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why does a superior man make any difficulty about the taking it ?Mencius answered, “When a son is born, what is desired for him is that he may have a wife; when a daughter is born, what is desired for her is that she may have a husband. This feeling of the parents is possessed by all men. If the young people, without waiting for the orders of their parents, and the arrangements of the go-between, shall bore holes to steal a sight of each other, or get over the wall to be with each other, then their parents and all other people will despise them. The ancients did indeed always desire to be in office, but they also hated being so by any improper way. To go to get office by an improper way is of a class with young people's boring holes.”

IV. 1. Pang Kang asked Mencius, saying, “ Is it not an extravagant procedure to go from one prince to another and live upon them, followed by several tens of carriages, and attended by several hundred men?” Mencius replied, “ If there be not a proper ground for taking it, a single bamboo-cup of rice may not be received from a man. If there be such a proper ground, then Shun's receiving the empire from Yaou is not to be considered excessive. Do you think it was excessive ?”

2. Kang said, “ No. But for a scholar performing no service to receive his support notwithstanding, is improper.”

3. Mencius answered, “ If you do not have an intercommunication of the productions of labour, and an interchange of men's services, so that one from his overplus may supply the deficiency of another, then husbandmen will have a superfluity of grain, and women will have a superfluity of cloth. If you have such an interchange, carpenters and carriage-wrights may all get their food from you. Here now is a man, who, at Some, is filial, and abroad, respectful to his elders; who

watches over the principles of the ancient kings, awaiting the rise of future learners :—and yet you will refuse to support him. How is it that you give honour to the carpenter and carriage-wright, and slight him who practises benevolence and righteousness ?

4. Pang Kang said, “ The aim of the carpenter and carriage-wright, is by their trades to seek for a living. Is it also the aim of the superior man in his practice of principles thereby to seek for a living ?” “What have you to do,” returned Mencius,“ with his purpose ? He is of service to you. He deserves to be supported, and should be supported. And let me ask,—Do you remunerate a man's intention, or do you remunerate his service.” To this Kang replied, “I remunerate his intention.”

5. Mencius said, “There is a man here, who breaks your tiles, and draws unsightly figures on your walls;

-his purpose may be thereby to seek for his living, but will you indeed remunerate him ?” “No,” said Kang; and Mencius then concluded, “That being the case, it is not the purpose which you remunerate, but the work done.”

V. 1. Wan Chang asked Mencius, saying, “ Sung is a small State. Its ruler is now setting about to practise the true royal government, and Tsée and Tsóoo hate and attack him. What in this case is to be done?”

2. Mencius replied, “ When Tang dwelt in Po, he ad. joined to the state of Ko, the chief of which was living in a dissolute state and neglecting his proper sacrifices. T'ang sent messengers to inquire why he did not sacrifice. He replied, 'I have no means of supplying the necessary victims. On this, Tang caused oxen and sheep to be sent to him, but he ate them, and still continued not to sacrifice. T'ang again sent messengers to ask him the same question as before, when he re. plied, 'I have no means of obtaining the necessary

millet. On this, Tang sent the mass of the people of Po to go and till the ground for him, while the old and feeble carried their food to them. The chief of Ko led his people to intercept those who were thus charged with wine, cooked rice, millet, and paddy, and took their stores from them, while they killed those who refused to give them up. There was a boy who had some mil let and flesh for the labourers, who was thus slain and robbed. What is said in the Book of History, The chief of Ko behaved as an enemy to the provisioncarriers,' has reference to this.

3. “ Because of his murder of this boy, Tang proceeded to punish him. All within the four seas said, “It is not because he desires the riches of the empire, but to avenge a common man and woman.

4. “ When T‘ang began his work of executing justice, he commenced with Ko, and though he punished eleven princes, he had not an enemy in the empire. When he pursued his work in the east, the rude tribes in the west murmured. So did those on the north, when he was engaged in the south. Their cry was“Why does he make us last. Thus, the people's longing for him was like their longing for rain in a time of great drought. The frequenters of the markets stopped not. Those engaged in weeding in the fields made no change in their operations. While he punished their rulers, he consoled the people. His progress was like the falling of opportune rain, and the people were delighted. It is said in the Book of History, “We have waited for our prince. When our prince comes, we may escape from the punishments under which we suf


5. “There being some who would not become the subjects of Chow, king Woo proceeded to punish them on the east. He gave tranquillity to their people, who welcomed him with baskets full of their black and yel

low silks, saying— From henceforth we shall serve the sovereign of our dynasty of Chow, that we may be made happy by him.' So they joined themselves, as subjects, to the great city of Chow. Thus, the men of station of Shang took baskets full of black and yellow silks to meet the men of station of Chow, and the lower classes of the one met those of the other, with baskets of rice and vessels of congee. Woo saved the people from the midst of fire and water, seizing only their oppressors, and destroying them.

6. “In the Great Declaration it is said, “My power shall be put forth, and invading the territories of Shang, I will seize the oppressor. I will put him to death to punish him:—so shall the greatness of my work appear, more glorious than that of Tang.

7. Sung is not, as you say, practising true royal government, and so forth. If it were practising royal government, all within the four seas would be lifting up their heads, and looking for its prince, wishing to have him for their sovereign. Great as Ts'e and Ts'oo are, what would there be to fear from them ?”

VI. 1. Mencius said to Tae Puh-shing, “ I see that you are desiring your king to be virtuous, and I will plainly tell you how he may be made so. Suppose that there is a great officer of Ts'oo here, who wishes his son to learn the speech of Tse. Will he in that case employ a man of Ts'e as his tutor, or a man of Ts'oo ?” “He will employ a man of Ts'e to teach him," said Puhshing. Mencius went on, “ If but one man of Tse be teaching him, and there be a multitude of men of Ts'oo continually shouting out about him, although his father beat him every day, wishing him to learn the speech of Ts'e, it will be impossible for him to do so. But in the same way, if he were to be taken and placed for sev. eral years in Chwang or Yoh, though his father should beat him, wishing him to speak the language of Tsoo it would be impossible for him to do so.

2. “ You supposed that See Keu-chow was a scholar of virtue, and you have got him placed in attendance on the king. Suppose that all in attendance on the king, old and young, high and low, were See Keu-chows, whom would the king have to do evil with ? And suppose that all in attendance on the king, old and young, high and low, are not See Keu-chows, whom will the king have to do good with? What can one See Keuchow do alone for the king of Sung ?”

VII. 1. Kung-sun Chow asked Mencius, saying, “What is the point of righteousness involved in your not going to see the princes ?” Mencius replied, “ Among the ancients, if one had not been a minister in a State, he did not go to see the sovereign.

2. “ Twan Kan-muh leaped over his wall to avoid the prince. See Lew shut his door, and would not admit the prince. These two, however, carried their scrupulosity to excess. When a prince is urgent, it is not improper to see him.

3. "Yang Ho wished to get Confucius to go to see him, but disliked doing so by any want of propriety. As it is the rule, therefore, that when a great officer sends a gift to a scholar, if the latter be not at home to receive it, he must go to the officer's to pay his respects, Yang Ho watched when Confucius was out, and sent him a roasted pig. Confucius, in his turn, watched when Ho was out, and went to pay his respects to him. At that time, Yang Ho had taken the initiative ;-how could Confucius decline going to see him?

4. “The philosopher T'sang said, “They who shrug up their shoulders, and laugh in a flattering way, toil harder than the summer labourer in the fields. Tszeloo said, “ There are those who talk with people with whom they have no great community of feeling. If you look at their countenances, they are full of blushes. I do not desire to know such persons. By considering

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