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10. Ch'ov observed, “Since you say--- The will is chief, and the passion-nature is subordinate,' how do you also say,-- Maintain firm the will, and do no violence to the passion nature ?'” Mencius replied, “When it is the will alone which is active, it moves the passion-nature. When it is the passion-nature alone which is active, it moves the will. For instance now, in the case of a man falling or running ;-that is from the passionnature, and yet it moves the mind.”

11. “I venture to ask,” said Ch'ow again, “wherein you, Master, surpass Kaou.Mencius told him, “I understand words. I am skilful in nourishing my vast, flowing passion-nature.”

12. Chow pursued, “I venture to ask what you mean by your vast, flowing passion-nature !” The reply was, “ It is difficult to describe it.

13. “This is the passion-nature :—It is exceedingly great and exceedingly strong. Being nourished by rectitude, and sustaining no injury, it fills up all between heaven and earth.

14. “ This is the passion nature :- It is the mate and assistant of righteousness and reason. Without it, man is in a state of starvation.

15. “ It is produced by the accumulation of righteous deeds; it is not to be obtained by incidental acts of righteousness. If the mind does not feel complacency in the conduct, the nature becomes starved. I therefore said, “ Kaou has never understood righteousness, because he makes it something external.

16. “ There must be the constant practice of this righteousness, but without the object of thereby nourishing the passion-nature. Let not the mind forget its work, but let there be no assisting the growth of that nature. Let us not be like the man of Sung. There was a man of Sung, who was grieved that his growing corn was not longer, and so he pulled it up. Having

done this, he returned home, looking very stupid, and said to his people, “I am tired to-day. I have beer helping the corn to grow long. His son ran to look at it, and found the corn all withered. There are few in the world, who do not deal with their passion-nature, as if they were assisting the corn to grow long. Some inindeed consider it of no benefit to them, and let it alone :—they do not weed their corn. They who assist it to grow long, pull out their corn. What they do is not only of no benefit to the nature, but it also injures

it.

17. Kung-sun Chow further asked, What do you inean by saying that you understand whatever words you hear ?Mencius replied, “ When words are onesided, I know how the mind of the speaker is clouded over. When words are extravagant, I know how the mind is fallen and sunk. When words are all-depraved, I know how the mind has departed from principle. When words are evasive, I know how the mind is at its wits' end. These evils growing in the mind, do injury to government, and, displayed in the government, are hurtful to the conduct of affairs. When a Sage shall again arise, he will certainly follow my words.”

18. On this Ch'ow observed, “Tsae Go and Tsze-kung were skilful in speaking. Yen New, the disciple Min, and Yen Yuen, while their words were good, were distinguished for their virtuous conduct. Confucius united the qualities of the disciples in himself, but still he said, 'In the matter of speeches, I am not competent.' - Then, Master, have you attained to be a Sage ?”

19. Mencius said, “Oh! what words are these? Forinerly Tsze-kung asked Confucius, saying, “Master, are you a Sage ?' Confucius answered him, - A sage is what I cannot rise to. I learn without satiety, and teach without being tired. Tsze-kung said, “ You learn without satiety : that shows your wisdom. You teach

without being tired :that shows your benevolence, Benevolent and wise :- Master, you ARE a Sage.' Now, since Confucius would not have himself regarded as a sage, what words were those ?”

20. Chow said, Formerly, I once heard this :-Tszehea, Tsze-yew, and Tsze-chang, had each one member of the sage. Yen New, the disciple Min, and Yen Yuen, had all the members, but in small proportions. I venture to ask.— With which of these are you pleased to rank yourself?”

21. Mencius replied, “Let us drop speaking about these, if you please.”

22. Chrow then asked, “What do you say of Pih-e and E-yun?” “ Their ways were different from mine," said Mencius. “ Not to serve a prince whom he did not esteem, nor command a people whom he did not approve; in a time of good government to take office, and on the occurrence of confusion to retire :—this was the way of Pih-e. To say_Whom may I not serve? My serving him makes him my prince. What people may I not command ? My commanding them makes them my people. In a time of good government to take office, and when disorder prevailed, also to take office :--that was the way of E-yun. When it was proper to go into office, then to go into it; when it was proper to keep retired from office, then to keep retired from it; when it was proper to continue in it Iong, then to continue in it long: when it was proper to withdraw from it quickly, then to withdraw quickly :--this was the way of Confucius. These were all sages of antiquity, and I have not attained to do what they did. But what I wish to do is to learn to be like Confucius.”

23. Chow said, “ Comparing Pih-e and E-yun with Confucius, are they to be placed in the same rank ?” Mencius replied, “ No. Since there were living men until now, there never was another Confucius.”

24. Chéow said, “Then, did they have any points of agreement with him ?” The reply was, — Yes. If they had been sovereigns over a hundred le of territory, they would, all of them, have brought all the princes to attend in their court, and have obtained the ernpire. And none of them, in order to obtain the empire, would have coinmitted one act of unrighteousness, or put to death one innocent person. In those things they. agreed with him,"

25. Ch'ow said, “ I venture to ask wherein he differed from them.” Mencius replied, “ Tsae Go, Tsze-kung, and Yew Jo had wisdom sufficient to know the sage. Even had they been ranking themselves low, they would not have demeaned themselves to flatter their favourite.

26. “ Now, Tsae Go said, “ According to my view of our Master, he is far superior to Yaou and Shun.'

27. “ Tsze-kung said, “By viewing the ceremonial ordinances of a prince, we know the character of his government. By hearing his music, we know the character of his virtue. From the distance of a hundred ages after, I can arrange, according to their merits, the kings of a hundred ages; not one of them can escape me. From the birth of mankind till now, there has never been another like our Master.

28. Yew Jo said, “Is it only among men that it is so? There is the Kóe-lin among quadrupeds; the Funghwang among birds, the Tae mountain among mounds and ant-hills, and rivers and seas among rain-pools. Though different in degree, they are the same in kind. So the sages among mankind are also the same in kind. But they stand out from their fellows, and rise above the level, and from the birth of mankind till now, there never has been one so complete as Confucius.”

III. 1. Mencius said, “ He who, using force, makes a pretence to benevolence, is the leader of the princes. A leader of the princes requires a large kingdom. He

who, using virtue, practises benevolence is the sovereign of the empire. To become the sovereign of the empire, a prince need not wait for a large kingdom. Tang did it with only seventy le, and king Wan with only a hundred.

2. When one by force subdues men, they do not submit to him in heart. They submit, because their strength is not adequate to resist. When one subdues men by virtue, in their hearts core they are pleased, and sincerely submit, as was the case with the seventy disciples in their submission to Confucius. What is said in the Book of Poetry,

From the west, from the east,
From the south, from the north,
There was not one who thought of refusing sub-

mission,
is an illustration of this.”

IV. 1. Mencius said, “ Benevolence brings glory to a prince, and the opposite of it brings disgrace. For the princes of the present day to hate disgrace and yet live complacently doing what is not benevolent, is like hating moisture and yet living in a low situation.

2. “If a prince hates disgrace, the best course for him to pursue, is to esteem virtue and honour virtuous scholars, giving the worthiest among them places of dignity, and tne able offices of trust. When throughout his kingdom there is leisure and rest from external troubles, taking advantage of such a season, let him clearly digest the principles of his government with its legal sanctions, and then even great kingdoms will be constrained to stand in awe of him. 3. “ It is said in the Book of Poetry,

• Before the heavens were dark with rain,
I gathered the bark from the roots of the mul-

berry trees,
And wove it closely to form the window and

door of my nest;

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