the piece, and hope all Christians will catch the spirit it breathes.
“ The simple fact, that knowledge is sometimes pervertedthat men of literature and science do sometimes devote their talents to the cause of error and wickedness that learning is sometimes employed, as an engine of destruction against the best institutions of religion and society,--should rouse the friends of God and human happiness to activity, in the cause of truth and righteousness-should induce them to furnish their children, especially their pious sons, with the means of good education; and thus provide for them, and through them for society, a sure defence against the attacks of infidelity and licentiousness. If the world must have its Bolingbrokes and Byrons and Condorcets; let it have, too, its Newtons and Cowpers and Wilberforces. If the doctrines of the gospel must be attacked and perverted by such men, as Priestley and Belsham and Fellows and Yates; let them be defended and illustrated, likewise, by men, like Horsley and Magee and Scott and Wardlow. If men of corrupt minds will enter the temple of science, and kindle on its altars the unhallowed fire of infidelity and error; let not those, who love the truth, be inactive spectators of their profanation-let them see, that the pure and holy flame, which came down from heaven, may never be extinguished.” p. 24.
ARTICLE IV.-1. A defence of Modern Calvinism: containing
an examination of the Bishop of Lincoln's work, entitled a Refutation of Calvinism. By Edward Williams, D. D. London, 1812. pp. 544. 8vo. 2.-Remarks on the Refutation of Calvinism, by George Tom. line, D. D. F.R. S. Lord Bishop of Lincoln, and Dean of St. Paul's, London: By Thomas Scott, Rector of Aston Sanford, Bucks. In 2 vols. Philadelphia, published by W. W. Woodward, 1817, pp. 1014. 8vo.
Many well disposed Christians continually deprecate religious controversy; and commend those who glory in abstaining from the discussion of all contested doctrines. None are more loud in condemning the part which we have acted, than the American advocates for the senti. ments of Fuller and Scott. But did these excellent men pursue the course which their admirers would recommend? The greater part of the writings of the former are of a controversial nature; and we have now before us a thousand pages of the disputations of the latter. We agree with him, that “nothing is so unfavourable to the progress of genuine Christianity, among mankind in general, nay, among the bulk of nominal Christians, as a DEAD CALM.” Preface, p. 3.
We might adduce the higher example and authority of the Apostle Paul; and might show too, that the Holy Spirit thought fit to inspire many controversial epistles; but it is needless, for if a little reflection, accompanying the means of information already enjoyed by them, con. vince not those of their error who think all contention for the faith ungodly strife, our reasoning against their prejudices would be vain.
In hope of assisting some, who are willing to prove all things, that they may hold fast that which is good, and of promoting our own increase in knowledge, we shall steadily pursue our purpose of investigating the most important contested doctrines in theology, especially such of them as shall be presented by the publications of the present day. To follow the learned writers before us through all their excursions from the high way of Calvinism, on which they generally travel together, would require more than all the pages of the present number; but from the elevation of the temple of truth to survey their path, and give a plain map of it, is practicable, and may be profitable to those who are in pursuit of the heavenly country, through the Living Way. Dr. Scott gives us the “Refutation of Calvinism,” paragraph by paragragh, in notes, to which his text is a reply; but Dr. Williams, in a very systematic, and classical manner, arranges the false doctrines and misrepresentations of the same work, so that he can pull down the Bishop of Lincoln's theory, while erecting his own Modern Calvinism. Dr. Williams excels Dr. Scott in presenting a concatenation of doctrines, and philosophical argumenta