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prescribed to us, are not enjoyed only, or principally, with respect to deliverance from punishment, but with respect to the attaining of those other ends of the mediation of Christ, in a new spiritual life here, and eternal life hereafter. And with respect to those ends may they justly be required of us, though Christ suffered and paid the same which we ought. No deliverance ipso facto, upon a supposition of suffering or paying the same, was necessary; but only the actual discharge of him who made the payment, as an Undertaker for others. Accordingly, Christ, immediately on his sufferings as our surety, was discharged.
$14. But it may be farther objected, “That it is imSpossible to reconcile the freeness of remission, with “the full payment of the very same that was in the "obligation.” To say, that God freely 'remitted our sins, abrogating the law, and the curse of it, requiring no punishment, no satisfaction, neither from ourselves, nor from the Mediator, hath at first view an appearance of royal grace and clemency, until being examined, it is found utterly inconsistent with the truth and holiness of God; and in reality, is a conceit that hath no countenance in scripture. But to say, that God required the execution of the sentence and curse of the law, in the undergoing of the punishment due to sin; but yet, out of his love and infinite grace, sent his Son to undergo it for us, (so, to comply with his holiness, to satisfy his justice, and fulfil his truth and law, that he might freely pardon sinners) this the scripture every where declares; and is demonstrably consistent with all the perfections of the Divine nature. Wherefore the absolute freedom of pardon to us is absolutely consistent with Christ suffering the same penalty which was due to our sins.
$15. And whereas it is pleaded, “That satisfaction "and remission must respect the same person;" the Scripture is clear, that satisfaction was made by Christ, and remission is made to us; that he suffered, the just for the unjust, that we may go free. Now, God is said to do that freely for us, which he doth of grace; and whatever he doth of grace, is done for us freely. Thus the love and grace of God, in sending Jesus Christ to die for us, were free, and therein lay the foundation of free remission for us. This constitution of the Redeemer suffering the same punishment which was due to our sins, as the surety and Mediator of the new covenant, was free, and of mere grace, depending on the compact or covenant between the Father and Son before explained. The imputation of our sin to him, or the making him to be sin for us, by his own voluntary choice and consent, was in like manner free. The constitution of the new covenant, and therein of the way to partake of the benefits procured by the sufferings of Christ, was also free, and of grace. The communication of the Holy Spirit to us, enabling us to believe, and to fulfil the condition of the covenant, is absolutely free. And there is nothing here inconsistent with Christ suffering the same that we should have done, or his paying the same debt which we owed, in the sense before explained.
$16. In confirmation of our general thesis, besides what hath been insisted on, we may plead the common suffrage of mankind in this matter. For what all men have a presumption of, is not free, but necessary; proceeding from a principle, which knows only what is, and not what may be, or may not be. Of the latter there can be no common or innate persuasion among men: such are all the free acts of the will of God; they might be, or might not be, otherwise were
they not free acts. If, therefore, God's punishing of sin were merely an effect of a free act of his will, without respect to any essential property of his nature, there could never have been any general presumption of it in the minds of men. But this there is, viz. that God is righteous, with that kind of righteousness which requires that sin be punished. Hence our apostle, speaking of the generality of the heathen, affirms, that they knew it “was the judgment of God, that they “who committed sin were worthy of death,” Rom. i, 32. That such punishment is due to sin, they were sufficiently convinced of by the testimonies of their own consciences, Rom. ii, 14, 15; and whereas conscience is nothing but the judgment which a man maketh concerning himself and his actions, with respect to the superior judgment of God; a sense of the eternal righteousness of God was there included.
And this sense of avenging justice they expressed in all their sacrifices, wherein they attempted to make some atonement for the guilt of sin. What was the yoice of nature in those actings, wherein it offered violence to its own in-bred principles and inclinations? It was this alone; the Governor over all is just and righteous, and we are guilty; he will not suffer us to live, vengeance will overtake us, if some way or other be not found out to appease him, to satisfy his justice, and to avert his judgment, Mich. vi, 6, 7.
$17. Again, it is necessary that God should do every thing that is requisite to his own glory; this the perfection of his nature requires. It is necessary, therefore, that nothing fall out in the universe, which should absolutely impeach the glory of God, or contradict his design of its manifestation. Now, suppose that God should let sin go unpunished, where would be the glory of his righteousness, as he is the supreme Ruler?
For, to omit what justice requireth, is no less a disparagement to it, than to do what it forbids, Prov. xvii, 15. And where would be the glory of his holiness? Where would be that fear and reverence which is due to him? Where that sense of his terror? Where that sacred awe of him, which ought to bein the hearts and thoughts of men, if once he were looked on to be such a God, such a Governor, to whom it is a matter of mere choice and liberty, whether he will inflict punishment on sin or no, as being not concerned in point of righteousness or holiness so to do? Nothing can tend more than such a persuasion to ingenerate an apprehension in men, that “God is altogether such an one as them"selves,” Psal. 1, 21.
Thus having investigated the original of the priesthood of Christ, and demonstrated the necessity of it, we should proceed to handle the nature of this office, were it not fully done in the expository part of the work, to which the reader is referred.
OF THE KINGDOM, OR LORDSHIP OF CHRIST.
$1. The grant of dominion to the Messiah foretold in the
Old Testament. 52. Asserted in the New. 53. This is a spring of comfort to the Church. 54. Of terror to the wicked. $5. Christ the heir and Lord of all persons, and all thing. $6. (1.) Persons. First, Angels, and especially, 1. Good Angels. 57. The original right of this grant. $8. Its gracious ends. $9. 2. Bad Angels. 910. Secondly, all mankind. Sil. 1. The elect. $12. 2. The reprobate. $13—18. (II.) Things. First, spiritual things. $19. Secondly, ecclesiastical. 920. Thirdly, political. $21. Fourthly, the residue of the
ereation. 81. Tue grant of dominion in general to the Messiah is intimated in the first promise of him, Gen. iii, 15. His victory over Satan was to be attended with rule, power, and dominion, Psal. Ixviii, 18; Isa. liji, 12. This was confirmed in the renewal of that promise to Abraham, Gen. xxii, 17, 18; for in him it was, that Abraham was to be heir of the world, Rom. iv, 13. As also to Judah whose seed was to enjoy the sceptre and law-giver, until He came, who was to be Lord of all, Gen. xlix, 10. Balaam also saw the star of Jacob, with a sceptre for rule, Numb. xxiv, 17 -19. This kingdom was fully revealed to David, and is expressed by him Psal. ii, throughout. See also Psal. xlv, 3_8; Psal. Ixxxix, 19–24, and clxxii
, 6-9; Psal. cx, 1-3. And the same important subject is displayed in all the following prophets. See Isa. xi, 1, 2, and ix, 6, 7, and liii, 12, and lxiii, 1–3; Jer. xxiii, 5, 6; Dan. vii, 13, 14, &c.
*In the original work, this discourse forms a digression on chap. i, 1, 2. See vol. ii, p. 17, of this abridgment.