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the representative character of Jesus in the covenant of grace, but the representative character of Adam in the covenant of works, that rendered the righteousness of that law capable of being imputed to mankind.

“And now, reader, I have finished my demonstration, and do honestly believe, that I have proved that the imputability of Christ's righteousness does not depend in any manner, nor in any degree, on his representative character in the covenant. And it would, perhaps, be doing thee no disservice to leave thy difficulty to be solved by thy own ingenuity. Yet I shall just touch it with the wand of truth, to enfeeble it a little; it is not worth the trouble of dissection.

“The reason why Adam's merit or demerit was imputable, by reason of his representative character-and why the imputability of Christ's righteousness does not depend on his representative character, is this: the former was an original institute the latter a remedial law." P. 64–66.

“ The reader, by turning to page 43, will find me pledged to put down the spectre of imaginary representation, on its own proper field. This is that field. The two covenants have been viewed as distinct original institutions of similar parts, and proportions, and something must be looked for in the one exactly similar to what is in the other; and hence as Adam's guilt is imputable, because of his representation, so of course must Christ's righteousness be imputable, in consequence of his representation. But the former covenant only is an original institution; and therefore its radical principle must be peculiar to itself, and must be supposed, not enacted in the remedial law." P. 69.

All which Christ did and suffered under the law as Mediator is included under the denomination of his righteousness. Dr. Gray evidently considers his righteousness as comprehending what divines have called his active and passive obedience. And this he affirms might have been imputed to any and every human person, had Christ not obeyed and suffered as a representative of any one; for “the imputability of Christ's righteousness does not depend in any manner, nor in any degree, on his representative character.” The reason he assigns for this proposition is, that perfect obedience to law is in its own nature meritorious according to law; and the covenant of works has established the right to impute the perfect personal obedience of Adam to every human person. Of course, had Jesus entered our world with. out any covenant to perform any thing for any body, bis conduct and sufferings might have been, by a subsequent act of sovereignty, imputed to every sinner; yea, had another man been formed like Adam, and had he perfectly obeyed the law, his righteousness, being the righteousness of the law, might, from its own glorious nature, be imputed to all the subjects of that law, so as to secure their complete justification before God. Consequently a mere man, preserved by divine favour in obedience, might have brought in a righteousness for the salvation of every son of Adam, and a divine Saviour was a needless gift of the counsels of Jehovah.

From the same course of reasoning it must be mani. fest, that the perfect righteousness of Adam while it lasted, might, after the apostacy, have been imputed to him, and to every one of his posterity for justification, for it was the perfect righteousness of the law of works rendered for a time, after the covenant of works was made, and any righteousness of the law, not rendered by one in his representative character, is capable of being imputed for salvation to every human person under the law: so that one Adam might have brought death and life both, to the whole human race If Dr. Gray is right in his doctrine on this subject, the Saviour of the Socinians, provided he be a perfectly obedient man, will answer all the wants of sinners.

“Now the law of works,” says Dr. G.“ was of such a nature, that its righteousness whenever wrought out, was capable of being imputed to all the subjects of that law. If Adam had fulfilled the law, this righteousness would have been imputable to all mankind." We admit that the covenant of works was made with Adam not only for himself but for all his posterity; so that had our first father obeyed during the whole time of his probation, all his children would have been born like himself, holy beings, and would have been kept by their heavenly Father in a state of obedience and happiness: but we deny that the obedience of Adam, had it been sinless, would have been imputable to sinful VOL. I.

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beings, provided any such human persons had existed. His obedience, had it been rendered, would not have been such as to satisfy the demands of law against such persons as Dr. Gray and ourselves, who have merited punishment. No suffering, at least of a penal nature, was required of Adam, that he might bring in such a righteousness, as should have been reckoned to his posterity, born in innocence; so that they might be treated as if they had actually obeyed during a personal state of probation allotted to each individual of them. We conclude, therefore, that the law of works was not of such a nature, that its righteousness whenever wrought out, by a person free from all imputation of guilt, as Adam was free from it, when required to obey for life, was capable of being imputed to all the fallen subjects of that law, after the violation of it. But the Doctor proceeds to say, “ This law Jesus Christ actually fulfilled, and produced its perfect righteousness. But the righteousness which the law required, was a righteousness capable of being imputed to every human being; consequently the righteousness of Jesus Christ is capable of being imputed to every man.” Stop, Sir! you take it for granted, that nothing more was required of one under the covenant of works after its penalty had been incurred than before; that the righteousness required of innocent Adam to establish an innocent posterity in holiness, was the same with that required of the second Adam, when reputed guilty, to restore to a state of innocence, and then establish in holiness, the transgressors of the law. The Bible teaches us, that Jesus Christ actually fulfilled the law by rendering a perfect obedience to its precepts, which was all that was required of the first Adam; and by suffering the penalty incurred by all whose sins he bore; which endurance of a penalty was not required of the first Adam, as any part of the condition on which his divinely contemplated posterity should have eternal life. God never said to Adam, “in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt die; but if thou wilt then suffer the death incurred, thou and thy posterity shall live.” But to Jesus he said, “ if his soul shall make a propitiatory sacrifice, he shall see of the travail of his soul.” Dr. G. himself has taught, that obedience to the precept and endurance of the penalty of the law constitute the righteousness of Christ; and how he could, immediately after, so impose upon his own discriminating mind, as to think that nothing more was required of the Saviour of sinners to bring them into a state of pardon and acceptance, than of Adam to bring a sinless posterity into his own happy state, we cannot easily imagine; unless we conclude the idea of an abstract righteousness of law, required of no particular person, under any particular circumstances, beguiled him. Now there is no such thing as an abstract righteousness of law: for the righteousness of law, is that which is required by law; and what the law requires, is required of some on under the law. The righteousness required of Adam, before the apostacy, was indeed such a conformity to divine precept, as God resolved to impute to every innocent child of Adam, should it be rendered by the federal head of our race. When Christ was under the law, he became so by covenant, for a special purpose; not to render an obedience for himself as a man, nor yet as a mere man to render such an obedience as might be imputed to innocent human persons, but to be obedient even unto the accursed death of the cross; so that God might be just, in justifying the ungodly. Christ was, by covenant, made under the law, that he might bear the sins of many, and bring in an everlasting active righteousness. He was made under the law that he might do all that was required of Adam in the covenant of works, and that he might, moreover, expiate all the sins of his people. In obeying the moral law, during the time of his probation, fixed in the eternal counsels, Christ acted federally, that is according to a league; and therefore, even his active righteousness cannot without new counsels and a new covenant, be imputed to any persons besides those for whom it was rendered; and yet we acknowledge, that the nature of it is such, that it might as well have been imputed to every individual of Adam's race, as the righteousness required of Adam, had it pleased Heaven to make Christ under the law for all without exception, and to require of him obedience in their place. Then his active obedience would have been the righteousness of law for all mankind; but until the law required him to obey for all mankind, no righteousness he could have rendered would have been the righteousness of the law for them.

The passive obedience of Christ, which consisted in suffering the penalty of the violated covenant of works, is allowed by Dr. Gray, to appertain to the complete righteousness of the Mediator; and we proceed to state, that its nature is such that it cannot be imputed to any persons but those who were represented by the Redeemer; for penalty is always proportioned to the number and demerit of the sins of men: it is measurable by divine justice and law; and the sufferings of Christ were precisely such as Infinite Wisdom judged equivalent to the punishment due to all the sins of the elect. Upon no other principle can it be shown, that the moral Governor of the universe will render unto every man according to his deeds.

We receive these as some of the fundamental principles of Jehovah's government, revealed to us in the Scriptures,—that all obedience to the moral law shall be rewarded; and that the measure of reward shall cor.,' respond with the measure of obedience:- that every violation of the moral law shall be punished, and that the measure of punishment shall be proportioned to the measure of transgression:--that all the sins of the elect are of a definite amount, and measurable by divine justice:—that the punishment merited by all the sins of the elect is of a definite amount; and proportioned to the ill desert of the sins of the elect;-ihat Christ bare a definite amount of punishment, even such a degree of punishment, considering the divinity and dignity of his person, as was an equitable commutation, in God's esteem, for the punishment due unto all the sins of the elect:--that Christ endured no portion of the penalty of the law incurred by those who shall perish; --that all who die out of Christ shall bear the punishment deserved by their own measure of sinfulness;--and that the proportion of misery merited by each unpardoned sin:

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