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Britain, as rapidly approaching to a fatal termination-yet, under those circumstances, he lived nine years in Madeira, certainly with the greatest watchfulness, until going one day to collect some fossils on the neighbouring island of Porto Santo, a storm overtook him, and he suffered all its hardships in an open boat ; he returned next day to Madeira, and died that night. He requested a professional friend to examine his lungs after death, and Dr. Renton, who performed the autopsy, informed me that his astonishment was, how he could have sustained life with so small a portion of respiratory apparatus ; hardly a vestige of one of his lungs remaining, and the other in a condition such as could not exist in this climate. The death of this gentleman is the more to be regretted, as he had done much to investigate the climate of the island. His life was spent in the furtherance of science—he died in her cause, and bequeathed to her the most interesting legacy he or any mortal can bestow, the tenement of his immortal spirit, that his fellow man might be enlightened and benefitted by a knowledge of that fatal malady which had hastened him to an early death, as it has but too many of his countrymen.

Of the salubrity of this volcanic island, Sir James Clark has well said, 66 When we take into consideration the high temperature of the winter, and the mildness of the summer, together with the remarkable equality of the temperature during the day and night, as well as throughout the year, we may safely



conclude that the climate of Madeira is the finest in
the northern hemisphere.”

may be useful for families going out to know, that there is a heavy duty upon all English furniture which invalids are much in the habit of bringing out, and that that made in the island is both cheap and appropriate.

Last winter (1837–8) Madeira suffered, in common with all other places of which we have any account, from the unusual severity of the season, which is not to be taken as a fair criterion of its salubrity.

It is not a bad test of the mildness of the climate that swallows do not migrate from the island ; the swifts however do, as in other places, on which I shall have occasion to remark hereafter.*

The hospitality of the princely merchants of Madeira has been often dwelt upon as a source of


* A steamer leaves Falmouth for Lisbon on Mondays, regularly. First cabin fare, 151.-Second cabin, 91. 10s.—which includes table, &c. A steamer leaves Lisbon for Madeira every fortnight, and returns in a few days after she lands her passengers. Fares from Lisbon to Madeira (at present)—First cabin, 101.-Second cabin, 76. including table—Deck 31.-An English stewardess attends. The British mail contract-boats, which sail on Mondays from Falmouth, call at Vigo, Lisbon, Cadiz, and Gibraltar-touching at Oporto, and return by the same route, which is performed in eighteen or twenty days.

For much information upon this subject, I would refer the invalid to the useful little work recently published by Mr. Driver—" Letters from Madeira;" and for a more detailed account of the climate, to the papers of Doctors Renton and Heineken, published in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal; and also Clark on the Influence of Climate, &c.

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great enjoyment to the invalid and traveller, and deserves a repeated expression of thanks from those who have experienced it. They are not only the wine merchants but the principal proprietors of Funchal, and are all English. This favored spot wants but one blessing to make it an earthly paradise—a free and enlightened government.

A reading-room and library have been lately established, where every English publication of merit, and periodical, besides newspapers, are constantly supplied—a billiard-room has been also attached.

Tobacco and soap are royal monopolies—the former is not allowed to be cultivated on the islandthe latter may offer some plausible excuse for the extreme dirtiness of the Portuguese; the ladies among whom are never known to soil their faces with water, but substitute dry rubbing instead.

Madeira wine has unjustly fallen into disrepute, for some years past, in this country. I say unjustly, because I believe that pure old south-side Madeira is one of the finest and most wholesome of all white wines. What the cause may be it is difficult to say; perhaps it was and is the great scarcity of the article such as I describe it. To many invalids it is a wine particularly adapted, although in diseases of the chest, when a wine becomes necessary, or from circumstances unavoidable, I am bound to give the preference to white Lachrymæ Christi, as possessing less stimulating and more

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nutritious qualities than any other I am acquainted with. Yet, for the generality of patients to whom wine is ordered as a tonic or cordial, I feel assured that Madeira will be found, on trial, most grateful. Besides the ordinary Madeira, we have here that most delicious sweet wine, the Malmsey; also the Sercial or Madeirian Hock; Bual (the Burgundy), and Tinta, a red wine, the vin ordinaire possessing a mixed flavour of port and claret, together with several country wines of little note, and never exported.

On visiting the governor, I was astonished at seeing a large painting decorating the hall, the subject of which was the discovery of the island by an Englishman. 6. It is an old tale and often told,” yet I cannot forbear mentioning it here as related by Alcaforado. In the reign of Edward III. when the feudal system held unlimited sway in the land, and when the line of demarcation between the grades of nobility was marked with the strongest hand, Robert Machim, a noble of the second degree, fell in love with Anna D'Arfert, the daughter of a noble of superior rank, who returned his affection. This heinous offence was soon made known to the haughty father, whose rage knew no bounds. Upon some slight pretext he had the unfortunate lover cast into a dungeon for his presumption; and, while he remained in captivity, the fair and disconsolate Anna was forcibly married to a noble of her own rank, who resided near Bristol. The union proved, as might be expected, most unhappy. Machim was

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released, and soon discovered the situation of his still loved mistress—and his friend and squire contrived to have himself hired as groom, in the establishment, where he found means of informing the Lady Anna of the vicinity of her lover, and of the means using to get her out of the castle. Their plans succeeded, and she joined him. A vessel was prepared to carry them to France—all was readybut before the pilot came on board, a storm rose, she broke from her moorings, and was carried westward. After twelve days of suffering they discovered an island, which proved to be Madeira, and landed at a village which has ever since borne the name of Machico. A storm again arose, and tearing the vessel from the coast, drove her across the surging waters, and, finally, threw her on the coast of Morocco, where she was dashed to pieces, the remnant of the unfortunate crew being made prisoners, and forced into slavery.

The hapless Anna, seeing all hope fled, fell ill, and died in the arms of him who ought to have been her husband.* He, in a few days after, followed her to the grave, and both were enclosed under one green sod, over which was placed, by their companions, a large cedar cross, with a rudely carved inscription, praying of the next Christians who visited that spot, to erect a church to their memory.

The remaining part of the crew took to the long boat, which had been preserved, and were also

* This is the scene represented in the picture.

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