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that ?” Mencius asked, “ Which is the more pleasant, -to enjoy music by yourself alone, or to enjoy it along with others ?” “'T'o enjoy it along with others,” was the reply. “ And which is the more pleasant,—to enjoy music along with a few, or to enjoy it along with many ?” “To enjoy it along with many."
5. Mencius proceeded, “ Your servant begs to explain what I have said about music to your Majesty.
6. “Now, your Majesty is having music here.—The people hear the noise of your bells and drums, and the notes of your fifes and pipes, and they all, with aching heads, knit their brows, and say to one another, “That's how our king likes his music? But why does he reduce us to this extremity of distress ?-Fathers and sons cannot see one another. Elder brothers and younger brothers, wives and children, are separated and scattered abroad. Now your Majesty is hunting here.—The people hear the noise of your carriages and horses, and see the beauty of your plumes and streamers, and they all, with aching heads, knit their brows, and say to one another, “ That's how our king likes his hnnting! But why does he reduce us to this extremity of distress ?-Fathers and sons cannot see one another. Èlder brothers and younger brothers, wives and children, are separated and scattered abroad.' Their feeling thus is from no other reason, but that you do not give the people to have pleasure as well as yourself.
7. “ Now your Majesty is having music here. The people hear the noise of your bells and drums, and the notes of your fifes and pipes, and they all, delighted, and with joyful looks, say to one another, “That sounds as if our king were free from all sickness! If he were not, how could he enjoy this music ?' Now, your Majesty is hunting here. The people hear the noise of your carriages and horses, and see the beauty of your plumes and streamers, and they all, delighted, and with
joyful looks, say to one another, “That looks as if our king were free from all sickness! If he were not, how could he enjoy this hunting ?' Their feeling thus is from no other reason but that you cause them to have their pleasure as you have yours.
8. “ If your Majesty now will make pleasure a thing common to the people and yourself, the Imperial sway awaits you.”
II. 1. The king, Seuen, of Ts'e asked, “ Was it so, that the park of king Wan contained seventy square le ?” Mencius replied, “ It is so in the records.”
2. “ Was it so large as that ?” exclaimed the king. “ The people,” said Mencius,“still looked on it as small.” The king added, “ My park contains only forty square le, and the people still look on it as large. How is this ?” “ The park of king Wan,” was the reply,“ contained seventy square le, but the grass-cutters and fuelgatherers had the privilege of entrance into it; so also had the catchers of pheasants and hares. He shared it with the people, and was it not with reason that they looked on it as small ?
3. “When I first arrived at the borders of your State, I enquired about the great prohibitory regulations, before I would venture to enter it; and I heard, that inside the border-gates there was a park of forty square le, and that he who killed a deer in it, was held guilty of the same crime as if he had killed a man. Thus those forty square le are a pitfall in the middle of the kingdom. Is it not with reason that the people look upon them as large?”.
III. 1. The king Seuen of Tsée, asked saying, “ Is there any way to regulate one's maintenance of intercourse with neighbouring kingdoms?” Mencius replied, “There is. But it requires a perfectly virtuous prince to be able, with a great country, to serve a small one,as, for instance, T'ang served Ko, and king Wan served
the Kwan barbarians. And it requires a wise prince, to be able, with a small country, to serve a large one,-as the king T'ae served the Heun-yuh, and Kow-tseen served Woo.
2. “He who with a great State serves a small one, delights in Heaven. He who with a small State serves a large one, stands in awe of Heaven. He who delights in Heaven, will affect with his love and protection the whole empire. He who stands in awe of Heaven, will affect with his love and protection his own kingdom.
3. “It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'I fear the Majesty of Heaven, and will thus preserve its favouring decree.'”
4. The king said, “ A great saying ! But I have an infirmity ;-I love valour.”
5. “I beg your Majesty,” was the reply,“not to love small valour. If a man brandishes his sword, looks fiercely, and says, “How dare he withstand me?'—this is the valour of a common man, who can be the opponent only of a single individual. I beg your Majesty to greaten it. 6. “It is said in the Book of Poetry,
• The king blazed with anger,
To meet the expectations of the empire'
7. “In the Book of History it is said, “Heaven having produced the inferior people, appointed for them rulers and teachers, with the purpose that they should be assisting to God, and therefore distinguished them throughout the four quarters of the empire. Whoever are offenders, and whoever are innocent, here am I to deal with them. How dare any under heaven give indulgence to their refractory wills ?' There was one man pursuing a violent and disorderly course in the empire, and king Woo was ashamed of it. This was the valour of king Woo. He also, by one display of his anger, gave repose to all the people of the empire.
8. “Let now your Majesty also, in one burst of anger, give repose to all the people of the empire. The people are only afraid that your Majesty does not love valour.”
IV. 1. The king Seuen of Ts'e had an interview with Mencius in the Snow palace, and said to him, “ Do men of talents and worth likewise find pleasure in these things ?” Mencius replied, “ They do, and if people generally are not able to enjoy themselves, they condemn their superiors.
2. “For them, when they cannot enjoy themselves, to condemn their superiors is wrong, but when the su- · periors of the people do not make enjoyment a thing common to the people and themselves, they also do wrong.
3. “When a ruler rejoices in the joy of his people, they also rejoice in his joy; when he grieves at the sorrow of his people, they also grieve at his sorrow. A sympathy of joy will pervade the empire; a sympathy of sorrow will do the same :-in such a state of things, it cannot be but that the ruler attain to the Imperial · dignity.
4. “Formerly, the duke, King, of Tsée, asked the minister Ngan, saying, “I wish to pay a visit of inspection to Chuen-foo, and Ch'aou-woo, and then to bend my course southward along the shore, till I come to Langyay. What shall I do that my tour may be fit to be compared with the visits of inspection made by the ancient emperors ?'
5. “ The minister Ngan replied, “An excellent inqui
ry! When the emperor visited the princes, it was called a tour of inspection, that is, he surveyed the States under their care. When the princes attended at the court of the emperor, it was called a report of office, that is, they reported their administration of their offices. Thus, neither of the proceedings was without a purpose. And moreover, in the spring they cxamined the ploughing, and supplied any deficiency of seed; in the autumn they examined the reaping, and supplied any deficiency of yield. There is the saying of the Hea dynasty,If our king do not take his ramble, what will become of our happiness? If our king do not make his excursion, what will become of our help? That ramble, and that excursion, were a pattern to the princes.
6. 6. Now the state of things is different.--A host marches in attendance on the ruler, and stores of provisions are consumed. The hungry are deprived of their food, and there is no rest for those who are called to toil. Maledictions are uttered by one to another with eyes askance, and the people proceed to the commission of wickedness. Thus the Imperial ordinances are violated, and the people are oppressed, and the supplies of food and drink flow away like water. The rulers yield themselves to the current, or they urge their way against it; they are wild; they are utterly lost :—these things proceed to the grief of their subordinate governors.
7. “Descending along with the current, and forgetting to return, is what I call yielding to it. Pressing up against it, and forgetting to return, is what I call urging their way against it. Pursuing the chase without satiety is what I call being wild. Delighting in wine without satiety is what I call being lost.
8. “The ancient emperors had no pleasures to which they gave themselves as on the flowing stream; no