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is expecting to send out so many pious, devoted missionaries, in the strict sense. All the extent that a candid reader would give to that idea, it seems to us, would be, that these colonists going out, would form a community in which the true religion would preyail, and from which it would extend into other parts of the continent; thus making those colonists to be, in that obvious and not improper meaning of the term, "missionaries.” And so, as to the thousand barbarians," whatever play of the fancy may be evident in the wording, yet the sober interpretation is just this,that so many, or a great many native Africans, coming into the colony, for purposes of trade, or moved by curiosity, do become acquainted with the religious tenets of that christian community; not, as our author will have it, in order to give his sneer a more perfect pointing, that they “sit humbly at the feet,” etc. etc. But, you say, the whole story of the “ thousand” is an exaggeration. Good : and Mr. Jay's interpretation is a new exaggeration heaped upon the first.

But we continue our extracts : 'It is natural we should wish to know more of these wonderful teachers, and fortunately we are presented with the following picture of them by an eye-witness :

" The holy Author of our religion and salvation, has made the hearts of a large proportion of these people, the temples of the divine Spirit. I have seen the proudest and profanest foreigners that ever visited the colony, trembling with amazement and conviction, almost literally in the descriptive phraseology of St. Paul, find the secrets of their hearts made manifest, and falling down upon their faces, worship God, and report that God is in the midst of these people of a truth.” Ashmun's Letter, 318t December, 1925. Af. Rep. ii. 90.

We should certainly conclude from these accounts, that these holy men were blessed with

“ Composed desires, affections ever even,

Tears that delight, and sighs that waft to heaven.” Yet strange to tell, we are presented with the following perplexing statement, by the same eye-witness :

" About twelve months since, it (the colony) had entirely given way, as the committee are but too well apprised, to a blind and furious excitement of the worst passions, caused by a somewhat unfortunate policy operating on ignorance and invincible prejudice. During my absence for health, the people were obliged to taste some of the bitter fruits of anarchy, and by the singular mercy of God, only escaped those tragedies of blood, wbich can find no modern parallel, but in the histories of the civil murders and devastations of St. Domingo.”' Ashmun's Leiter, 15th January, 1825. Af. Rep. i. 23. Jay, pp. 64, 65.

Inasmuch, therefore, as in the beginning of 1824, the colony had been much disturbed by a “furious excitement of the worst passions,” Mr. Jay curls his lip, and repeats sarcastic lines over Ashmun's statement, dated two years afterwards, that God had since poured out his Spirit in a revival of religion. This may be received as an appropriate exhibition of that partizan anti-colonization which the so-named "abolitionists" of 1833—5, hare chosen for their favored cause. Ashmun, with his great heart, lived for the free blacks, and consumed his vigor, and measured his span, on the Liberian shore; and now that his soul has departed, and his body reposes in the sacred spot almost within our view, we are made to feel, that Mr. Jay's magnanimity can find nothing better to do, than to bring together his frank and his pious statements, and sneer at both. In minds already little, anti-colonization finds a chamber ready swept and garnished, but in more elevated spirits it has a work to do, it cannot stay, but it will witber and cast out the noble feelings of our nature. It is a little and belittling cause. It is in this one thing an apt resemblance of Milton's Pandemonium, which, though it held the throne of Satan, and embraced a vast multitude, yet compelled the spirits within, Satan and his counselors excepted, to shrink in their dimensions to the size

" of that small infantry, Warred on by crancs.'

But we make room for another extract:

* It is deeply to be regretted, that some distinguished colonizationists have of late attempted to lead the public to hope, that in future no emigrants but such as are of good moral character, will be permitted to go to Liberia. It is difficult to reconcile such an attempt with moral rectitude, unless it be accompanied with a total and avowed abandonment of colonization as a means of relieving the country from the puisance of a free colored population, and from the guilt and curse of slavery. Of the gross inconsistency (not to use a harsher term,) of colonizationists on this subject, the proceedings of a colonization meeting in Cincinnati, October 31st, 1834, afford a striking example. On motion of the Rev. Dr. Beecher, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : “Resolved, that the establishment of colonies in Africa, by the selection of colored persons who are moral, industrious, and temperate, is eminently calculated of itself to advance the cause of civilization and religion among the benighted population of that continent; as well as to afford facilities to the various missionary societies for the prosecution of their pious designs.” Jay, pp. 67, 68.

No doubt “it is difficult,” most sinfully difficult, for our author to “reconcile with moral rectitude” the resolution offered by the worthy gentleman named in the extract. It is a difficulty the same with that of overcoming prejudice, and restraining wrongly directed zeal, and correcting erroneous impressions. It is a difficulty which every anti-colonization man, of the current anti-slavery

stamp-let us not be understood as speaking of every man who

does not go even to our guarded length in favor of colonization, : must find well-nigh overwhelming. Indeed, it must be entirely

so to an individual, who, while he knows that half the piety of New-England joins with the Rev. Dr. Beecher in expecting happiness to arise io the whole African race by means of colonization, can say with Mr. Jay, in the 70th page, that hatred to the blacks can alone delude us into the belief, that in colonizing them, or, as Mr. Jay expresses it, “banishing them from our soil,” we are doing God service. In the extract which follows, and which, with the note, we print just as we find it printed, we understand our author boldly to avow, that the resolution above referred to was but one measure of a system of scheming hypocrisy.

• We have remarked that EXPEDIENCY is unhappily the governing principle of the society, and to this principle must be attributed the recent talk about select emigrants.

Funds are low and temperance is popular, and all at once we hear that the colonies in Liberia are to be temperance colonies; and that the emigrants are to be “moral, industrious, and temperate." And so we are to send the good negroes away, and keep the bad at home! And yet, by transporting the few moral, industrious, and temperate individuals, that can be selected in a vicious and ignorant population of between two and three millions, we are to abolish slavery !! Surely colonizationists, by holding such language, pay but a poor compliment to their own candor, or the common-sense of the community. The truth is, there never has been and never will be a selection made.'* Jay,

p. 69.

The sweeping allegations of duplicity and unprincipled cunning, which are embraced in the foregoing extract, we shall not

* Since the first edition of this work, a public meeting has been held (17th March) in New Orleans, preparatory to ihe departure of soine înanumitted slaves to Africa. At this meeting the intended emigrants were arrayed before the audience, and the Agent of the Aner. Col. Soc. informed them that the society was “unalterably determined to send to the colony none but such as are willing to pledge themselves to total abstinence from ardent spirit.” He also announced that one negro had been rejected as an emigrant“ on account of bis babits of intoxication." "A pledge was then read to the negroes, and they were ordered to signify their assent by rising, which they accordingly did. See Nero-York Journal of Commerce, 1st April, 1835.

This New-Orléans scene will afford no gratification to the friends of temperance; nor will it permanently advance the cause of colonization. In a population uni. versally addicted to intoxication, ONE is selected as a public example of the abhorrence of the society to drunkenness, and is shut out from the promised land, not for refusing to take the pledge, but on account of his intemperate habits ; while his companions are required to promise total abstinence, under the penalty of spending their lives in bondage !!

If the society wishes to promote temperance, instead of extorting pledges from miserable slaves, let them exercise the power they possess of excluding all in. toxicating liquors from their colony. Vol. VII.

68

take the pains of endeavoring to refute, but shall suffer them to make their own impression on the reader's mind. On the reader's mind, however, that impression can hardly differ in one point from its effect on our own, to wit, that there must be rottenness somewhere in the cause which converts one christian into dogmatical accuser of bis brethren, and that such bitter fruit cannot but draw its nutrition from a bitter root. The concluding sentence contains an evident cavil. It is known as well to Mr. Jay, as to any one, that the power of excluding ardent spirit from the stores and counters of the colonists in opposition to public sentiment,-if such it shall prove to be in the colony, is not possessed, in fact, by the parent society, whatever its rightful authority in the case may be. For in the course of a very few paragraphs, that author thus discourses respecting the tenure by which the society's authority in the colony is held. “ Were the colony now to declare independence, how would the society reduce it to subjection?” pose the colonists engage in the slave-trade, who is to punish or control them ?” “Suppose in time they find the influx of emigrants inconvenient, and refuse to admit them, who shall coerce them?”

It would probably be said by Mr. Jay, that on our principles we ought to find it difficult to reconcile” these things in his book " with moral rectitude,” in their author; but we do not so find it. With a strong general honesty of purpose, and through a rehement indignation at the abuses to which millions of his fellow-men are wrongfully subjected, he has indulged, by no means willfully, in unjust reproaches towards a vast body of christians, who feel with him on that great subject, but whose motives he totally misapprehends. Should it ever come to pass, that his aberrations, as an author, from the path of that charity which“ suffereth long and is kind, behaveth itself not unseemly,—rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth,”—shall be as manisest to his mind as they are to ours, surely he will lament their effect more earnestly than we possibly can. But in the present state of feeling which prevails among all parties, there will continue to be, on all sides, self-misbodings and mutual misapprehensions, with bitterness of strife, down to a day so distant, that it wearies the expectations which wait for its arrival.

In taking leave of the work of Mr. Jay, which has been under review, it becomes us to remark, in respect to those fallacies of the judgment, and errors of the emotions or of the intellect, against which our testimony has been set up, and which, numerous and monstrous as they may seem, are little more than a specimen of the book itself, that we do not apprehend a binderance to colonization as the most ominous effect, both of them and the great assemblage of like frailties, wbich are continually thrown in upon us from the

surrounding ocean of agitated and excited feeling. The true friends of colonization, taking spirit from opposition, may not suffer themselves to be provoked, except to good works; and often do make the violence of some new assailant the occasion for resolving that our opponents shall yet be compelled to own the superior wisdom of our deeds, when they shall see the shores of Africa, by our means, encircled with a line of civilized and enlightened society. But what we do apprehend and deprecate, is, a tameness or bluntness of feeling arising out of the injuries which are heaped on us by these our opponents, which may lead us to look on with a measure of indifference, when they themselves are trampled on by popular violence. This, unhappily, is a day when, as respects the abolitionists, law is giving place, in some parts of the land, to the rule of a populace, and when, in other parts, bands of organized ruffians, in the shape of “committees of vigilance," are in icting outrages upon free-born citizens, under a mock imitation of trial and of judicial sentence. At such a time, let every man, forgetful of all occasions of resentment, stand for the rights of his fellow-man, remembering that they are also his own. Especially, let the man be crowned with general execration, who will give his voice to curtail our warmest adversaries' right to free and full discussion. Let not the whisper be endured, of adding to the existing slavery of blacks at the south such a slavery of whites at the north.

Again, let every conscientious man set a watch upon his spirit in relation to the community of the free blacks. It is not improbable, as the immediate result of the anti-slavery movements at the north, that the slave states will renewedly oppress the blacks, by adding other enactments to their already cruel system of exactions and restrictions. Perhaps in the result, the free blacks of those states may be expelled from their homes and hearths in those sections, and forced to fly hither for a dwelling-place. We fear, that if they come, New England and the other states, in their present excited temper, will not receive the fugitives kindly; but if NewEngland does not receive them with humanity and kindness, then will she prove herself recreant,-no longer the land of the Pilgrims, no more the boast of her Pilgrim sons. The control which one excited passion holds over reason,

and one unboly feeling over the beiter man, adds a necessity to these cautions, while the critical and hazardous issues of the present times give them solemn weight. One thing is lamentable above all others. It is, that the christian church in New England must be divided in action on the all-absorbing questions connected with emancipation, and that the determined advocate of slavery, who hates the anti-slavery man for his principles respecting freedom, and not making a discrimination between his case and

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