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" them. I have already mentioned the term killing “ nurse, as known in some workhouses : Venice treacle, “ poppy water, and Godfrey's cordial, have been the “ kind instruments of lulling the child to his everlasting 66 rest. If these pious women could send up an eja“ culation when the child expired, all was well, and “ no questions asked by the superiors. An ingenious “ friend of mine informs me, that this has been so “ often the case, in some workhouses, that Venice “ treacle has acquired the appellation of the Lord " have mercy upon me, in allusion to the nurses hack“ neyed expression of pretended grief when infants ex“ pire ! Farewel !”
I know not upon what observation Mr. Hanway founds his confidence in the Governors of the Foundling Hospital, men of whom I have not any knowledge, but whom I intreat to consider a little the minds as well as bodies of the children. I am inclined to believe Irreligion equally pernicious with Gin and Tea, and therefore think it not unseasonable to mention, that when a few months ago I wandered through the Hospital, I found not a child that seemed to have heard of his creed, or the commandments. To breed up children in this manner, is to rescue them from an early grave, that they may find employment for the gibbet ; from dying in innocence, that they may perilh by their crimes.
Having considered the effects of Tea upon the liealth of the drinker, which, I think, he has aggravated in the vehemence of his zeal, and which, after soliciting them by this watery luxury, year after year, I have not yet felt; he proceeds to examine how it may be sewn to affect our interest;
and first calculates the national loss by the time spent in drinking Tea. I have no desire to appear captious, and shall therefore readily admit, that Tea is a liquor not proper for the lower classes of the people, as it supplies no strength to labour, or relief to disease, but gratifies the taste without nourishing the body. It is a barren superfluity, to which those wlio can hardly procure what nature requires, cannot prudently habituate themselves. Its proper use is to anuse the idle, and relax the studious, and dilute the full meals of those who cannot use exercise, and will pot use abstinence. That time is lost in this infipid entertainment, cannot be denied ; many trifle away at the Tea-table those moments which would be better fpent; but that any national detriment can be inferred from this waste of time, does not evidently appear, because I know not that any work remains undone for want of hands. Our manufactures seem to be limnited, not by the possibility of work, but by the poffibility of sale.
His next argument is more clear. He affirms, that one hundred and fifty thousand pounds in silver are paid to the Chinese annually, for three millions of pounds of Tea, and that for two millions more brought clandestinely from the neighbouring coasts, we pay, at twenty-pence a pound, one hundred fixtyfix thousand six hundred and fixty-six pounds. The author justly conceives, that this computation will waken us; for, says he, “ The loss of health, the “ loss of time, the injury of morals, are not very “ fenfibly felt by fome, who are alarmed when you “ talk of the loss of money.” But he excuses the East-Iodia Company, as men not obliged to be po.
litical arithmeticians, or to inquire so much what the nation loses, as how themselves, may grow rich. It is certain, that they who drink Tea have no right to complain of those that import it; but if Mr. Hanway's computation be just, the importation and the ule of it ought at once to be Itopped by a penal law.
The author allows one flight argument in favour of Tea, which, in my opinion, might be with far greater justice urged both against that and many other parts of our naval trade. “ The Tea trade employs (he “ tells us) six ships, and five or fix hundred seamen, “ fent annually to China. It likewise brings in a re
venue of three hundred and fixty thousand pounds, “ which, as a tax on luxury, may be considered as of “ great utility to the state.” The utility of this tax I cannot find; a tax on luxury is no better than another tax, unless it hinders luxury, which cannot be faid of the impost upon Tea, while it is thus used by the great and the mean, the rich and the poor. The truth is, that by the loss of one hundred and fifty thousand pounds, we procure the means of shifting three hundred and fixty thousand at best, only from one hand to another; but perhaps sometimes into hands by which it is not very honestly employed. Of the five or six hundred seamen sent to China, I am told that sometimes half, commonly a third part, perish in the voyage; so that instead of setting this navigation against the inconveniences already alleged, we may add to them, the yearly loss of two hundred men in the prime of life; and reckon, that the trade of China has destroyed ten thousand men since the beginning of this century.
If Tea be thus pernicious, if it impoverishes our country, if it raises temptation, and gives opportunity to illicit commerce, which I have always looked on as one of the strongest evidences of the inefficacy of our law, the weakness of our government, and the corruption of our people, let us at once resolve to prohibit it for ever.
“ If the question was, how to promote industry “ most advantageously, in lieu of our Tea-trade, sup“ pofing every branch of our commerce to be already “ fully supplied with men and money? If a quarter “ the sum now spent in Tea, were laid out annually “ in plantations, in making publick gardens, in “ paving and widening streets, in making roads, in “ rendering rivers navigable, erecting palaces, build. “ ing bridges, or neat and convenient houses where are “ now only huis; draining lands, or rendering those « which are now barren of some use; should we not “ be gainers, and provide more for health, pleasure, " and long life, compared with the consequences of “ the Tea-trade ?"
Our riches would be much better employed to these purposes ; but if this project does not please, let us first resolve to save our money, and we shall afterwards very easily find ways to spend it.
THIS is a very curious and entertaining miscel.
1 lany of critical remarks and literary history. Though the book promises nothing but observations on the writings of Pope, yet no opportunity is neglected of introducing the character of any other writer, or the mention of any performance or event in which learning is intereited. From Pope, however, he always takes his hint, and to Pope he returns again from his digressions. The facts which he mentions, though they are seldom anecdotes in a rigorous sense, are often such as are very little known, and such as will delight more readers than naked criticism.
As he examines the works of this great poet in an order nearly chronological, he necessarily begins with his pastorals, which considered as representations of any kind of life, he very justly censures; for there is in them a mixture of Grecian and English, of ancient and modern, images. Windsor is coupled with Habla, and Thames with Paciolus. He then compares