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ed ? and with what spirit shall it be brought into action? Shall it fall into the hands of foreign emissaries, to aid their purposes of ambition and selfishness ? or shall it be swayed by an influence of American benevolence, thus to rear up a people on whom the blessing of God may rest, and who shall be the willing benefactors of a guilty and perishing world ? A question this, deeply interesting to every citizen of these United States. Every man who loves bis country,—whose prayer is, that this republic may stand forth unbroken and mighty to bless the nations of the earth, long after ancient despotisms shall have crumbled in ruins; or who believes, that our fathers have not in vain planted their feet on these shores, and founded this realm of liberty; yea, every descendant of such sires is personally interested in the decision of this question. Who that has a rising family, which are here to meet the changes of life, and call this land their home; who that has already sent forth from the warm embrace of his love some darling child, to seek his fortune afar from the place of his birth, and where are the sepulchers of his fathers; and who that shudders at the thought of some possible conflict, where brother may meet brother in the field of deadly strife; who that would bind and rivet together in christian union the widely extended parts of this vast empire; who is there, indeed, with a heart to feel and a soul to be moved, but must look with the deepest solicitude to the question, What influences shall the West acknowledge, and what character shall it bear?

One of the most obvious methods of aiding the West is, immigration from the Atlantic States. They who are to be the direct and efficient instruments in this work, it is evident, must be on the field of action, ready to watch every impulse, to counteract whatever is unfavorable, and urge on whatever may promote the desired end. But how shall they go? Shall they go out in colonies, and plant their distinct settlements here and there in eligible situations; or shall they disperse themselves abroad, and become an integral part of the people? We say, by all means, the latter. This is a case where the concentration of some scores or hundreds will be less likely to effect the purpose, than by divisions and subdivisions. The final result is to be regarded. It is not merely to make a spot here and there in the midst of a wilderness, to bloom with the loveliness of an Eden; it is to turn the entire wilderness into one smiling landscape, where whatever is noxious may find no place, and whatever is useful and fair may thrive. Dispersed among the population of the West, identifying themselves and their own interests with the prospects and welfare of its inhabitants, such new comers must be absorbed in their multitude, as rain-drops fall into the bosom of the ocean and mingle with that world of waters.” Thus their efficiency may be selt.

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Every step they take, every blow they strike, every word they speak, and every prayer they breathe, will have an influence, and tell upon the surrounding empire of mind and heart. Such too are Dr. B’s views with respect to personal residence and personal effort. He justly disapproves of the other plan, upon which some have acted, of forminy distinct settlements in colonies and townships ; so far, especially, as it relates to the exertion of a propitious influence on the western population. No doubt the settlement of a township almost exclusively by those who have been neighbors and friends in New-England, and thus wont to think and act together, may in the highest degree contribute to present enjoyment; and hence such a plan is by far the most inviting which can be presented to families or individuals, who look to the West as a field of future enterprise. But we see many objections to it, considered as a plan for ultimate success in aiding the West in the right employment and direction of her vast resources of physical and moral energies. Mutual jealousies will be the natural and almost inevitable result. Confidence, so necessary to success in any effort to benefit others, can never be as well established; and instead of shedding over the darkness a sprinkling of light, which betokens the break of day, it will but spangle it here and there with a bright point, whose solitary luster will only render the encircling gloom more perceptible and appalling. Unacquainted, comparatively, with the peculiarities of the people spread out on the soil, their opportunities for usefulness will be slight and transient; whereas, if brought into daily contact with the existing inhabitants there, they may notice and acquire their desirable traits of character, and at the same time draw them off from hurtful principles and practices, guiding them to new and better views and opinions. A dissimilarity exists between the two classes, yet not so great, that their respective peculiarities may not be associated and turned to good account. In the West we meet with bold hardihood, untiring enterprise, free, spirited, and fearless avowal of sentiments and feelings, with a warmth and strength of emotion, the inevitable result of their situation and circumstances of life. Its wide extent, the grand features of the country, the amazing rapidity of its increase of population, the consciousness that such hopes and prospects are theirs, and the knowledge, that nothing can hinder each one from working out his own share in the work, -these are causes and considerations adapted to exert a mighty influence in giving vigor and spring to intellectual and moral energy in any bosom of her native sons. Born on the soil, cradled in the wilds, familiar, up from the days of infancy and boy hood, with the stories of peril and toil, trained to roam undaunted over the forests and prairies, to cross and recross the mighty streams, beholding the inhabitants of every clime seeking there a refuge and

a home; having thus ever before them, something to awaken attention and excite inquiry, the hardy sons of the West, if they perbaps lack the refinenement and polish of the more educated Atlantic population, are yet admirably suited to urge forward the great designs of God's providence for evangelizing the world. Incorporate now with these the more staid, cool-headed and inquisitive sons of the pilgrims, bred from their earliest days to habits of industry, taught to revere the institutions of God and their fathers, prizing the blessings which they leave, eager to diffuse like blessings wherever they go ; and let them, breathing the high purpose of serving God and strengthening his cause, become one with the warm-hearted christian there, each borrowing from the other their respective and estimable peculiarities, and where could we look for a type of intellectual excellence, or a basis for moral and religious character of better promise ? Such, now, may be the result of the mingled and mingling population. Sectional feeling, if it has ever had a place in the breast of the eastern emigrant, must no longer be harbored. He will, indeed, recollect his boyish days, and how he sported over the green hills, and along the streams and valleys of New-England; that there he tripped his way to the village-school, with the sons and daughters of the neighborhood; how, in the home of his youth, seated on the knees of a pious parent, he began to lisp the praises of God; or, led on by the hand of the same father or mother, he went to the sanctuary, and there was taught the truth as it fell from the preacher's lips. All these and many more such reminiscences and associations, grateful as they are to his heart, he may and must ever. cherish. Now and then, too, as it were, revisiting the spot of his birth, he may draw forth from the treasure of by-gone days some scene of his earlier history, to aid him in binding 10 himself and his far-off kindred and friends, the rising family with which God has blessed him. But he is no longer distinctively a New-Englander. Whatever consciousness he may feel of superiority in former privileges and acquisitions, he must lock up in his own breast ; nothing of such a feeling must appear, if he would be useful. He is henceforth to live and act, so far as any separate views and interests as a citizen are his, for the West. Her broad streams, waving fields and teeming villages, are to witness his future labors. There he is to garner his choicest riches, and a thousand new and tender associations are to spring up and hallow the spot. There his heart is to lay down what it loves most, and his feelings are to gush out, as he bears forth his kindred to their last home. There he is himself to die, having the sweet consciousness, that “ he will sleep, dust to dust,” in the same burial place “ with the objects of his affections." There his children are to enter on their heritage ; and within those bounds,-no narrow ones, indeed, which encircle him, he and they are to bring their physical, mental and moral energies to bear in direct personal efforts to benefit mankind. Nor is it solely by personal residence and efforts, that the West is to be aided.

The permanent establishment of schools, colleges, churches, and similar institutions there, are indispensable. On such means, as Dr. Beecher clearly shows, the main hope, under God, must be placed. To rely permanently on the East, for literary and religious teachers, is " but a drop of the bucket to the ocean." The requisite supply can only be raised up by institutions there, and “ by the instrumentality of a learned and pious ministry on the spot." Here he adverts to a fact deserving consideration, and which should never be lost from the mind :

Experience has evinced, that schools and popular education, in their best estate, go not far beyond the suburbs of the city of God. All attempts to legislate prosperous colleges and schools into being, without the intervening influence of religious education and moral principle, and habits of intellectual culture which spring up in alliance with evangelical institutions, have failed. Schools wane, invariably, in those towns where the evangelical ministry is neglected, and the sabbath is profaned, and the tavern supplants the worship of God. Thrift and knowledge in such places go out, while vice and irreligion come in.

But the ministry is a central luminary in each sphere, and soon sends out schools and seminaries as its satellites, by the hands of sons and daughters of its own training. A land supplied with able and faithful ministers, will of course be filled with schools, academies, libraries, colleges, and all the apparatus for the perpetuity of republican institutions. It always has been so,--it always will be.' pp. 22, 23.

• If we possessed the accommodations and the funds, we might easily send out a hundred ministers a year,-a thousand ministers in ten years,—around each of whom schools would arise, and instructors multiply, and churches spring up, and revivals extend, and all the elements of civil and religious prosperity abound.' p. 24.

Referring to an idea once quite current, but now, we trust, almost wholly exploded, “that mediocrity of talent will suffice for the West,” he gives us the following graphic picture of the population in the new states :

• But let him not go to the West. The men who, somehow, do not succeed at the East, are the very men who will succeed still less at the West. If there be in the new settlements at the West a lack of schools and educated mind, there is no lack of shrewd and vigorous mind; and if they are not deep read in Latin and Greek, they are well read in men and things. On their vast rivers, they go every where, and see every body, and know every thing, and judge with the tact of perspicacious common-sense. They are disciplined to resolution and mental vigor, by toils, and perils, and enterprises; and often they are called to

attend as umpires to the earnest discussions of their most able and eloquent men, which cannot fail to throw prosing dullness in the ministry at a fearful distance. No where, if a minister is deficient, will he be more sure to be "weighed in the balance and found wanting.” On the contrary, there is not a place on earth where piety, and talent, and learning, and argument, and popular eloquence, are more highly appreciated, or rewarded with a more frank and enthusiastic admiration. There are chords in the heart of the West which vibrate to the touch of genius, and to the power of argumentative eloquence, with a sensibility and enthusiasm no where surpassed. A hundred ministers of cultivated mind and popular eloquence might find settlement in an hundred places, and without the aid of missions, and only to increase the demand for a hundred more.

Most unquestionably the West demands the instrumentality of the first order of minds in the ministry, and thoroughly furnished minds, to command attention, enlighten the understanding, form the conscience, and gain the heart, and bring into religious organization and order the uncommitted mind and families of that great world ; and many a man who might guide respectably a well-organized congregation here of homogeneous character, and moving onward under the impetus of longcontinued habits, might fail utterly to call around him the population of a new country.' pp. 25—28.

The institutions which are to exert their influence on such a people, ought not to be stinted in the means they offer of improvement, and the advantages of a thorough and complete education. Let there, then, be a sufficiency of well-endowed colleges and seminaries, and let no pains be spared to raise them to the first rank, so far as time will allow. We see with regret, that in some of the Western states, a disposition is manifested to create numerous local institutions, thus weakening the strength of the churches which might, for the present at least, be advantageously concentrated in a less number, adequate for all useful purposes. The result will be, we fear, that none of them can as well succeed in enlisting the sympathies and aid of eastern benevolence. We can imagine no good reason why colleges and seminaries should now be planted more thickly in Ohio than in Massachusetts or Connecticut; and the effect of this measure is to hinder any one from reaching so high a grade as it might otherwise do, and to depress the standard of a liberal education. In the difficulty of procuring capable and experienced teachers, the offices are liable to be filled with unsuitable persons, and the education given, defective. We fear that this will be the result of some of the experiments now making in the West. We would, however, strenuously urge the establishment of primary, sabbath and common schools, the blessings of which may be widely diffused among the entire community. On these it is, that we must chiefly rely, while the future pastors and teachers of the West are in a course of training. Let the young Vol. VII.


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