« הקודםהמשך »
under two denominations, operative and speculative. These are separately considered, and the principles on which both are founded, particularly explained. Their affinity is pointed out, by allegorical figures, and typical representations. The period stipulated for rewarding merit is fixed, and the inimitable moral to which that circumstance alludes is explained ; the creation of the world is described, and many particulars recited, all of which have been carefully preserved among masons, and transmitted from one age to another, by oral tradition.
Circumstances of great importance to the fraternity are here particularised, and many traditional tenets and customs confirmed by sacred and profane record. The celestial and terrestrial globes are considered ; and here the accomplished gentleman may display his talents to advantage, in: the elucidation of the Orders of Architecture, the Senses of human nature, and the liberal Arts and Sciences, which are severally classed in a regular arrangement. In short, this section contains a store of valuable knowledge, founded on reason and sacred record, both entertaining and instructive.
Masonry is considered under tvo denominations ; operative, and speculative.
Operative Masonry. By operative masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of architecture, whence a structure will derive figure, strength, and beauty, and whence will result a due propor- tion, and a just correspondence in all its parts. It furnishes us with dwellings, and convenient shel. ters from the vicissitudes and inclemencies of seasons; and while it displays the effects of human wisdom, as well in the choice, as in the arrangement, of the sundry materials of which an edifice is composed, it demonstrates that a fund of science and industry is implanted in man for the best, most salutary and beneficent purposes.
Speculative Masonry. By speculative masonry, we learn to subdue the passions, act upon the square, keep a tongue of good report, maintain secresy, and practise charity. It is so far intetwoven with religion, as to lay us under obligations to pay that rational homage to the Deity, which at once constitutes our duty and our happiness. It leads the contemplative to view with reverence and admiration the glorious works of the creation, and inspires him with the most exalted ideas of the perfections of his divine Creator,
In six days God created the heavens and the earth, and rested upon the seventh day; the seventh, therefore, our ancient brethern consecrated as a day of rest from their labours, thereby enjoying frequent opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of the creation, and to adore their great Creator.
The doctrine of the spheres is included in the science of astronomy, and particularly considered in this section.
of the Globes.
The globes are two artificial spherical bodies, on the convex surface of which are represented the countries, seas, and various parts of the earth, the face of the heavens, the planetary revolutions, and other particulars.
The sphere, with the parts of the earth delineated on its surface, is called the terrestrial globe; and that, with the constellations, and other heavenly bodies, the celestial globe.
The Use of the Globes. Their principal use, beside serving as maps to distinguish the outward parts of the earth, and the situation of the fixed stars, is to illustrate and explain the phenomena arising from the annual revolution, and the diurnal rotation, of the earth
round its own axis. They are the noblest instruments for improving the mind, and giving it the most distinct idea of any problem or proposition, as well as enabling it to solve the same. Contemplating these bodies, we are inspired with a due reverence for the Deity and his works, and are induced to encourage the studies of astronomy, geography, navigation, and the arts dependent on them, by which society has been so much benefited.
The orders of arehitecture come under consideration in this section; a brief description of them may therefore not be improper.
of Order in Architecture. By order in architecture, is meant a system of all the members, proportions and ornaments of columns and pilasters; or, it is a regular arrange. ment of the projecting parts of a building, which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful,
rfect and complete whole.
Of its Antiquity. From the first formation of society, order in architecture may be traced. When the rigour of seasons obliged men to contrive shelter from the inclemency of the weather, we learn that they first planted trees on end, and then lạid others
across, to support a covering. The bands which connected those trees at top and bottom, are said to have given rise to the idea of the base and ca; pital of pillars; and, from this simple hint, originally proceeded the more improved art of architecture.
The five orders are thus classed: the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite.
Is the most simple and solid of the five orders. It was invented in Tuscany, whence it derives its name.
Its column is seven diameters high; and its capital, base and entablature have but few mouldings. The simplicity of the construction of this column renders it eligible where ornament would be superfluous.
THE DORIC, Which is plain and natural, is the most ancient, and was invented by the Greeks. Its column is eight diameters high, and has seldom any ornaments on base or capital, except mouldings ; though the frieze is distinguished by triglyphs and metopes, and triglyphs compose the ornaments of the frieze. The solid composition of this order gives it a preference, in structures where strength, and a noble simplicity, are chiefly required.