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spect to their actions, and their actions have not respect to their words, but they say,—The ancients! The ancients! Why do they act so peculiarly, and are so cold and distant? Born in this age, we should be of this age, to be good is all that is needed.' Eunuch-like, flattering their generation ;—such are your good careful men of the villages."

10. Wan Chang said, "Their whole village styles those men good and careful. In all their conduct they are so. How was it that Confucius considered them the thieves of virtue?"

11. Mencius replied, "If you would blame them, you find nothing to allege. If you would criticize them, you have nothing to criticize. They agree with the current customs. They consent with an impure age. Their principles have a semblance of right-heartedness and truth. Their conduct has a semblance of disinterestedness and purity. All men are pleased with them, and they think themselves right, so that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yaou and Shun. On this account they are called, 'The thieves of virtue.'

12. u Confucius said, 'I hate a semblance which is not the reality. I hate the darnel, lest itl>e confounded with the corn. I hate glib-tonguedness, lest it be confounded with righteousness. I hate sharpness of tongue, lest it be confounded'with sincerity. I hate the music of Ch'ing, lest it be confounded with the true music. I hate the reddish blue, lest it be confounded with vermilion. I hate your good careful men of the villages, lest they be confounded with the truly virtuous.'

13. "The superior man seeks simply to bring back the unchanging standard, and that being rectified, the masses are roused to virtue. When they are so aroused, forthwith perversities and glossed wickedness disappear."

XXXVIII. 1. Mencius said, " From Yaou and Shun down to Tang were 500 years and more. As to Yu and Kaou-yaou, they saw those earliest sages, and so knew their doctrines, while T'ang heard their doctrines as transmitted, and so knew them.

2. "From T-'ang to king Wan were 500 years and more. As to E Yin, and Lae Choo, tkey saw T-any and knew his doctrines, while king Wan heard them as transmitted, and so knew them.

3. "From king Wan to Confucius were 500 years and more. As to T'ae-kung Wang and San E-sang, they saw Wan, and so knew his doctrines, while Confucius heard them as transmitted, and so knew them.

4. u From Confucius downwards until now, there are Qnly 100 years and somewhat more. The distance in time from the sage is so far from being remote, and so very near at hand was the sage's residence. In these circumstances, is there no one to transmit his doctrines f Yea, is there no one to do so?"

INDEXES,

INDEX L

SUBJECTS IN THE WOEKS OP MENCIUS.

The first figure, followed by a period (1.) is the number of the Book—that
followed by a colon (2:) is the Part—that which follows is the Chapter.

Absurdity of a ruler not following wise
counsellors, Book 1, Part 2, Chap. 9.

Acknowledged favours, how Mencius,
6. 2:5.

Action, faith necessary to firmness in,
6. 2:12.

Adherence to one course, against ob-
stinate, 7. 1: 26.

Advantages, the greatest, of friendship,
5. 2:8.

Advice of Mencius with regard to
mourning, 3. 1: 2.

Adviser of the princes might always be
perfectly satisfied, how an, 7. 1:9.

Afflictions, benefits of, 7. 1: 18.

Aged the, were nourished by the gov-
ernment of king Wan, 7. 1: 22.

A ges, different conduct of great men in
different, reconcileable, 4. 2:29.

Agreement of sages not affected by
place or time, 4. 2:1

A griculture, importance of a ruler at-
tending to, 3. 1: 3.—a ruler should
not labour at with his own hands, 3.
1:4.

A ir, how one's material position affects

his, 7. 1: 36.
Ambition, and avarice, evils of, 1. 2:
. 11.—of Hwuy of Leang, 7. 2:1.
Ambitious, who are the, 7. 2: 37.
Ancient(s), the, shared their pleasures

with the people, 1. 1: 2.—surpassed

and maxims of the, 3. 2: 7.—kings,
the example and principles of, must
be studied, 4. 1:1, 2. — the, ex-
changed sons, each one teaching the
son of the other, 4. 1: 18.—making
friends of the, 5. 2: 8.—the, culti-
vated the nobility that is of Heaven.

6. 1: 16.—scholars maintained the
dignity of their characters, how, 7,
1:8.—and modern rule contrasted,

7. 2: 8.—the, led men by their exam-
pie, 7. 2:20.

Animals, man how much different from,
4. 2: 19.

Antiquity, the example of, 7. 1: 9.

Appetites, the superior man subjects
his to the will of Heaven, 7. 1: 24.

Archer, he who would be benevolent
is like an, 2. 1:7.

Archery, learning, 4. 1: 24; 6. 1: 20.

Arrangement of dignities and emolu-
ments according to the dynasty of
Chow, 5. 2:2.

Association, influence of, 3. 2: 6; 6. 1:
9.—with those of whom one does not
approve, unavoidable, 3. 2: 10.

Attainment, real must be made by the
learner for himself, 7. 2: 5.

Authority, punishment should be in-
flicted only by the proper, 2. 2:8.

Barbarians, influence of the Chinese
on, 3. 1:4.; 2:9.

other men in what, 1. 1: 7.—the mu-jBarley, illustration taken from, 6. 1:7.
sic of the, 1. 2:1.—emperors, tours Beauty, the love of, compat ible with
of inspection made by, 1. 2: 4; 6. 2 :| royal government, 1. 2:5. — only
7.—coffins used by the, 2. 2: 7.—j moral is truly excellent, 4. 2: 25. .
sages, how all men may become Behaviour of Mencius with an unwor-
equal to the, 3. 1:1.—kings prac-j thy associate, 2. 2: 6.
tised benevolent government, 3. 2: Benefits of trouble and affliction, 7. J;
5.—Mencius appeals to the example1 18.

Benevolence and righteousness, 1. 1:

1.; 6. 2:4.— belongs naturally to man. 2. 1: G.; 4. 1:10.; 6. 1:1.; 7. 1:15.; 2:10.—exhortation to, 2. 1: 7.— importance to all of exercising, 4. 1:2. — the only security of u prince, 4. 1:7, 8, 0.—filial piety the richest fruit of, 4. 1: 27.—the superior mail preserves, 4. 2: 28.—and righteousness equally internal, 6. 1: 4, 5.—it is necessary to practice with all one's might, (5. 1: 18.—must be matured, 6. 1: 19.—and righteousness, the difference between Yaou and Shun, T'ang and Woo, and the Ave Chiels in relation to, 7. 1: 30.— the empire can be got only by, 7. 2: 13.

Benevolent government, 1. 1: 5, 7.; 3. 1: 3.; 4. 1:1.—safety and prosperity lie in, 1. 2: 11.—affections of the people secured by, 1. 2:12.—glory the result of, 2. 2:4.—the prince who sets about practising has none to fear, 3. 2:5.

Bodily defects, how men are sensible of, 6. 2: 11.—organization, only a sage can satisfy the design of his, 7. 1:38.

Book of Kites, quotations from, 2. 2:

2.; 3. 2: 3.; 4. 1:1. Brilliant Palace, the, 1. 2: 5

Burial, Mencius', ol his father, 2. 2:8.; of Mill's parents, 3. 1:5.

Calamity and happiness, are men's own seeking, 2. 1: 4.—the superior man is beyond the reach of, 4. 2: 28.

Calumny, comfort under, 7. 2:19.

Careful, the thought of consequences should make men, 7. 2:7.

Cattle and sheep, illustration taken from feeding, 2. 2:4.

Character, how men judge wrongly of, 7. 1: 34.—different degrees of attainment in, 7. 2:25.

Charge of one's-self the greatest of charges, 4. 1: 19.

Chess-playing, illustration from, 0. 1: 9.

Chief ministers, the duties of, 5. 2:9.

Chiefs of the princes, the five, 6. 2:7.

Chieftain of the princes not a sovereign of the Empire, 2. 1: 3.—influence of a, different from that of a true sovereign, 7. 1: 13.

Child-like, the great man is, 4. 2:12.

Comfort under calumny, 3. 2: 19.

Common relations of life, importance of to the prosperity ol the empire, 4. 1:11.

Compass and square, use of the, 4. 1: 2.

Condemnation of Hwuy of Leang, 7. 2:1.

Confidence of the Sovereign, how to

obtain, 4. 1: 12. Consequences, the thought of should

make men careful, 0. 2: 7. Concert, the character of Confucius a

complete, 5. 2:1. Conspicuous mound, monopolizing the,

2.2:10".

Constitution, benevolence and righteousness part of man's, 7. 1:15.

Conviction, how Mencius brought home, 2. 2:4.

Cookery, E Yin's knowledge of, 5. 1: 7.

Corn, assisting, to grow, 2. 1:2.

Corrupt times are provided against by established virtue, 7. 2:10.

Counsellors of great men should be morally above them, 7. 2: 34.

Counselling princes from the ground of profit, danger of, 0. 2: 4.

Counsels for the government of a kingdom, 3. 1: 3.

Courses, two, open to a prince pursued by his enemies, 1. 2:15.—of Yaou and Shun, 0. 2: 2.

Court, Mencius would not pay to a favourite, 4. 2: 27.

Cultivation, men's disregard of self-, 6. 1:13.—men may become Yaous and Shuns by the, of their principles and ways, 0. 2: 2.—of the mind must not be intermitted, 7. 2: 21.

Death or flight, whether should be chosen, 1. 2: 15.—there are thing9*which men dislike more than death, 6. 1:10. —how Mencius prdicted the, of P'un Shing-kwoh. 7 2: 29.

Decencies may not be expected, where virtues are wanting, 7. 1: 44.

Decrees of Heaven, man's duty as affected by the, 7. 1:2.

Deeds, not words or manners, prove mental qualities, 4. 1:10.

Delects, men are sensible of bodily, but not of mental or moral, 0. 1: 12.

Defence of Shun's conduct, 5. 1: 2,3. —of E Yin, 5. 1: 7.—of Confucius, 0. 1: 8.—of accepting presents from oppressors of the peupie, 5. 2:4.

Degeneracy, the progress of, from the

three kings to the five chiefs of the

princes, 0. 2:7. Deluge, the Chinese, 8. 1:4.; 2: 9.; 4.

2: 26.; 6. 2: 11. Desires, the regulation of, essential, 7.

2: 35.

Developing their natural goodness may make men equal the ancient sages, 3. 1: 1.; 7. 2: 31.

Dignities, arrangement of in the dynasty Chow, 5. 2:2.

Dignity, how the ancient scholars maintained their, 7. 1: 8.—how Mencius maintained his with the princes, 7. 2: 23.

Disappointment of Mencius with the king Seang, 1. 1:6.

Discrimination of what is right and wrong must precede vigorous rightdoing, 4. 2:8.

Disgraceful means which men take to seek wealth and honour, 4. 2: 33.

Disposition, a man's true, will often appear in small matters, 7. 2:11.

Disputing,Mencius, not fond of, 3. 2: 9.

Dissatisfaction with a parent, not necessarily unfilial, 6. 2:3.

Division of labour, propriety of the, 3. 1:4.

Doctrine, of the Mihists refuted, 3. 1: 5.—heretical, 3. 2: 9.—of the Mean, quotation from the, 4. 1:12.—of the sages, to be advanced to by successive steps, 7. 1: 24.—on the transmission of, from Yaou to Mencius' own time, 7. 2: 38.

Duties which the virtuous and talented owe to the young and ignorant, 4. 2: 7.—of different classes of chief ministers, 5. 2:9.

Duty,*man's, how affected by the decrees of Heaven, 7. 1: 2.—benevolenco the path of, 7. 2: 16. ynasties, Hea, Yin and Chow, 2. 1: 1.; 3.1:3.; 5. 2:6.—Chow, 2. 2:13.; 5. 2: 2—the three, 3. 1: 2.; 4. 1: 3.; 2:20— Hea and Yin, 4. 1:2.—Shang, Yin and Chow, 4. 1: 7.

Earth, advantages of situation afforded by the, 2. 2:1.

Earth-worm, an over-fastidious scholar compared to an, 3. 2: 10.

Education, importance of a ruler attending to, 3. 1:3.

Elated by riches, not to be, a proof of superiority, 7, 1:11.

Emoluments, arrangement of ii: th«

Chow dynasty, 5. 2: 2. Emperor, friendship with an, 5. 2: 4.—

equanimity of Shun as an, 7. 2:6. Empire, by whom the torn, may be united, 1. 1:6.—king Hwuy's competence to obtain the, 1. 1: 7.—employment of Mencius would be for the good of the whole, 2. 2: 12.—to the State, the Family, 4. 1: 5.—the way to get the, 4. 1: 9.; 7. 2:13 — tranquillity of dependent on what, 4. 1:11.—a drowning, 4. 1:17.—how Shun got the, 5. 1: 5.—how Shun would have regarded abandoning the, 7. 1:35.

End, the, may justify the means, 7. 1:

31.

Enjoyment, man's nature the source of

,his true, 7. 1: 21. Equanimity of Shun in poverty, and as

emperor, 7. 2:6. Error of a Mihist refuted, 3. 1:5.; 2: 9.

Errors of Yang, Mih, and Tsze-moh, 7.

1:26.; 7. 2:26. Evil, a warning to the violently, and the weakly, 4.1:10.—speaking,brings with it evil consequences, 4. 2:9. Exactions just, should be made with

discrimination, 7. 2: 27. Example, influence of, 3. 2:6.—influence of a rulers', 4. 2: 5.—the ancients led men by, 7. 2: 20. Excellence, how a prince may subdue

men by, 4. 2:16. Excusing of errors, how Mencius beat

down the, 2. 2:9. Exhortation to benevolence, 2. 1:7. Explanation of friendly intercourse with Kwang Chang, 4. 2: 30.—of the different conduct of Tsang and Tszesze, 4. 2: 31.—of Shim's conduct towards his brother, 5. 1:3.—id. towards the emperor Yaou, andhis father Koo-sovv,5. 1:4.—of the Odes Seaou P'wan and Kae Fang, 6. 2:3. Extreme cases must not be pressed to

invalidate a principle. 6. 2:1. Faith, the necessity of, 6. 2: 12. Fame, a love of, may carry a man over

great difficulties, 7. 2: 11. Father, why a, does not himself teach

his own son, 4. 1:18. Favour to individuals, good government does not lie in, 4. 2:2.—how Mencius acknowledged a, 6. 2:5.

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