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besides which, the situation in the town was disadvantageous. She removed, therefore, with her children to her present domicile in the autumn of 1861. Here the most advantageous results followed; the poor, puny children throve wonderfully; they grew not only rosy and active under the motherly care of their protectress, but under the skilful instruction of an assistant, who gave his services for his board and lodging, were so eager to learn, and developed so much talent and general intelligence as would have been astonishing even amongst the more fortunato children of the higher classes.

A second deaf and dumb teacher was engaged, who willingly devoted himself, in the still struggling state of the school, on the same terms as the first, besides a young female assistant who had faithfully stood by Mamsell Berglind from the beginning, without the slightest remuneration.

A young deaf and dumb girl from Manilla, who acted as servant, completed the interesting little establishment.

The house, standing on a little lawn, with farm buildings on one side, is, built of wood, and painted red. The front door stood wide open, and led into a passage or lobby, the walls of which were printed to represent the trees and shrubs of a conservatory, with surrounding landscape. We opened the door of one of the rooms, for Misg Bremer is evidently well acquainted with the topography of the house, and found ourselves in a warm, sunny school-room, lookirg into a wide field, wbich had probably grown potatoes, and to a pleasant country beyond. The cloth was laid for the dinner of about twelve children who were assembled there. They made many peculiar articulations of pleasure, whereupon poor, deformed Mamsell Berglind appeared from the inner room, her face radiant with joy and kindly benevolence. She seemed to me to have a halo of goodness around her.

After a very cordial welcome, she and Miss Bremer retired to the adjoining room which she had left, her sitting and bedroom combined, I preferring to

remain with the young teacher, the only assistant at this moment, and whom I knew to be kind-hearted, and warmly interested in the school. Born dumb, he has now, in a measure, acquired the use of speech. He talks somewbat indistinctly, it is true, but still marvellously well for one in his condition, and we were quite able to carry on a conversation.

The young teacher assisted me in amusing the children ; indeed, I should have managed very indifferently without him. I had brought with me somo of Hulda's cultings as a little present, and these gave infinite delight. They cackled and clapped their arms for wings as they saw one group, that of an old woman feeding poultry.

We had also brought a number of little coloured picture cards, which have been adopted here, together with many translations of English tracts, by the Swedish Tract Society, none being moro popular than those of the Rev. Newman Hall.

The cards were distributed amongst the children, two boys, and the rest girls, all boarders, the day-pupils not attending on Sundays. It seemed a perfect insult to the children to call them deaf and dumb, for every action and movement spoke. I watched them conversing with each other on the various subjects of the little picture cards.

Miss Bremer now re-appeared, and, asking for a few empty plates, poured out from her wonderful bag a quantity of Danske karameller and gingerbread nuts, with which childish delights she is supplied by an old woman at the end of Drottninggatan. On this there was a very natural outburst of joy, which the children knew no better way of expressing than by spontaneously shaking hands.

It was, altogether, one of the happiest scenes I ever witnessed, and one of the most interesting. I shall anticipate going there again with much pleasure.— From Miss Howitt's Twelve Months with Fredrika Bremer in Sweden.'



Twelve Months with Fredrika Bremer

in Sweden. By Margaret Howitt. Vols. 1 and 2. London : Jackson, Walford, and Hodder, 27, Paternoster Row.


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Who knows not, honours not, the name of Fredrika Bremer? The merits of her novels are manifold, but their crowning excellence is in this—that appealing with power to all that is morally best in the reader, they elevate whilst they charm, and make it seem better worth his while to live in this world for the sake of what he may yet become and accomplish. Delighting, then, in Fredrika Bremer's books, which the selecting judgment and the translating skill of Mary Howitt long since rendered accessible to the English reader, we turned with eager anticipation to the two volumes before us, in order to enlarge our acquaintance with the Swedish novelist. But it is not of a tale-writer alone that we read in these charming pages.

Fredrika Bremer was much more than that; and whilst ranking very high as an author amongst her fellow-countrymen as amongst readers of good discrimination all the world over, she took still higher honours as a reformer and philanthropist, and was in Sweden a potent power for good apart altogether from her literary works. It is thus that we find Miss Howitt telling us that Miss Bremer was universally appealed to in every benevolent enterprise, originating many and aiding all. She was especially the helper of her own sex, and setting aside all questions of woman's rights, was the means of effecting a real emancipation of her countrywomen, by convincing wise, liberalminded, and powerful men of the necessity for the reforms which she advocated. For children, also, she was an indefatigable labourer, and was felt and acknowledged to be the centre around which moved every effort for their well-being, whether physical or moral.'

But much more than this is set before us in Miss Howitt's interesting volumes. During a year's residence in or near Stockholm, in constant intercourse with Fredrika Bremer, Miss Howitt was able to look around her, with eyes of no mean intelligence, and to enjoy a

thousand opportunities which she knew how to use, of studying life as it is in Sweden. She tells us, therefore, not a little about Miss Bremer's habits of thought, feeling, and action, which it interests us much to be acquainted with; and beyond all tbis, she sets before us places, persons, and institutions, which add considerably to

means of knowing what manner of place Sweden is, and what kind of people are its people.

Sbe tells us, for instance, that one of Miss Bremer's later stories, Hertha,' had for its purport to show the working of the Swedish law regarding women; that this story becaine the occasion of much excitement there; that so violent grew the public feeling, that the authoress was glad to retiro into Switzerland, out of reach of the storm, so displeased were her countrymen with her then, though for the first time. But the storm blew over; a bright spring of promise succeeded those keen blasts, and Miss Bremer became a sun around whom revolved dozens of planets-young women who regarded her with reverential gratitude as their intellectual mother. For the justice of her protest in Hertha' against the oppressive nature of the old Swedish laws regarding women came to be acknowledged by liberal-minded and generous-hearted professors of various sciences, who opened the doors of learning which had been closed to women in that country, and were soon surrounded by willing pupils. After awhile the King and his ministers took up the matter, and supplied amplo means for the establishment of a Female Educational Institution, or Seminarium, wherefrom have already gone forth enlightened women over the whole of Sweden. *It is touching,' says Miss Howitt, "to hear Jenny and her companions speaking of American and English women, especially the latter, as being models of all that is persect in womanhood. They cannot conceive but that, with our free institutions and the unrestricted

that exists amongst us for female study, we must be all that God intended us to be. There are unquestionably thousands of highly cultivated, Christian women in Er gland, nobly gifted and favoured by circumstances, yet I have never seen




brighter examples of clear intellect, and unswerving truth-loving minds, than amongst these my Swedish sisters. Young women, all of them, who will later, undoubtedly, shine forth bright and glorious stars in their northern firmament. These dear young students think that they may learn from us. In one point, at all events, we may learn from them, and this simply in paying more attention in our female colleges to the chemistry of common life, the laws of health, and other practical sciences. Latin and Greek are not, however, amongst their subjects of study, although the Swedes generally seem to have a facility in the acquirement of languages. This is a great boon to them, as their own language, being but little known to other nations, com pels them to learn from childhood mostly three other tongues, French, German, and English. They bave

great partiality for foreigners, and have pleasure in conversing with them in their own tongue, which is a comfort to most strangers.'

Or Miss Bremer, Miss Howitt tells us further that all the students knew her by sight, and all loved her. Her portrait, painted in oil, bangs in a place of honour in the small, comfortable library, to which she bad contributed the greater number of volumes. In this Seminarium Miss Bremer beheld the realisation of all her hopes. It was good recompense to her for the sorrow of. Hertha’ to witness such noble results, 'far more momentous to the well-being of generations yet to come than even the most universally, praised of all her literary works.' Amongst the other good results of • Hertha' was a beneficial alteration of the law with regard to women.

On a subject especially interesting to Meliora,' Miss Howitt writes :

One of my first sources of satisfaction in this city was, that as I did not see any flaring gin-palaces, there must be a greater degree of temperance amongst the people than with us; but this was a delusion. You need only cast your eye for a short time on one of those little doors by the side of which is fastened a long black board, with its list of temptations, brän vin, rom, punsch, cogniac, &c., and you will see the pumber of short, sturdily-built men, in their warm, thick garmerts, and big leathern aprons, that turn in. Bränvin, the white brandy distilled


from corn and potatoes, is the great temptation of this country. Good Swedes grieve over the immense consumption of this spirit, and the fearful ravages which it makes in what might otherwise be happy homes. Still, I must confess, that though this sorrowful fact remains, I have not seen in these streets So much evidence of drunkenness as one witnesses either in England or Germany.

Brandy-drinking, nevertheless, and oaths are the besetting sins of the poor. Unfortunately, even their 80-called betters set ibem a bad example as regards the latter, whatever they may do as to the former.'

One of the portraits Miss Howitt sketches for us is that of Fröken Esselde, a young lady descended from a noble, historical line. There is no family

more honoured in Swedish history than hers, but she, not contented with being alone an aristocrat, seeks to become truly great and noble in her life. Her grandeur consists in working out the question of woman's true sphere in Sweden, and seconding every effort which is made for her higher development. Like

Miss Bremer herself, whilst her motto is ever onward and upward, she, instead of transforming, as so many jealously imagine must be the case, the retiring feminine character into something unnatural and repulsive, merely wishes to develop and expand it, so that it may harmoniously dovetail, as it were, into the masculine nature, and make even married life a still nobler condition of love and usefulness.

* Fröken Esselde has great respect for all efforts which have been made in this direction in England, upholds Bessie Parkes as one of our admirable women, and feels great sympathy with her. She is co-editress with a noble-hearted woman, the wife of a professor in Upsala, of a periodical “The Home Magazine,” intended to promote those really noble purposes to which her life is devoted.'

• The Swedish “ Home Magazine" holds up a warning finger to us English women, by the example which it makes of us in every kind of good work, benevolent, educational, or sanitary. Great praise many amongst us deserve, no doubt, but I feel how vast is our responsibility when we are thus held up as beacons by another nation which is faithfully following in our wake. They


Edinburgh: Andrew Elliott, 15, Princes-street.

think, however, that we are able to do more than is really the case, as, for instance, with regard to workhouses and such parish business, where, though women have tried to work, they have generally been counteracted or driven out. So it is in Sweden. Many even of the clergy dislike the interference of women in their parishes; besides which, the health of the Swedish women is more delicate, on the whole, than that of their English sisters; and here, again, is another subject for the earnest interference of the “Home Magazine." Swedish lads play out in the snow, skate, and enjoy their little sledges, thus having a great deal of open-air exercise ; the girls, on the contrary, are shut up in hot rooms during the long winter, and grow up like hot-house plants, having a great tendency to consumption. People constantly say to me,

“You English women walk amazingly!" The Home Magazine' takes the trouble of describing English girls' skipping-ropes, battledores, and shuttlecocks, and eloquently urges their introduction and use. To us they are as much a part of childhood as pinafores and thick bread and butter."

Besides Miss Bremer and Fröken Esselde, the portrait-gallery Miss Howitt has opened presents the lineaments of many other leading philanthropists and artists, and distinguished characters in Swelen. A couple of these we have reproduced in our Social Science Selections. And besides these portraits, she puts before us a thousand other matters of interest which we have not room to name; and interspersing her narrative with lively anecdotes, and interesting personal details, makes her book so charmingly entertaining that the laziest may pass through her pages without a yawn, and the dullest find it pleasing from ono end of the work to the other.

And whilst telling us purposely so much about Sweden and its inhabitants, Miss Howitt, without intending it, incidentally reveals herself as well, introducing us to an evidently most worthy woman, with a mind richly endowed by nature, well stored by art, and so abounding in adınirable qualities as to turn strangers and foreigners, into whose company she falls for awhile, into proud and devoted friends. The Judgment Books. By Alexander

Macleod, D.D., Birkenhead. Pp. 233.

In the preface, Dr. Macleod narrates how, in the Moral Philosophy Class of Glasgow University, about twentyfive years ago, our professor was the habit of giving a short series of lectures annually, on ihe Relation of Memory to the Moral Faculties. In the course of these lectures he drew the attention of bis students to Coleridge's suggestive hint, that “memory might be the dread book which is to be opened at the day of judgment.” I have still a vivid recollection (continues Dr. Macleod) of the excitement, the joy of a new insight, which thrilled over the class that year I was a member of it, when the learned professor, looking kindly at the suggestion, went on to illustrate and confirm it by reflections and observations of his own.'

Dr. Macleod does not seem to bo aware that 'Coleridge's suggestive bint' was borrowed property, or that the same hint was given more than a century ago by a much wider and profounder philosopher than Coleridge. The author we have in view wrote, prior to the year 1757, that · Whaterer things a man hears and sees, and is affected with, these are insinuated, as to ideas and ends, into his interior memory, without his being aware of it, and in that they remain, so that not anything perishes, although the same things are obliterated in the exterior memory. The interior memory, therefore, is such that there are inscribed in it all the things in detail, even the most detailed, which man bas at any time thought, spoken, and done-yea, which have appeared to him as a shadow, with the most minute circumstances from his earliest infancy to extreme old age. Man has with him the memory of all these things when he comes into another life, and is successively brought into all recollection of them ; this is the Book Of His Life, which is opened in another life, and according to which he is judged. A inan can scarcely believe this, but still it is most true; all his motives which were obscure to him ; all that he had thought, and likewise all that he had said and done, as derived from those motives, are, to the most minute point, in that book,- that is, in the interior memory, and are mado manifest before the angels, in a light as clear as day, whenever tho Lord grants

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it; this has at times been shown mo, and evidenced by so much and various experience, that not the least doubt is left.'

Coleridge's suggestive hint,' it appears, did not carry Dr. Macleod quito so far as be bad expected. It helped me, indeed,' he says, 'to develop memory as a record which might be used in the processes of the judgment; but somehow, when my lecture was finished, it was only the dark leaves of the record which bad come out to view. It was not difficult to show how the guilt and sin in human life — the materials on which condemnation must rest—could be reproduced by memory: But the faith, the love, the goodness of the righteous, how could the reproduction of these by this faculty constitute a judgment book for them? Were good souls simply to remember that they had been good? It was against the whole spirit of the dispensation of grace that the mere recollection of good deeds should be appealed to as the evidence on which the awards to the righteous would be given. The speculations of the philosopher were good for a part, not for the whole ; for the dark, not for the bright portion of the record.' Presuming that Dr. Macleod does not doubt that we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad,' we cannot but admire his simplicity in making a difficulty here, as if the disclosure were to be voluntary and modest, or as if the bright portion of the record could be in anywise hidden whilst the dark was being revealed. Later on, he biinself, when treating of the opening of the books, says, “The widow shall see her mite once more. The cup of cold water given in Christ's name shall not fail to reappear. Homes which were the abodes of virtue shall rise mysteriously from the depths of memory; and hospitals whose floors were trodden by the visitants of the sick. * * * And blessed thoughts, and deeds, and lives shall be remembered.' The older writer from whom we quoted explains, ia another of his publications, bow, 'In a word, all evils, villanies, robberies, artifices, deceits, are manifested to every evil spirit, and brought forth from their very memory, and they are convicted; nor is there any room given for denial, because all the circumstances appear

together.' He says, 'I have heard also from the memory of a certain one, when it was seen and surveyed by the angels, what his thoughts had been during a month, one day after another, and this without mistake ; they were recalled as he himself was in them in those days. From these examples it may be seen that man carries along with him all his memory, and that there is nothing so concealed in the world that it is not manifested after death, and this in the company of many, according to the Lord's words, “ There is nothing hidden which shall not be uncovered, and nothing concealed which shall not be known; therefore the things which yo have said in darkness shall be heard in light, and what ye have spoken into the ear shall be preached on the housetops.” When man's acts are disclosed to him after death, the angels who are appointed as searchers look into his face, and the quest is extended tbrough the whole body, beginning from the fingers of one hand, and of the other, and thus proceeding through the whole. Because I wondered whence this was, it was disclosed to me; namely, that as all things of the thought and will are written on the brain, because their sources are there, so also they are inscribed on the whole body; since all the things of thought and will proceed thither from their sources, and thero terminate as in their completions. Hence it is that the things which are inscribed on the memory from the will, and from the consequent thought, are not only inscribed on the brain, but also on the whole man, and there exist in order, according to the order of the parts of the body. It is made evident from this that man altogether is such as be is in his will and consequent thought, so that an evil man actually is the evil that he has perpetrated, and a good man is the good that he has wrought.* From which, also, may be seen what is meant by the book of man's life, spoken of in the Word, namely, that all things, both such as have been acted and such as bave been thought, are written on the whole man, and that they appear as if read in a book when they are called forth from the memory, and as if seen

**The evil doer becomes the evil which he does,' writes Dr. Macleod, unaware that he is repeating the words of the older pbilosopher. Is it pot equally true that the gooddoer becomes the good which he accomplishes ?


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