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equally and along with their people, and eat the fruit of their labour. They should prepare their own meals, morning and evening, while at the same time they carry on their government. But now, the prince of Tang has his granaries, treasuries, and arsenals, which is an oppressing of the people to nourish himself.—How can he be deemed a real worthy prince?”
4. Mencius said, “I suppose that Heu Hing sows grain and eats the produce. Is it not so ?” “ It is so," was the answer. “I suppose also he weaves cloth, and wears his own manufacture. Is it not so ?” “No. Heu wears clothes of haircloth.” “Does he wear a cap ?” “He wears a cap.” “What kind of cap?” “A plain cap.” “Is it woven by himself?” . “ No. He gets it in exchange for grain.” “Why does Heu not weave it himself?” “That would injure his husbandry.” “Does Heu cook his food in boilers and earthenware pans, and does he plough with an iron share ?” 66 Yes.” “Does he make those articles himself?” “No. He gets them in exchange for grain.”
5. Mencius then said, « The getting those various articles in exchange for grain, is not oppressive to the potter and the founder, and the potter and the founder in their turn, in exchanging their various articles for grain, are not oppressive to the husbandman. How should such a thing be supposed? And moreover, why does not Heu act the potter and founder, supplying himself with the articles which he uses solely from his own establishment? Why does he go confusedly dealing and exchanging with the handicraftsmen ? Why does he not spare himself so much trouble ? ” Chin Seang replied, “ The business of the handicraftsman can by no means be carried on along with the business of husbandry.”
6. Mencius resumed, “ Then, is it the government of the empire which alone can be carried on along with
the practice of husbandry ? Great men have their proper business, and little men have their proper business. Moreover, in the case of any single individual, whatever articles he can require are ready to his hand, being produced by the various handicraftsmen :—if he must first make them for his own use, this way of doing would keep the whole empire running about upon the roads. Hence, there is the saying, “Some labour with their minds, and some labour with their strength. Those who labour with their minds govern others; those who labour with their strength are governed by others. Those who are governed by others support them; those who govern others are supported by them.' This is a principle universally recognized
7. “In the time of Yaou, when the world had not yet been perfectly reduced to order, the vast waters, flowing out of their channels, made a universal inundation. Vegetation was luxuriant, and birds and beasts swarmed. The various kinds of grain could not be grown. The birds and beasts pressed upon men. The paths marked by the feet of beasts and prints of birds, crossed one another throughout the Middle kingdom. To Yaou alone this caused anxious sorrow. He raised Shun to office, and measures to regulate the disorder were set forth. Shun committed to Yih the direction of the fire to be employed, and Yih set fire to, and consumed, the forests and vegetation on the mountains and in the marshes, so that the birds and beasts fled away to hide themselves. Yu separated the nine streams, cleared the courses of the Tse and T'ah, and led them all to the sea. He opened a vent also for the Joo and Han, and regulated the course of the Hwae and Sze, so that they all flowed into the Kcang. When this was done, it became possible for the people of the Middle kingdom to cultivate the ground and get food for themselves. During that time, Yu was eight years
away from his home, and though he thrice passed the door of it, he did not enter. Although he had wished to cultivate the ground, could he have done so ?
8. “ The Minister of agriculture taught the people to sow and reap, cultivating the five kinds of grain When the five kinds of grain were brought to matur: ity, the people all enjoyed a comfortable subsistence. Now men possess a moral nature; but if they are well fed, warmly clad, and comfortably lodged, without being taught at the same time, they become almost like the beasts. This was a subject of anxious solicitude to the sage Shun, and he appointed See to be the Minister of instruction, to teach the relations of humanity :
-how, between father and son, there should be affection ; between sovereign and minister, righteousness : between husband and wife, attention to their separate functions; between old and young, a proper order; and between friends, fidelity. The highly meritorious emperor said to him, “ Encourage them; lead them on; rectify them; straighten them; help them; give them wings :—thus causing them to become possessors of themselves. Then follow this up by stimulating them, and conferring benefits on them. When the sages were exercising their solicitude for the people in this way, had they leisure to cultivate the ground?
9. “ What Yaou felt giving him anxiety, was the not getting Shun. What Shun felt giving him anxiety was the not getting Yu and Kaou-yaou. But he whose anxiety is about his hundred mow not being properly cultivated, is a mere husbandman.
10. “The imparting by a man to others of his wealth, is called 'a kindness. The teaching others what is good, is called the exercise of ficlelity. The finding a man who shall benefit the empire, is called “benevolence.' Hence to give the empire to another man would be easy; to find a man who shall benefit the empire is difficult.
11. “ Confucius said, “Great indeed was Yaou as a sovereign. It is only heaven that is great, and only Yaou corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue. The people could find no name for it. Princely indeed was Shun! How majestic was he, having possession of the empire, and yet seeming as if it were nothing to him!' In their governing the empire, were there no subjects on which Yaou and Shun employed their minds? There were subjects, only they did not employ their minds on the cultivation of the ground.
12. “I have heard of men using the doctrines of our great land to change barbarians, but I have never yet heard of any being changed by barbarians. Ch'in Leang was a native of Tsoo. Pleased with the doctrines of Chow-kung and Chung-ne, he came northwards to the Middle kingdon and studied them. Among the scholars of the northern regions, there were perhaps none who excelled him. He was what you call a scholar of high and distinguished qualities. You and your brother followed him some tens of years, and when your master died, you have forthwith turned away from him.
13. “Formerly, when Confucius died, after three years had elapsed, his disciples collected their baggage, and prepared to return to their several homes. But on entering to take their leave of Tsze-kung, as thev looked towards one another, they wailed, till they all lost their voices. After this they returned to their homes, but Tsze-kung went back, and built a house for himself on the altar-ground, where he lived alone other three years, before he returned home. On another occasion, Tsze-hea, Tsze-chang, and Tsze-yew, thinking that Yew Jo resembled the sage, wished to render to him the same observances which they had rendered to Confucius. They tried to force the disciple Tsang to join with them, but he said, “This may not be done
What has been washed in the waters of the Keang and Han, and bleached in the autumn sun :-how glisten. ing is it! Nothing can be added to it.'
14. “ Now here is this shrike-tongued barbarian of the south, whose doctrines are not those of the ancient kings. You turn away from your master and become his disciple. Your conduct is different indeed from that of the philosopher Tsang.
15. “ I have heard of birds leaving dark valleys to remove to lofty trees, but I have not heard of their descending from lofty trees to enter into dark valleys. 16. “In the Praise-songs of Loo it is said,
He smote the barbarians of the west and north,
He punished King and Seu.' Thus Chow-kung would be sure to smite them, and you become their disciple again; it appears that your change is not good.”
17. Chin Seang said, “ If Heu's doctrines were followed, then there would not be two prices in the market, nor any deceit in the kingdom. If a boy of five cubits were sent to the market, no one would impose on him; linen and silk of the same length would be of the same price. So it would be with bundles of hemp and silk, being of the same weight; with the different lanks of grain, being the same in quantity ; and with shoes which were of the same size."
18. Msencius replied, “ It is the nature of things to be of unequal quality. Some are twice, some five times, some ten times, some a hundred times, some a thousand times, some ten thousand times as valuable as others. If you reduce them all to the same standard, that must throw the empire into confusion. If large shoes and small shoes were of the same price, who would make them ? For people to follow the doctrines of Heu, would be for them to lead one another on to
practise deceit. How can they avail for the govern. · ment of a State ?”