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The history of manufactures is likewise delivered. Of every artificial commodity the manner in which it is made is in some measure described, though it muk be remembered, that manual operations are scarce to be conveyed by any words to him that has not seen them. Some general notions may however be afforded : it is easy to comprehend, that plates of iron are formed by the pressure of rollers, and bars by the strokes of a hammar; that a cannon is cast, and that an anvil is forged. But as it is to moft traders of more use to know when their goods are well wrought, than by what means, care has been taken to name the places where every manufacture has been carried furthest, and the marks by which its excellency may be ascertained.
By the places of trade are understood all ports, cities, or towns, where staples are established, manufactures are wrought, or any commodities are bought and fold advantageously. This part of our work includes an enumeration of almost all the remarkable places in the world, with such an account of their situation, customs, and products, as the merchant would require, who being to begin a new trade in any foreign country, was yet ignorant of the commodities of the place, and the manners of the inhabitants.
But the chief attention of the merchant, and consequently of the author who writes for merchants, ought to be employed upon the means of trade, which include all the knowledge and practice necessary to the skilful and successful conduct of commerce.
The first of the means of trade is proper education, which may confer a competent skill in numbers; to be afterwards completed in the counting-house, by ob
fervation of the manner of stating accounts, and regu. lating books, which is one of the few arts which having been studied in proportion to its importance, is carried as far as use can require. The counting-house of an accomplished merchant is a school of method, where the great science may be learned of ranging particulars under generals, of bringing the different parts of a transaction together, and of shewing at one view a long series of dealing and exchange. Let no man venture into large business while he is ignorant of the method of regulating books; never let him imagine that any degree of natural abilities will enable him to supply this deficiency, or preserve multiplicity of affairs from inextricable confusion,
This is the study, without which all other studies will be of little avail; but this alone is not fufficient. It will be necessary to learn many other things, which however may be easily included in the preparatory inftitutions, such as an exact knowledge of the weights and measures of different countries, and some skill in geography and navigation, with which this book may perhaps sufficiently supply him.
In navigation, considered as part of the skill of a merchant, is included not so much the art of steering a Thip, as the knowledge of the sea-coast, and of the different parts to which his cargoes are sent, the customs to be paid ; the passes, permissions, or certifi, eates to be procured; the hazards of every voyage, and the true rate of insurances. To this must be added, an acquaintance with the policies and arts of other nations, as well those to whom the commodities are sold, as of thole who carry goods of the same kind
to the same market; and who are therefore to be watched as rivals endeavouring to take advantage of every error, miscarriage, or debate. .
The chief of the means of trade is money, of which our late refinements in traffick have made the knowledge extremely difficult. The merchant must not only informı himself of the various denominations and value of foreign coins, together with their method of counting and reducing ; such as the milleries of Portugal, and the livres of France; but he must learn what is of more difficult attainment; the discount of exchanges, the nature of current paper, the principles upon which the several banks of Europe are eita. blished, the real value of funds, the true credit of trading companies, with all the sources of profit, and poffibilities of loss. · All this he must learn merely as a private dealer, attentive only to his own advantage ; but as every man ought to consider himself as part of the community to which he belongs, and while he prosecutes his own interest to proniote likewise that of his country, it is necessary for the trader to look abroad upon man. kind, and study many questions which are perhaps more properly political than mercantile. · He ought therefore to consider very accurately the balance of trade, or the proportion between things exported and imported; to examine what kinds of commerce are unlawful, either as being expressly prohibited, because detriinental to the manufactures or other interest of his country, as the exportation of filver to the East-Indies, and the introduction of French commodities; or unlawful in itself, as the traffick for
negroes. negroes. He ought to be able to state with accuracy, the benefits and mischiefs of monopolies, and exclusive companies; to enquire into the arts which have been practised by them to make themselves necessary, or by their opponents to make them odious. He should inform himself what trades are declining, and what are improveable; when the advantage is on our side and when on that of our rivals.
The state of our colonies is always to be diligently surveyed, that no advantage may be lost which they can afford, and that every opportunity may be improved of encreasing their wealth and power, or of making them useful to their mother country. . There is no knowledge of more frequent use than that of duties and impost, whether customs paid at the ports, or excises levied upon the manufacturer. Much of the prosperity of a trading nation depends upon duties properly apportioned; so that what is necessary may continue cheap, and what is of use only to luxury may in some measure atone to the publick for the mischief done to individuals. Duties may often be fo regulated as to become useful even to those that pay them; and they may be likewise so unequally imposed as to discourage honesty, and depress industry, and give temptation to fraud and unlawful practices.
To teach all this is the design of the Commercial Dictionary ; which, though immediately and primarily written for the merchants, will be of use to every man of business or curiosity. There is no man who is not in some degree a merchant, who has not something to buy, and something to sell, and who does not there. fore want such instructions as may teach him the true value of possessions or commodities,
The descriptions of the productions of the earth and water, which this volume will contain, may be equally pleafing and useful to tlue speculatist with any other natural history; and the accounts of various manufactures will constitute no contemptible body of experimental philosophy. The descriptions of ports and cities may inftrućt the geographer as well as if they were found in books appropriated only to his own science; and the doctrines of funds, insurances, cur. rency, monopolies, exchanges, and duties, is so necessary to the politician, that without it he can be of no ufe either in the council or the fenate, nor can speak or think justly either on war or trade.
We therefore hope that we fhall not repent the la. bour of compiling this work ; nor flatter ourselves unreasonably, in predicting a favourable reception to a book which no condition of life can render useless, which may contribute to the advantage of all that make or receive laws, of all that buy or sell, of all that wish to keep or improve their poífeffions, of all that desire to be rich, and all that desire to be wise.