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sembled to revenge his death. These, and the adherents of Artaxerxes, fought a bloody battle, in which a great number of Persian nobles lost their lives. Artaxerxes having at last entirely defeated his enemies, put to death all who had engaged in this conspiracy. He took an exemplary vengeance of those who were concerned in his father's murder, and particularly of Mithridatus the eunuch, who had betrayed him, and who was executed in the following manner: He * was laid on his back in a kind of horse-trough, and strongly fastened to the four corners of it. Every part of him, except his head, his hands, and feet, which came out at holes made for that purpose, was covered with another trough. In this horrid situation victuals were given him from time to time; and in case of his refusal to eat it, they were forced down his throat; honey, mixed with milk, was given him to drink, and all his face was smeared with it, which by that means attracted a numberless multitude of flies, especially as he was perpetually exposed to the scorching rays of the sun.

The worms which bred in his excrements, preyed upon his bowels. This criininal lived 15 or 20 days in inexpressible torments.

Artaxerses f having crushed the faction of Artabanus, was powerful enough to send an army into Bactriana, which had declared in favour of his brother; but he was not successful on this occasion. The two arınies engaging, Hystaspes stood his ground so well, that if he did not gain the victory, he at least sustained no loss; so that both armies separated with equal success; and each retired to prepare for a second battle. Artaxerxes having raised a greater army than his brother, not to mention that the whole empire declared in his favour, defeated him in a second engagement, and entirely ruined his party. By this victory he secured to himn. self the quiet possession of the empire.

To | maintain himself in the throne, he removed all such goverņours of cities and provinces from their employments, as he suspected to hold a correspondence with either of the factions he had overcome, and substituted others on whom he could rely. He afterwards applied himself to the reforming the abuses and disorders which had crept into the government. By his wise conduct and zeal for the public good, he soon acquir: ed great reputation and authority, with the love of his subjects, the strongest support of sovereign power.



ACCORDING to Thucydides,|| Themistocles fled to this prince in the beginning of his reign ; but other authors, as Strabo, Plutarch, Didodorus, fix this incident under Xerxes his predecessor. Dr. Prideaux is of the latter opinion; he likewise thinks that the Artaxerxes in question, is the same with him who is called Ahasuerus in scripture, and who married Esther : þut we suppose, with the learned Archbishop Usher, that it was Darius the son of Hystaspes who espoused this illustrious Jewess. I have already declared more than once, that I would not engage in controversies of this kind; and therefore, with regard to the flight of Themistocles into Persia, and the history of Esther, I shall follow the opiniop of the learned Usher, my usual guide on these occasions.

* Plut. in Artax. p. 1019.
Diod. l. xi. p. 54.

+ Ctes. c. 31.
| A. M. 3531.

We * have seen that Themistocles had fled to Admetus king of the Molossi, and had met with a gracious reception from him; but the Athenians and Lacedæmonians would not suffer him to live in peace, and required that prince to deliver him up; threatening, in case of refusal, to carry their arms into his country. Admetus, who was unwilling to draw such formidable enemies upon himself, and much more to deliver up the man who had fled to him for refuge, informed him of the great danger to which he was exposed, and favoured his fight. Themistocles went so far by land as Pydna, a city of Macedonia, and there embarked on board a merchant ship, which was sailing to Ionia. None of the passengers knew him. A storm baving carried this vessel near the island of Naxos, then besieged by the Athenians, the imminent danger to which Themistocles was exposed, obliged him to discover himself to the pilot and master of the ship; after which by entreaties and menaces, he forced them to sail towards Asia.

† Themistocles might on this occasion call to mind the advice which his father had given him when an infant, viz. to lay very little stress on the favour of the common people. They were then walking together in the harbour. His father, pointing to some rotten galleys that lay neglected on the strand, “ Behold there,” says he, son,” pointing to them, “ thus “ do the people treat their governours, when they can do them no further “ service."

He was now arrived in Comæ, a city of Æolia, in Asia Minor. The king of Persia had set a price upon his head, and promised 200 | talents to any man who should deliver binn up. The whole coast was covered with people, who were watching for him. He fled to Ægæ, a little city of Æolia, where no one knew him except Nicogenes, at whose house he lodged. He was the most wealthy man in that country, and very intimate with all the lords of the Persian court. Themistocles was concealed some days in his bouse, till Nicogenes sent him under a strong guard to Susa, in one of those covered chariots in which the Persians who were extremely jealous, use to carry their wives; those who carried him telling every body, that they were carrying a young Greek lady to a courtier of great distinction.

Being come to the Persian court, he waited upon the captain of the guards, and told him that he was a Grecian by birth, and begged the king would admit him to audience, having matters of great importance to communicate to him. The officer informed him of a ceremony, which he knew was insupportable to some Greeks, but without which none were allowed to speak to the king; and this was, to fall prostrate before him. “ Our laws," says he, "command us to honour the king in that manner, "and to worship him as the living image of the immortal God, who main“tains and preserves all things.” Themistocles promised to comply. Being admitted to audience, he fell on his face before the king, after the Persian manner; and afterwards rising up, “Great king,” says he, by an interpreter, “I am Themistocles the Athenian, who having been banish

* Thucyd. I. i. p. 90, 01. Plut. in Themist. p. 125-127. Diod. 1. xi. p. 4244. Cor. Nep. in Themist. c. 8--10.

+ Plut. in Themist. p. 112.
| 200,000 crowns, or about 45,000). Sterling.

Thueydides makes him say very near the same words ; but informs us that Themistocles did not speak them to the king, but sent them by way of letter hefore he was introduced to him.

" ed by the Greeks, am come to your court in hopes of finding an asylum “ in it. I have indeed brought many calamities on the Persians; but, on " the other side, I have done them no less services, by the salutary advices “ I have given them more than once; and I now am able to do them

more important services than ever. My life is in your hands. You may

now exert your clemency, or display your vengeance : by the former “ you will preserve your suppliant; by the latter, you will destroy the “ greatest enemy of Greece.”

The king made him no answer at this audience, though he was struck with admiration at his great sense and boldness ; but history informs us, he told his friends, that he considered Themistocles' arrival as a very great happiness; that he implored his god Arimanius, always to inspire his enemies with such thoughts, and to prompt them to banish and make away with their most illustrious personages. It is added, that when the king was asleep, he started up three times in excess of joy, and cried thrice, “ I have got Themistocles the Athenian!"

The next morning at day-break, he sent for the greatest lords of his court, and commanded Themistocles to be brought before him, who expected nothing but destruction; especially after what one of his guards, upon hearing his name, had said to him the night before, even in the presence-chamber, just as be had left the king, “Thou serpent of Greece, “thou compound of fraud and malice, the good genius of our prince brings “ thee hither!" However, the serenity which appeared in the king's face seemed to promise him a favourable reception. Themistocles was not mistaken ; for the king began by making him a present of 200 talents, which sum he had promised to any one who should deliver him up, which consequently was his due, as Themistocles had brought him his head, by surrendering himself to him. He afterwards desired him to give an account of the affairs of Greece. But as Themistocles could not express his thoughts to the king without the assistance of an interpreter, he desired time might be allowed him to learn the Persian tongue ; hoping he then should be able to explain those things he was desirous of communicating to him, better than he could by the aid of a third person. It is the same says he, with the speech of a man, as with a piece of tapestry, which must be spread out and unfolded, to show the figures and other beauties wrought in it. Themistocles, having studied the Persian tongue 12 months, made so great a progress, that he spoke it with greater elegance than the Persians themselves, and consequently could converse with the king without the help of an interpreter. The prince treated him with uncommon marks of friendship and esteem: he made him marry a lady descended from one of the noblest families in Persia : gave him a palace and an equipage suitable to it, and settled a noble pension' on him. He used to carry him abroad on his parties of hunting, and every banquet and entertainment: and sometimes conversed privately with him, so that the lords of the court grew jealous and uneasy upon that account. He even presented him to the princesses, who honoured him with their esteein, and received his visits. It is observed, as a proof of the peculiar favour showed him, that by the king's special order, Themistocles was admitted to hear the lectures and discourses of the Magi, and was instructed by them in all the secrets of their philosophy.

Another proof of his great credit is related. Demaratus of Sparta, who was then at court, being commanded by the king to ask any thing of him, he desired that he might be suffered to make his entry on horseback, inte the city of Sardis, with the royal tiara on bis head : a ridiculous vanity! equally unworthy of the Grecian grandeur, and the simplicity of a Lacedæmonian! The king exasperated at the insolence of his demand, expressed his disgust in the strongest terms, and seemed resolved not to pardon him; but Themistocles having interceded, the king restored bim to favour.

* 200.000 French crowns, or about 45,0001 sterling.

In fine, Themistocles was in such great credit, ihat under the succeeding reigns, in which the affairs of Persia were still more mixed with those of Greece, whenever the kings were desirous of drawing over any Greek to their interest, they used to declare expressly in their letters, that he should be in greater favour with them than Themistocles had been with king Artaxerxes.

It is said also that Themistocles, when in his most flourishing condition in Persia, he was bonoured and esteemed by all the world, who were emulous in making their court to him, said one day, when his table was covered magnificently, “ Children, we should have been ruined, if we had not 66 been ruined.”

But at last, as it was judged necessary for the king's interest that Themistocles should reside in some city of Asia Minor, that he might be ready on any occasion which should present itself; accordingly he was sent to Magnesia, situated on the Meander; and for, bis subsistence, besides the whole revenues of that city, which amounted to 50 * talents every year, had those of Myunte and Lampsacus assigned him. One of the cities was to furnish him with bread, another with wine, and a third with other provisions. Some authors add two more, viz. for his furniture and clothes. Such was the custom of the ancient kings of the east : instead of settling pensions on persons they rewarded, they gave them cities, and sometimes even provinces, which, under the name of bread, wine, &c. were to furnish them abundantly with all things necessary for supporting, in a magnificent manner, their family and equipage. Themistocles lived for some years at Magnesia in the utmost splendour, till he came to his end in the manner which will be related hereafter.


CIMON BEGINS TO MAKE A FIGURE AT ATHENS. THE Athenians having lost one of their most distinguished citizens, ag well as ablest generals, by the banishment of Themistocles, endeavoured to retrieve that loss, by bestowing the command of the armies on Cimon, who was not inferior to him in merit.

He spent his youth in such excesses as did him no honour, and presaged no good with regard to his future conduct. | The example of this illustrious Athenian, who passed his juvenile years in so dissolute a manner, and afterwards rose to so exalted a pitch of glory, shows that parents must not always despair of the happiness of a son, when wild and irregular in bis youth ; especially when nature has endued him with genius, goodness of heart, generous inclinations, and an esteem for persons of merit. Such was the character of Cimon. The ill reputation he had drawn upon himself, having prejudiced the people against him, he at first was very ill re

* 50,000 crowns, or about 11,2501. Sterling.
+ A. M. 3534. Ant. J. C. 470. Diod. l. xi. p. 45. Plut. in Cim. p. 462, 46S.
| Plut. in Cim. p. 482.

VOL. II. 10

ceived by them: when, being discouraged by this repulse, be resolved to lay aside all thoughts of concerning himself with the affairs of the public. But Aristides perceiving that his dissolute turn of mind was united with many fine qualities, he consoled him, inspired him with hope, pointed out the paths he should take, instilled good principles into him, and did not a little contribute by the excellent instructions he gave him, and the affection he expressed for him on all occasions, to make him the man he afterwards appeared. What more important service could he have done his country?

* Plutarch observes, that after Cimon had laid aside his juvenile extravagancies, his conduct was in all things great and noble; and that he was not inferior to Miltiades either in courage or intrepidity, nor to Themistocles in prudence and sense ; but that he was more just and virtuous than either of them; and that without being at all inferior to them in military virtues he surpassed them far in the practice of the moral ones.

It would be of great advantage to a state, if those, who excel in professions of every kind, would take pleasure and make it their duty to fashion and instruct such youths as are remarkable for the pregnancy of their parts and goodness of disposition. They would thereby have an opportunity of serving their country even after their death, and of perpetuating in it, in the person of their pupils, a taste and inclination for true merit, and the practice of the wisest maxims.

The Athenians, a little after Themistocles had left his country, having put to sea a fleet under the command of Cimon, the son of Miltiades, took Eion, on the banks of the Strymon, Amphipolis, and other places of Thrace; and as this was a very fruitful country, Cimon planted a colony in it, and sent 10,000 Athenians thither for that purpose.

+ The fate of Eion is of too singular a kind to be omitted here. Boges I was governour of it under the king of Persia, and acted with such a zeal and fidelity for his sovereign, as have few examples. When besieged by Cimon and the Athenians, it was in his power to have capitulated upon honourable terms, and he might have retired to Asia with his family and all his effects. However, being persuaded he could not do this with honour, he resolved to die rather than surrender. The city was assaulted with the utmost fury, and be defended it with incredible bravery. Being at last in the utmost want of provisions, he threw from the walls into the river Strymon all the gold and silver in the place; and causing fire to be set to a pile, and having killed his wife, his children, and his whole family, he threw them into the midst of the flames, and afterwards rushed into them himself. Xerxes could noi but admire, and at the same time bewail, so surprising an example of generosity. The heathens, indeed, might give this naine to what is rather savage ferocity and barbarity.

Cimon made himself master also of the island of Scyros, where he found the bones of Theseus, the son of Ægeus, who had fled from Athens to that city, and there ended his days. An oracle had commanded that search should be made after his bones. Cimon put them on board his galley, adorned them magnificently, and carried them to his native country, near 800 years after Theseus had left it. The people received them with the highest expressions of joy ; and to perpetuate the remembrance of this event, they founded a disputation, or prize, for tragic writers, which became very famous, and contributed exceedingly to the improvement of

+ Herod. I. vii. c. 107. Plut. p. 482. | Plutarch calls bim Butis. Herodotus seems to place this history under Xerxes; but it is more probable, that it happened under Artaxerxes his successor.

* Plut. in Cim. p. 481.

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