« הקודםהמשך »
Barbary. height and ruggedness. The fiege of this place was lity peaceably till the year of the Hegira 297 or 298, Barbary:
committed to Pharas, an officer of great experience, during which time they made several descents on the
who having shut up all avenues to the town, the un- island of Sicily, and conquered part of it. About this
happy Gilimet was reduced to the greatest ftraits for time, however, one Obeidallah rebelled against the G'limer's want of provisions. Pharas being soon apprised of the house of Aglab, and assumed the title of khalif of extreme di- distress he was in, wrote him a most friendly and pa. Kairwan (the ancient Cyrene, and residence of the
thetic letter, earnestly exhorting him to put an end to Aglabite princes). To give the greater weight to his
the distress of himself and his friends by a surrender. pretensions he also took the furname of Al Muhdi, or
This Gilimer declined; but at the same time concluded Al Mahedi, the director. According to some, also, he
his answer with a most submissive requeft, that Pharas pretended to be descended in a right line from Ali Ebn
would so far pity his great distress as to send him a loaf Abu Taleb, and Fatema the daughter of Mahomet; for
of bread, a sponge, and a lute. This strange requeft which reafon, fay they, the Arabs called him and his
greatly surprised Pharas; but at last it was explained descendants Fatemites. He likewise encouraged him.
by the messenger, who told him that the king had not self and his followers by a traditional prophecy of Ma-
talled any baked bread since his arrival on that moun. homet, that at the end of 100 years the fun should rise
tain, and earnestly longed to eat a morsel of it before out of the west. Having at length driven the Agla- Driven oue
he died: the sponge he wanted to allay a tumour that bites into Egypt, where they became known by the by Al Moh-
was fallen on one of his eyes ; and the lute, on which name of Magrebians, he extended his dominions in
he had learned to play, was to assist him in setting fome Africa and Sicily, making Kairwan the place of his khalif.
elegiac verfes he had composed on the subject of his residence.
26 misfortunes to a suitable tune. At this mournful re- In the 300th year of the Hegira, Habbasah, one His general port Pharas could not refrain from tears, and imme- of Al Mohdi's generals, overthrew the khalif Al Mok-Habbalah diately dispatched the messenger with the things he tader's forces in the neighbourhood of Barca, and in va ies Ewanted.
made himself master of that city. After which he reGilimer had spent near three winter months on the duced Alexandria itself; and was making great profummit of this inhospitable mountain, his misery har. gress in the conquest of the whole country, when Al dening him ftill more against the thoughts of surren. Mokhtader dispatched against him his two generals dering, when a melancholy scene in his own family at Takin and Al Kasem, with an army of 100,000 men, once reconciled him to it. This was a bloody struggle Habbasah being informed that the khalif's troops were between two boys, one of them his sister's son, about in motion, advanced at the head of his army to give a flat bit of dough, laid on the coals; which the one them battle, and at last came up with them in an island seized upon, burning hot as it was, and clapped it in- called by the Arabs Ard Al Khamsin. Here he at. to his mouth ; but the other by dint of blows forced it tacked them with incredible bravery, notwithstanding out, and eat it from him. This quarrel, which might their force was much fuperior to his; but the approach have ended fatally had not Gilimer interposed, made fo of night obliged both generals to sound a retreat.deep an impression upon him, that he immediately dis. The action therefore was by no means decisive, tho’expatched a messenger to Pharas, acquainting him that tremely bloody, the khalif's generals having loft 20,000, he was willing to surrender himself and all his effects and Habbalah 10,000. The latter, however, durit noz upon the conditions he had offered, as soon as he was renew the fight next morning; but stole off in the night, allured that they were embraced by Belisarius. Pha- and returned home, so thatAl Mokhtaderin effect gained ras loft no time to get them ratified and sent back to a victory. In the 302d year of the Hegira, however, him ; after which he was conducted to Belisarius, who Habbasah returned, possessed himself of Alexandria á gave him a very kind reception. Gilimer was after- fecond time, defeated a body of the khalif's forces, wards brought before Juftinian in golden chains, whom and killed 7000 of them upon the spot. What fur
he befought in the most subuniflive manner to spare his ther progress he made at that time we are not cerKindly
life. This was readily granted by the emperor ; who tainly told ; but in the 307th year of the Hegira, Abul As does al ercated by also allowed him a handsome yearly penfion to live up. Kasem, son to the Fatemite khalif Al Mohdi, again fo his fi a Juftinian.
on as a private gentleman, But his mind and heart entered Egypt with an army of 100,000 men. At first Abul Ka. were too mnch unsettled and broken to enjoy the fweets he met with extraordinary success, and over-ran a cou
sem, of a private state ; so that Gilimer, oppressed with grief, fiderable part of that fine country. He made himself died in the year 534, the first of his captivity, and five master of Alexandria, Al Tayum, Al Baknasa, and the years after he had been raised to the throne.
ifle of Al Athmargin, penetrating even to Al Jizah, Barbary being thus again reduced under the power where the khalif's army under the command of Munes 23
of the Romans, its history falls to be taken notice of was posted in order to oppose him. In this country Barbary under that of Rome. In the khalifat of Omar, this he found means to maintain himself till the 308th year fubdued by country was reduced by the Saracens, as we have al- of the Hegira. This year, however, he was entirely who is ute
ready related under the article Arabia. It continued defeated by Munes, who made himfelf master of all his terly de-
fubject to the khalifs of Arabia and Bagdad till the baggage, as well as of the plunder he had acquired ; fcated by
reign of Harun Al Rashid, who having appointed I. and this blow obliged him to fly to Kairwan with the
brahim Ebn Aglab governor of the western parts of Mattered remains of his army, where he remained with-
bis empire, that prefect took the opportunity, first out making any further attempt on Egypt.
Principal of assuming greater powers to himself than had been Al Mohdi, reigned 24 years ; and was succeeded by
city of the granted by the khalif, and then erecting a princi- his son Abul Kasem abovementioned, who then took
Axlabites pality altogether independent of the khalifs. The the surname of Al Kayem Mohdi. During his reign
face of Aglab continued to enjoy their new principa- we read of nothing remarkable, except the revolt of
Barbary. one Yezid Ebn Condat, a man of mean extraction, far; but in the mean time, this enterprize did not di- Barbary
Il but who, having been raised to the dignity of chancel. vert Al Moez from the care of his other conquests, Rebellion lor, found means to raise such a strong party, that the particularly those of Sicily and Sardinia : to the last of Yezid. khalif was obliged to shut himself up in the castle of of which he failed in the year of the Hegira 361, con
Mohedia. Yezid, being then at the head of a power- tinuing a whole year in it, and leaving the care of his
ful army, soon reduced the capital of Kairwan, the African dominions to an experienced officer named
cities of Al Rakkada and Tunis, and several other rufef Ben Zeiri. He failed thence the following year
forcrelles. He was no less successful in defeating a for Tripoli in Barbary, where he had not staid long
considerable number of troops which Al Kayem had before he received the agreeable news that his general
raised and sent against him ; after which he closely be. had made himself master of Alexandria. He lott no
fieged the khalif himself in the castle where he had shut time, but immediately embarked for it, leaving the
himself up. The fiege continued seven months ; du- government of his old African dominions in the hands
ring which time the place was reduced to such ftraits, of his trusty servant Yusef abovementioned, and arri-
that the khalif must either have surrendered it or been ving safely at that port was received with all the demon- And trans-
ftarved, when death put an end to his anxiety in the strations of joy. Here he began to lay the foundations fers the seat
of govern. 12th year of his reign, and 3341h of the Hegira. of his new Egyptian dynasty, which was to put a final 30 Al Mansar Al Kayem was succeeded by his son Ilmael, who end to the old one of Kairwan after it had continued that counkhalif. immediately took upon himself the title of Al Mansur. about 65 years.
This khalif thought proper to conceal the death of his Al Moez preserved all his old dominions of Kair-
father till he had made the preparations necessary for wan or Africa Proper. But the ambition or avarice of
reducing the rebels. In this he was so successful, that the governors whom he appointed suffered them to run
he obliged Yezid to raise the fiege of Mohedia the same quickly to a shameful decay ; particularly the new and
year; and in the following gave him two great over. opulent metropolis of Mohedia, on which immense sums
throws, obliging him to shut himself up in the fortress had been lavilhed, as well as labour and care, so as to
of Kothama, or Cutama, where he belieged him in his render it not only one of the richest and stateliest, but
turn. Yezid defended the place a long time with de- one of the strongeit, cities in the world: so that we may
sperate bravery ; but finding the garrison at laft obliged truly say, the wealth and splendor of this once famed,
to capitulate, he made thift to efcape privately. Although short-lived ftate, took their final leave of it with
Mansur immediately dispatched a body of forces in pur- the departure of the khalif Al Moez, seeing the whole
fuit of hiın; who overtook, and brought him back in maritime tract from the Egyptian confines to the Straits
fetters; but not till after a vigorous defence, in which of Gibraltar hath since become the nest of the most
Death of Yezid received several dangerous wounds, of which he odious piratical crew that can be imagined.
Yezid. died in prison. After his death, Al Mansur caused his Under the article ALGIERS we have given a fort ac-
body to be flayed, and his skin stuffed and exposed to count of the erection of a new kingdom in Barbary by
public view. Of Al Mansur's exploits in Sicily an ac- Texefien; which, however, is there no farther continued
count is given under that article. Nothing farther re- than is necessary for the proper understanding the hi-
markable happened in his African dominions; and he ftory of that country. A general history might here
died after a reign of seven years and 16 days, in the be given of the whole country of Barbary; but as
341st of the Hegira.
that would neceffarily occafion repetitions under the Al Moez Al Mansur was succeeded by his son Abu Zammin articles Morocco, TRIPOLI, Tunis, &c. we must Ledinillah Moad, who assumed the surname of Al Meez Ledinil. refer to those articles for the historical part, as well khalif.
lah. He proved a very warlike prince, and maintained as for an account of the climate, inhabitants, &c.
a bloody contest with' Abdalrahman, khalif of Anda- BARBATELLI (Bernardino), otherwise called
lufia ; for a particular account of which see the article Pochetti, a painter of hittory, fruit, animals, and flowers,
Spain. In the 347th year of the Hegira, beginning was born at Florence in 1542. He was the disciple
March 25th, 958, Al Moez sent a powerful army to the of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio at Florence; from whose school.
weftern extremity of Africa, under the command of Abul he went to Rome, and studied there with such uncom-
Hasan Jawhar, one of his slaves, whom he had advan- mon affiduity, that he was frequently so abstracted,
ced to the digpity of Vizir. Jawhar first advanced to and fo absolutely engrossed by the objects of his con-
a city called Tahart, which he belieged for some time templations, as to forget the necessary refreshments of
ineffé&ually. From thence he marched to Fez, and sleep and food. He was excellent in painting every
inade the proper dispofitions for attacking that city. species of animals, fruit, or flowers; and in those sub-
But finding that Ahmed Ebn Becr, the Emir of the jects not only imitated, but equalled nature. His
place, was resolved to defend it to the last, he thought touch was free, light, and delicate, and the colouring
proper to abandon the enterprize. However, having of his objects inexpressibly true ; and, beside his merit
traversed all the tract between that capital and the At in his mot usual style of painting, the historical sub-
lantic ocean, he again sat down before Fcz, and took jects which he deligned from facred or profane authors
it by storm the following year.
were much esteemed and admired. He died in 1612.
But the greatest atchievement performed by this BARBE, or Barb. See Barb.
quers & khalif was his conquest of Egypt, and the removal of the Barbe, in the military art. To fire in barbe, means
khalifat to that country. This conquest, though long to fire the cannon over the parapet, instead of firing
projected, he did not attempt till the year of the He through the embrasures; in which case, the parapet
gira 358. Having then made all necessary preparations must not be above three feet and a half high.
for it, he committed the care of that expedition to a Barbe, 01 Barde, is an old word, denoting the
faithful and experienced general called Giafar, or Jaa. armour of the horses of the ancient knights and soldiers,
Barbe who were accoutred at all points. It is said to have BARBETS, the name of the inhabitants of several Barbets." !! been an armour of iron and leather, wherewith the neck, valleys in Piedmont, particularly those of Lucern, An
Barbieri. breatt, and shoulders of the horse were covered.
grona, Perusa, and Si Martin.
Barbe (St), a town of Biscay in Mexico, near which BARBEYRAC (John), was born in Befiers in
are rich tilver mines. W. Long. 109. 55. N. Lat. Lower Languedoc in 1674. He was made professor
of law and history at Lusanne in 1710; which he en-
BARBED, in a general sense, bearded like a fifhe joyed for seven years, and during that time was three
hook fet with barbs; allo shaved or trimmed.
times rector: in 1717, he was professor of public and BARBED and Crefied, in heraldry, an appellation private law at Groningen. He translated into French given to the combs and gills of a cock, when particu- the two celebrated works of Puffendorf, his Law of larized for being of a different tincture from the body. Nature and Nations, and his Duties of a Man and h
A barbed cross, is a cross the extremities whereof Citizen ; to both which he wrote excellent notes, and are like the barbed irons used for striking of fish. to the former an introductory preface. He translated
BARBEL, in iclithyology. See CYPRINUS. also Grotius's treatise De Jure Belli ac Pacis, with
BARBELICOTÆ, an ancient sect of Gnostics, large and excellent notes; and several of Tillotson's
spoken of by Theodoret. Their doctrines were ab- sermons. He wrote a work intitled Traité de Jeu,
furd, and their ceremonies too abominable to be re- 2 vol3 8vo.
BARBEZIEUX, a town of Saintonge in France,
BARBER, one who makes a trade of shaving or with the title of a marquisate. It hath a manufacture
trimming the beards of other men for money. An- of linen cloth ; and lies in W. Long. o. 5. N. Lat 45.
ciently, a lute or viol, or some such musical instrument, 23.
was part of the furniture of a barber's ihop, which was BARBICAN, or BARBACAN. See BARBACAN.
used then to be frequented by perfons above the ordi. BARBIERI (Giovanni Francesco), otherwise call-
nary level of the people, who resorted to the barber ei- ed Guercino da Cento, an eminent historical painter,
ther for the cure of wounds, or to undergo some chi- was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna, in
rurgical operations, or, as it was then called, to be 1590. At first he was the disciple of Benedetto Gen-
trimmed, a word that signified either having or cutting nari ; but he afterwards studied for some time in the
and curling the hair; thefe, together with letting blood, school of the Caracci, though he did not adopt the
were the ancient occupations of the barber-surgeon. manner of that famous academy. He seemed to pre-
As to the other important branch of surgery, the fet- fer the style of Caravaggio to that of Guido or Alba-
ting of fractured limbs, that was practised by another no, imagining it impoflible to imitate nature truly,
class of men called bone-fetters, of whom there are without the asliftance of strong lights and strong ma-
hardly any now remaining. The musical instruments dows; and from that principle, his light was admitted
in his shop were for the entertainment of waiting cu- into his painting room from above. In effect, by the
Homers; and answered the end of a newspaper, with opposition of his strong lights and Thadows, he gave
which at this day those who wait for their turn at the such force to his pictures, that few, except those of
barber's amuse themselves. For the origin of the bar- Caravaggio, can stand near them, and not seem feeble
ber's pole, see the article APPELLATION.
in their effect : however, that manner is censured as
BARBERINI (Francis), one of the most excellent not being like nature, because it makes objects appear
poets of his age, was born at Barberino, in Tuscany, as if they were seen by candle light, or by the bright-
in the year 1264. As his mother was of Florence, he ness of a fun-beam, which alone can justify the deep-
settled in that city; where his profession of the law, ness of his shadowing. The principal attention of Gu-
but especially the beauty of his poetry, raised him a ercino seems to have been fixed on arriving at perfec-
very confiderable character. The greatest part of his tion in colouring ; he saw the astonishing effects pro-
works are loft ; but that which is intitled the Precepts duced by the colouring of the celebrated Venetian
of Love, which is a moral poem calculated to instruct masters; and observed, that notwithstanding any im-
those in their duty who have a regard for glory, vir- perfections in regard to grace, correctness, or elegance,
tue, and eternity, has had a better fate. It was pul- the works of those matters were the objects of universal
blished at Rome, adorned with beautiful figures, in admiration. From which observation, he seems to
1640, by Frederic Ubaldini: he prefixed the author's have devoted his whole study to excel in colouring; as
life'; and, as there are in the poein many words which if he were convinced, that few are qualified to discern
are grown obfolete, he added a glossary to explain the elevation of thought, which constitutes the excel-
them, which illustrates the sense by the authority of lence of a composition ; few may be touched with the
grandeur or beauty of the design, or perhaps have a caBARBERINO, a town of Tuscany in Italy, fi- pacity to examine even the correctness of any part of a tuated at the foot of the Apennine mountains, in E. painting ; and yet every eye, and even every imperfect Long. 12. 15. N. Lat. 43. 40.
judge of a picture, may be sensibly affected by the
BARBERRY, in botany. See BERBERIS. force and beauty of the colouring. His talte of deliga
BARBESUL (anc. geo9.), a town and river of was natural, easy, and often grand, but without any
Bætica, and a colony in the refort of the Conventus extraordinary share of elevation, correctness, or ele-
Gaditanus in Spain : now Marbella in Grenada. gance. The airs of his heads often want dignity, and
BARBET, in natural history, a name given by his local colours want truth. However, there is great
M. Reaumur, and other of the French writers, to a union and harmony in his colours, although his carna-
peculiar species of the worms which feed on the pu- tions are not very fresh; and in all his works there is a
cerons or aphides. Sce Arhuis.
powerful and expreflive imitation of life, which will
Barbieri for ever render them eftimable. Towards the decline hurricanes. It labours almost every where under a
o of his life, he observed that the clearer and brighter great scarcity of water; and except in the neighbour-
style of Guido and Albano had attracted the admira- hood of towns and villages, where the ground produces
tion of all Europe ; and therefore he altered his man- some small quantities of grain, such as millet, and some
Der, even against his own judgment. But he apologized maize, the rest is in a manner quite barren and uncul-
for that conduct, by declaring, that in his former time tivated, or to speak more properly, uncultivable : and
he painted for fame, and to please the judicious; and even of that small quantity which those few spots pro-
he now painted to please the ignorant, and enrich him- duce, the poor inhabitants are obliged to exchange
felf. He died in 1666.- The most capital performance fome part with their indigent neighbours, for dates,
of Guercino, is the history of S. Petronilla, which is heep, and camels, which they stand in greater need of
confidered as one of the ornaments of S. Peter's at than they, by reason of their great scarcity of grass
and other proper food; for want of which, those that
BarbieRI (Paolo Antonio), da Cento, painter of are brought to them seldom thrive or live long. In this
still life and animals, was the brother of Guercino, and country flood the famed temple of Jupiter Ammon ,
born at Cento in 1596. He chofe for his subjects and not withitanding the pleasantness of the spot where
fruit, flowers, insects, and animals ; which he painted itstood, this part of the country is said to have been
after nature with a lively tint of colour, great tender- the most dangerous of any, being surrounded with such
ness of pencil, and a strong character of truth and life. quick and burning sands as are very detrimental to tra-
He died in 1640.
vellers ; not only as they fink under their feet, but beBARBITOS, or Barbiton, an ancient instrument ing light, and heated by the rays of the sun, are easily of mufic, mounted with three, others say seven, strings; raised by every breath of wind; which, if it chance to much used by Sappho and Alcæus, whence it is also be in their faces, almost burns their eyes out, and stiffes denominated Lelboum.
them for want of breath; or if vehement, often overBARBLES, or BARBS, in farriery, the knots or whelms whole caravans, Agzinit this temple Cambyses fuperfluous flesh that grow up in the channels of a king of Persia dispatched an army of 50,000 men. horse's mouth; that is, in the intervals that separate the They set out from Thebes in upper Egypt, and under bars, and lie under the tongue. These, which are also the conduct of proper guides reached the city of Oasis called barbes, obtain in black cattle as well as horses, seven days journey from that place: but what was their and obstruct their eating. For the cure, they cast the fate afterwards is uncertain; for they never returned beast, take out his tongue, and clip of the barbles with either to Egypt or to their own country. The Ama pair of scissars, or cut them with a sharp knife; others monians informed Herodotus, that, after the army choose to burn them off with a hot iron.
had entered the fandy desart which lies beyond Oasis,
BARBOUR (John), archdeacon of Aberdeen, was a violent wind began to blow from the south at t'e
eiteemed an elegant poet in the reign of David I. He time of their dinner, and raised the sand to such a de-
wrote the history of Robert the Bruce, in an heroic gree, that the whole army was overwhelmed and bu-
poem, which is still extant, and which contains many ried alive.
facts and anecdotes omitted by other historians. The Concerning the government or commerce of this
latest edition of this book is that of Glasgow, 8vo, country we know nothing certain. Most probably the
printed in the year 1672. It is intitled, “ The acts maritime towns are under the protection of the Porte :
and life of the most victorious conqueror Robert Bruce but whether under the basha of Egypt or Tripoli, or
king of Scotland; wherein also are contained the mar- whether they have formed themselves into independent
tial deeds of the valiant princes Edward Bruce, Sir states like those of Algiers and Tunis, we cannot say ;
James Dowglass, Earl Thomas Randal, Walter Stew. only we are told that the inhabitants of the maritime
ard, and fundry others.” In one paílage, he calls it a towns are more civilized than those that dwell in the
romance ; but that word was then of good reputation: inland parts. The firft profess Mahometanism, and
every body knows that the · Romaunt of romaunts'. have imlaibed some notions of humanity and justice ;
has been innocently applied to true history; as well as whilft the latter, who have neither religion nor any
the · Ballad of ballads to a sacred song.
fign of worship among them, are altogether savage and
BARBUDA, one of the British Caribbee islands, brutish. They are a sort of Arabs, and like them live
about 20 miles long and 12 broad. It is low land, but entirely upon theft and plunder. By them this tract,
fruitful and pretty populous. The inhabitants addict which before was a continued desart, was first inhabited.
themselves to husbandry, and find always a ready mar- At their first coming in, they settled themselves in one
ket for their corn and cattle in the sugar islands. Bar- of the best places of the country; but as they multi-
buda is the property of the Codrington family, who plied, and had frequent wars with one another, the
have great numbers of negroes here as well as in Bar. trongest drove the weakest out of the best spots, and
badoes. It lies in W. Long. 61. 3. N. Lat. 18.5. sentihem to wander in the desart parts, where they live
BARCA, a large country of Africa, lying on the in the most miserable manner, their country hardly afcoasts of the Mediterranean sea, between the kingdoms fording one single necessary of life. Hence it is that of Egypt and Tripoli, extending itself in length from they are said to be the ugliest of all the Arabs : their east to west from the 39th to the 46th degree of eait bodies having scarcely any thing but skin and bone, longitude, and in breadth from north to fouth about their faces meagre, with fierce ravenous looks; their 30 leagues, as is generally supposed. It is for the most garb, which is commonly what they take from the palpart, especially in the middle, a dry fandy desart; on sengers who go through these parts, tattered with long which account the Arabs call it Suhart, or Ceyart wearing ; while the pooreil of them have scarce a rag Barka, that is, the desart or road of whirlwinds or to cover their nakedness. They are most expert and
Barcalon, resolute robbers, that being their chief employment ragon, out of hatred to his queen Donna Juanna ; the Barcelona.
Barcelona. and livelihood; but the travellers in these parts are so consequence of which was, that Barcelona was besieged
few, that the Barcans are often necessitated to make by that monarch in 1471. Various efforts were made
diftant excursions into Numidia, Libya, and other by Lewis XI. of France and the duke of Lorrain in
southern countries. Those that fall into their hands order to raise the fiege, but without effect. Things
arr made to drink plenty of warm milk: then they at length were brought to the utmost extremity, when
hang them up by the feet, and shake them, in order to the king offered to pardon them all, without the small-
make them vomit up any money they think they have est punishment either in person or property, provided
fwallowed ; after which, they strip them of all their they would submit : but these terms they rejected,
clothes, even to the last rag: but with all this inhu- chiefly through the influence of the count de Pailhars,
manity, they commonly spare their life, which is more who had been pardoned the year before. The army,
than the other African robbers do. Yet notwithstand. on the other hand, was very earnest in being led on to
ing every artifice they can use, the Barcans are so poor, the assault, in hopes of plunder. The king, however,
that they commonly let, pledge, or even fell, their chil. wrote a letter to the citizens, dated the 6th of Oeto.
dren to the Sicilians and others from whom they have ber, in terms as affectionate as if he had been writing
their corn, especially before they set out on any long to his children, bewailing the miseries they had brought
on themselves, and concluding with a protestation that
BARCALON, an appellation given to the prime they, and not he, must be answerable for the confe-
minister of the king of Siam. The barcalon has in his quences. Upon this, at the persuasion of a priest who
department every thing relating to commerce, both at had a reputation før sanctity, they fent deputies to the
home and abroad. He is likewise superintendant of king, and made a capitulation on the 17th of the fame
the king's inagazines.
month. In this the king acknowledged they had
BARCELONA, a handsome, rich, and strong city taken up arms on juft motives ; and forgave every body
of Spain, in the province of Catalonia, of which it is except Pailhars, who was, however, fuffered to escape.
. This city was originally founded by Ha- On the 22d of October the king made his entry
milcar Barcas, and from him called Barcing. It was
It was the city, and contirmed all their ancient privileges. In
reduced by the Romans, and continued subject to them 1697, Barcelona was taken by the French, after a
till the kingdom of Spain was over-run by the Goths bloody fiege of 52 days; and the loss of this city had
and Vandals, and afterwards by the Saracens or Moors. a considerable effect in disposing the Spaniards to agree
In the beginning of the oth century, Barcelona was in to the treaty of Ryswick In Queen Anne's time it
the hands of the Moors, and under the governinent of was taken by the allies under the Earl of Peterborough ;
one Zade. This governor having more than once abu- but being afterwards shamefully denied assistance by the
sed the clemency of Charlemagne, at last irritated Lewis English ministry, was obliged to submit to Philip II.
king of Aquitain, and son to Charles, to such a degree, by whom the whole province was deprived of its an-
that he gave orders to his generals to inveft the city, cient privileges ; for a particular account of which, see
and not to rise from before it till they had put Zade the article SPAIN.
into his hands. The Moor made a most obftinate re- Barcelona is situated by the sea-side, of a form be.
siftance, so that the fiege lafted many months : at lait, tween a square and an oval; it is surrounded with a
finding it impossible to preserve the city much longer, good brick wall, round which is another, with 14 ba-
and being destitute of all hopes of relief, he determined, llions, horn-works, ramparts, and ditches; the ram-
or rather was compelled by the inhabitants, to go to the parts are high, broad, and spacious, insomuch that
Christian camp and implore the emperor's mercy; but 100 coaches may be seen every evening driving thereon
here he was no sooner arrived than he was arrested and for pleasure. The city is divided into two parts, the
fent prisoner to Charlemagne, who condemned him to Old and the New, which are feparated from each other
perpetual banishment. The people gaining nothing by by a wall and a large ditch ; the streets are handsome,
this expedient, continued to hold out for fix weeks well paved with large stones, wide, and very clean. It
longer, when the king of Aquitain himself took the is the residence of a viceroy, is a bishop's see, has a
command of the fiege. To him they made a proposal, fine university, a mint, a good port, and is adorned
that if he would allow them to march out and go with handsome buildings. Here is a court of inqui-
where they pleased, they would surrender the place. fition, which the inhabitants look upon as an advantage.
Lewis having agreed to this, made his public entry in- The remarkable buildings are the cathedral, which is
to Barcelona, where he formed a design of extending large, handsome, and adorned with two high towers,
his father's dominions as far as the Ebro ; but being the church of the Virgin Mary, the palace of the bishop,
recalled before he could put his design in execution, that of the inquisition, and several religious houses :
he appointed one Bera count of Barcelona. The city add to these the palace of the viceroy; the arsenal,
continued subject to him and his fucceffors, who fill which contains arms for 1000 men ; the exchange,
enjoyed the title of counts of Barcelona, from the year where the merchants meet ; the fersana, where they
802 to 1131 ; during which time we find nothing re- build the galleys; and the palace where the nobility
markable, except that the city was once taken by the of the country meet, called La Casa de la Deputation.
Moors, but soon after retaken by the assistance of This last is built with fine large free stone, and adorned
Lewis IV. king of France. In 1131 it was united to with columns of marble: there is in it a large hall,
the crown of Arragon by the marriage of Don Ray- with a gilt cieling and a handsome portico, wherein
mond V. count of Barcelona with the daughter of Don persons may either walk or fits the hall is adorned
Ramiro the Monk, king of Arragon. In 1465 the with the portraits of all the counts of Barcelone.
Catalonians revolted against Don Juan II. king of Ar. There are several fine squares, particularly that of St