תמונות בעמוד
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small]

LABRADO'R (Port. terra labarador, ócultivable and seal-oil—the annual amount being estimated at land'), the name given by certain Portuguese dis- fully £600,000 sterling. The climate, like that of coverers to the continental coast of America near North America generally, is subject to great vicissiNewfoundland ; a name as inappropriate as that tudes. In summer, the thermometer ranges as high of Greenland ! The name gradually came to be as 85° Fahr. ; in winter, the temperature, and that extended from the Strait of Belleisle to Hudson's in nearly the same latitudes as the British Isles, falls Strait, being sometimes carried as far westward as 30° below the freezing-point. L. is a dependency the eastern shores of Hudson's Bay. More properly, of the United Kingdom, but it has never had a however, L. embraces only such portions of that separate government of its own, being considered vast peninsula as do not fall within the chartered sometimes as an appendage of Canada, and someterritories of the Hudson's Bay Company (q. v.), by times as an appendage of Newfoundland. It is at pouring water into Hudson's Strait or Hudson's present believed to be in the latter position. Bay. In this restricted sense, the country stretches in N. lat. from about 52° to about 60°, and in variety of Felspar (q.v.), common as a constituent

LA'BRADORITE, or LABRADOR STONE, a W. long. from about 55° to upwards of 65°; area, of dolerite, greenstone, the gabbro, and hypersthene 70,000 square miles ; pop. 5000. Of this extensive rocks. It consists of about 53 per cent. of silica, country the interior is little known; but is under and 29 alumina, with 12 lime, and a little soda and stood to be mostly an impenetrable wilderness of peroxide of iron. It is cut into snuff-boxes and swamps and forests.

The maritime þorder, how other articles ; taking a fine polish, and often ever (although its shores are wild and precipitous, exhibiting rich colours

, not unfrequently several reaching a height of from 400 to 600 feet

, and in the same piece, when the light falls on it in on the north from 1000 to 1500 feet), is not without its value. The sea is here far less subject particular directions ; the general colour being

It was first discovered by the Moravian foundland, where the warm waters of the Florida missionaries in the island of St Paul, on the Stream meet the cold currents from the north ; and coast of Labrador. It has been found in meteoric

stones. as it is constantly supplied from the polar ice, its temperature is remarkably favourable both to the LA'BRIDÆ, a family of osseous fishes, ranked quantity and the quality of its fish. Of the entire by Cuvier in the order Acanthopterygii (q. v.), by population of L., 4000 are Esquimaux, who are Müller in his new order, Pharyngognathi (q. v.). settled on the gulfs and creeks of the coast, and who They are divided by Müller into two families, subsist chiefly by fishing. Many European estab- Cteno-labridæ and Cyclo-labridæ, the former having lishments also have sprung up on the coast

, some ctenoid, the latter, cycloid scales; the former comof them, such as the Moravian settlements, blending paratively a small, the latter, a very numerous commercial pursuits with missionary labours. The family. They are generally oval or oblong, and principal missionary stations are Nain_(founded more or less compressed, with a single dorsal fin, 1771), Okak (1776), Hebron (1830), and Hopenthal spinous in front, and the jaws covered by feshy lips. (1782). The sheries employ, the season, nearly Their colours are generally brilliant. They abound 1000 decked vessels, belonging partly to the British chiefly in tropical seas, but twelve or thirteen Provinces, principally Newfoundland, and partly to species are found on the British coasts, none of the United States. Besides a few furs and feathers, them large, nor esteemed for food. The most the exports consist of cod and salmon, with cod-oil valuable of the family is the Tautog (q. v.) of North


LABRUYERE-LABYRINTH. America. To this family belong the Wrasses and the Egyptian, the Cretan, and the Samian. The the Parrot-fishes, one of which is the celebrated first, or Egyptian, of which the others seem to have Scarus of the ancients.

been imitations, was situated at Crocodilopolis, close

to the lake Mæris, in the vicinity of the present LABRUYERE, JEAN DE, a French author of celebrity, particularly noted for his nice and delicate pyramid of Biakhmu. According to the classical delineations of character. He was born at Dourdan, Petesuchis, Tithoes, Imandes, Ismandes, Maindes, or

authors, it was built by an Egyptian monarch named in Normandy, in 1644 or 1646, was brought to Mendes. The recent discovery of the remains of the French court at the recommendation of Bossuet, this building by Lepsius has, however, shewn that and became one of the tutors of the Dauphin, whose the city was founded by Amenemha I, of the education Fenelon superintended. He spent the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, about 1800 B. c., and whole remainder of his life at court, in the enjoy that this monarch was probably buried in it, while ment of a pension, and in the most intimate inter- the pyramid and south temple were erected by course with the most accomplished men of his time. Amenemha III. and IV., whose The work on which his high reputation rests, Les the name of Mæris, and their sister, Sebeknefru or

prænomens resemble Caractères de Théophraste, traduits du Grec, avec les Caractères ou les Mæurs de ce Siècle (Par. 1687), of the twelfth dynasty. Great confusion prevails

Scemiophris, appears to have been the last sovereign has gone through many editions, some of them in the ancient authorities as to the object of the annotated, and has been translated into several building, which contained twelve palaces under languages.

one roof, supposed to have been inhabited by LABUA’N, a member of the Malayan Archi- the Dodecarchy, or twelve kings who conjointly pelago, lies about thirty miles off the north-west reigned over Egypt before Psammetichus I. ; while, coast of Borneo. It measures ten miles by five, and according to other authorities, it was the place of the latitude and longitude of its centre are 5° 22' N., assembly of the governors of the nomes or districts, and 115° 10' E. Small as it is, it is peculiarly twelve in number according to Herodotus, sixteen valuable. Besides possessing a good harbour, it according to Pliny, and twenty-seven according to contains an extensive bed of excellent coal, which is Strabo. It was built of polished stone, with many worked by a recently formed company British chambers and passages, said to be vaulted, having capitalists; and having become, in 1846, a British a peristyle court with 3000 chambers, half of possession, it bids fair, as well from its political which were under the earth, and the others above connection as from its natural advantages, to be a ground, which formed another story: The upper nucleus of civilisation for the whole of the surround chambers were decorated with reliefs ; the lower ing islands. Already it has been erected into a see were plain, and contained, according to tradition, of the Church of England.

the bodies of the twelve founders of the building,

and the mummies of the sacred crocodiles, conferring LABU'RNUM [Cytisus (q. v.) Laburnum], a

on the building the character of a mausoleum, small tree, a native of the Alps and other moun. probably conjoined with a temple, that of Sebak, tains of the south of Europe, much planted in the crocodile-god, and so resembling the Serapeium. shrubberies and pleasure-grounds in Britain, on Herodotus and Strabo both visited this edifice, account of its glossy foliage and its large pendulous which was difficult to pass through without the aid racemes of yellow flowers, which are produced of a guide. It stood in the midst of a great square. in great abundance in May and June. It is often mixed with lilac, and when the latter pre rather arragonite—and of Syenitic granite pillars ;

Part was constructed of Parian marble-probably ponderates, the combination has a fine effect. In had a staircase of ninety steps, and columns of favourable circumstances, L. sometimes attains a porphyry; and the opening of the doors echoed like height of twenty, or even forty feet. It is very the reverberation of thunder. For a long time, hardy, and nowhere flourishes better than in the great doubt prevailed whether any remains of the north of Scotland. It is of rapid growth, yet its building existed, and it was supposed to have been wood is hard, fine-grained, and very heavy, of a overwhelmed by the waters of the lake Mæris ; and dark brown or dark-green colour, and much valued although P. Lucas and Letronne thought they had for cabinet-work, inlaying, and turnery, and for discovered the site, its rediscovery is due to Lepsius, making knife-handles, musical instruments, &c. The who found part of the foundations or lower chambers leaves, bark, &c., and particularly the seeds, are close to the site of the old Maris Lake, or modern nauseous and poisonous, containing. Cytisine, an Birket-el-Keroun. According to Pliny, it was 3600 emetic, purgative, and narcotic principle, which is also found in many allied plants. Accidents from years old in his days.

The second, or next in renown to the Egyptian, L. seeds are not unfrequent to children ; but to hares and rabbits, L. is wholesome food, and they built by Dædalus for the Cretan monarch Minos,

was the labyrinth of Crete, supposed to have been are so fond of it, that the safety of other trees in a in which the Minotaur was imprisoned by his orders. young plantation may be insured by introducing L. Although represented on the Cretan coins of Cnossus plants in great number, which spring again from the sometimes of a square, and at other times of a roots when eaten down. —A fine variety of L., called circular form, no remains of it were to be found Scotch L., by some botanists regarded as a distinct even in times of antiquity, and its existence was species (C. Alpinus), is distinguished by broader supposed to be fabulous. The only mode of finding leaves and darker yellow flowers, which are pro- the way out of it was by means of a hank or skein duced later in the season than those of the common of linen thread, which gave the clue to the dwelling or English laburnum.

of the Minotaur. The tradition is supposed to have LA'BYRINTH (a word of unknown origin, been based on the existence of certain natural derived by some from Labaris, the name of an caves or grottos, perhaps the remains of quarries, Egyptian monarch of the twelfth dynasty), the and it has been supposed to have existed northname of some celebrated buildings of antiquity, west of the island, near Cnossus, while a kind of consisting of many chambers or passages difficult to natural labyrinth still remains close to Gortyna. pass through without a guide, and the name hence The idea is supposed to have been derived from the applied to a confused mass of constructions. In Egyptian. the hieroglyphics, the word mera signifies a “laby. The third of the labyrinths of antiquity was the rinth.' The principal labyrinths of antiquity were Samian, constructed by Theodorus and artists of

« הקודםהמשך »