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doings which might be so characterized as wild and lost

9. “It is for you, my prince, to pursue your course.'"

10. “ The duke King was pleased. He issued a proclamation throughout his state, and went out and occupied a shed in the borders. From that time he began to open his granaries to supply the wants of the people, and calling the Grand music-master, he said to him• Make for me music to suit a prince and his minister pleased with each other. And it was then that the Che-shaou and Keo-shaou were made, in the poetry to which it was said, “What fault is it to restrain one's prince?' He who restrains his prince loves his prince.”

V. 1. The king Seuen of T'se said, “People all tell me to pull down and remove the Brilliant palace. Shall I pull it down, or stop the movement for that object?

2. Mencius replied, “ The Brilliant Palace is a palace appropriate to the emperors. If your Majesty wishes ; to practice the true Royal government, then do not pull it down."

3. The king said, “May I hear from you what the true Royal government is ?” “ Formerly," was the reply,“ king Wan’s government of K'e was as follows :The husbandmen cultivated for the government oneninth of the land; the descendants of officers were salaried; at the passes and in the markets, strangers were inspected, but goods were not taxed; there were no prohibitions respecting the ponds and weirs; the wives and children of criminals were not involved in their guilt. There were the old and wifeless, or widowers; the old and husbandless, or widows; the old and childless, or solitaries; the young and fatherless, or orphans :—these four classes are the most destitute of the people, and have none to whom they can tell their wants, and king Wan, in the institution of his govern. ment with its benevolent action, made them the first objects of his regard, as it is said in the Book of Poe

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“The rich may get through.

But alas! for the miserable and solitary !”” 4. The king said, “O excellent words!” Mencius said, “ Since your Majesty deems them excellent, why do you not practice them?” “I have an infirmity," said the king; “I am fond of wealth.” The reply waş, 5 Formerly, Kung-lew was fond of wealth. It is said in the Book of Poetry,

He reared his ricks, and filled his granaries,
He tied up dried provisions and grain,
In bottomless bags, and sacks,
That he might gather his people together, and

glorify his State.
With bows and arrows all-displayed,
With shields, and spears, and battle-axes, large

and small,

He commenced his march.' In this way those who remained in their old seat had their ricks and granaries, and those who marched had their bags of provisions. It was not till after this that he thought he could commence his march. If your Majesty loves wealth, let the people be able to gratify the same feeling, and what difficulty will there be in your attaining the Imperial sway ?”

5. The king said, “ I have an infirmity; I am fond of. beauty.” The reply was, “ Formerly, king Tae was fond of beauty, and loved his wife. It is said in the Book of Poetry,

• Koo-kung T'an-foo
Came in the morning, galloping his horse,
By the banks of the western waters,
As far as the foot of Kóe hill,
Along with the lady of Keang .
They came and together chose the site of set-

tlement.' At that time, in the seclusion of the house, there were

no dissatisfied women, and abroad, there were no un. married men. If your Majesty loves beauty, let the people be able to gratify the same feeling, and what difficulty will there be in your attaining the Imperial sway?"

VI. 1. Mencius said to the king Seuen of T'se, “Suppose that one of your Majesty's ministers were to entrust his wife and children to the care of his friend, while he himself went into Tsoo to travel, and that, on his return, he should find that the friend had caused his wife and children to suffer from cold and hunger;-how ought he to deal with him ?” The king said, “He should cast him off.”

2. Mencius proceeded, “Suppose that the chief criminal judge could not regulate the officers under him, how would you deal with him ?” The king said, “ Dismiss him.”

3. Mencius again said, “If within the four borders of your kingdom there is not good government, what is to be done →” The king looked to the right and left, and spoke of other matters.

VII. 1. Mencius, having an interview with the king Seuen of Tsée, said to him, “ When men speak of 'an ancient kingdom,' it is not meant thereby that it has lofty trees in it, but that it has ministers sprung from families which have been noted in it for generations. Your Majesty has no intimate ministers even. Those whom you advanced yesterday are gone to day, and you do not know it."

2. The king said, “ How shall I know that they have not ability, and so avoid employing them at all ?”.

3. The reply was, “ The ruler of a State advances to office men of talents and virtue, only as a matter of necessity. Since he will thereby cause the low to overstep the honourable, and strangers to overstep his rela tives, may he do so but with caution ?

4. “ When all those about you say, This is a man of talents and worth, you may not for that believe it. When your great officers all say,—. This is a man of talents and virtue,' neither may you for that believe it. When all the people say,—“This is a man of talents and virtue,' then examine into the case, and when you find that the man is such, employ him. When all those about you say, This man won't do, don't listen to them. When all your great officers say,—This man won't do, don't listen to them. When the people all say,—. This man won't do,' then examine into the case, and when you find that the man won't do, send him away.

5. “ When all those about you say,-- This man deserves death, don't listen to them. , When all your great officers say, This man deserves death, don't lis- . ten to them. When the people all say,– This man deserves death, then inquire into the case, and when you see that the man deserves death, put him to death. In accordance with this we have the saying, “The people killed him.

6. “ You must act in this way in order to be the parent of the people.”

VIII. 1. The king Seuen of Ts'e asked, saying, “ Was it so, that Tang banished Kee, and that king Woo smote Chow?” Mencius replied, “ It is so in the records.”

2. The king said, “ May a minister then put his sovcreign to death ?”

3. Mencius said, “He who outrages the benevolence proper to his nature, is called a robber; he who outrages righteousness, is called a ruffian. The robber and ruffian we call a mere fellow. I have heard of the cutting off of the fellow Chow, but I have not heard of the putting a sovereign to death, in his case.

IX. 1. Mencius, having an interview with the king

Seuen of Ts'e, said to him, “ If you are going to build a large mansion, you will surely cause the Master of the workmen to look out for large trees, and when he has found such large trees, you will be glad, thinking that they will answer for the intended object. Should the workmen hew them so as to make them too small, then your Majesty will be angry, thinking that they will not answer for the purpose. Now, a man spends his youth in learning the principles of right government, and, being grown up to vigour, he wishes to put them in practice ;-if your Majesty says to him, “For the present put aside what you have learned, and follow me,' what shall we say ?

2. “ Here now you have a gem unwrought, in the stone. Although it may be worth 240,000 taels, you will surely employ a lapidary to cut and polish it. But when you come to the government of the State, then you say,—“For the present put aside what you have learned, and follow me.' How is it that you herein act so differently from your conduct in calling in the lapidary to cut the gem !”

Š. 1. The people of Ts'e attacked Yen, and conquered it.

2. The king Seuen asked, saying, “Some tell me not to take possesion of it for myself, and some tell me to take possession of it. For a kingdom of ten thousand chariots, attacking another of ten thousand chariots, to complete the conquest of it in fifty days, is an achievement beyond mere human strength. If I do not take possession of it, calamities from Heaven will surely come upon me. What do you say to my taking possession of it?”

3. Mencius replied, “If the people of Yen will be pleased with your taking possession of it, then do 80.Among the ancients there was one who acted on this principle, namely king Woo. If the people of Yei, will

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