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spect to their actions, and their actions have not respect to their words, but they say,—The ancients ! cients! Why do they act so peculiarly, and are so cold and distant? Born in this age, we should be of this age, to be good is all that is needed.'

Eunuch-like, flattering their generation ;-such are your good careful men of the villages.”

10. Wan Chang said, “ Their whole village styles those men good and careful. In all their conduct they

How was it that Confucius considered them the thieves of virtue?”

11. Mencius replied, “ If you would blame them, you find nothing to allege. If you would criticize them, you have nothing to criticize. They agree with the current customs. They consent with an impure age. Their principles have a semblance of right-heartedness and truth. Their conduct has a semblance of disinterestedness and purity. All men are pleased with them, and they think themselves right, so that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yaou and Shun. On this account they are called, “The thieves of virtue.

12. “ Confucius said, “I hate a semblance which is not the reality. I hate the darnel, lest it be confounded with the corn. I hate glib-tonguedness, lest it be confounded with righteousness. I hate sharpness of tongue, lest it be confounded with sincerity. I hate the music of Ch‘ing, lest it be confounded with the true music. I hate the reddish blue, lest it be confounded with vermilion. I hate your good careful men of the villages, lest they be confounded with the truly virtuous.'

13. “The superior man seeks simply to bring back the unchanging standard, and that being rectified, the masses are roused to virtue. When they are so aroused, forthwith perversities and glossed wickedness disappear."

inore.

XXXVIII. 1. Mencius said, “ From Yaou and Shun down to Tany were 500 years and more. As to Yu and Kaou-yaou, they saw those earliest sages, and so knew their doctrines, while Tang heard their doctrines as transmitted, and so knew them. 2. “From Tang to king Wan were 500 years and

As to E Yin, and Lae Choo, they saw Tany and knew his doctrines, while king Wan heard them as transmitted, and so knew them.

3. “From king Wan to Confucius were 500 years and more.

As to Tae-kung Wang and San E-sang, they saw Wan, and so knew his doctrines, while Confucius heard them as transmitted, and so knew them.

4. “From Confucius downwards until now, there are only 100 years and somewhat more. The distance in time from the sage is so far from being remote, and so very near at hand was the sage's residence. In these circumstances, is there no one to transmit his doctrines ? Yea, is there no one to do so ş”

INDEXES.

INDEX I.

SUBJECTS IN THE WORKS OF MENCIUS.

The first figure, followed by a period (1.) is the number of the Book-that

followed by a colon (2:) is the Part—that which follows is the Chapter.

Absurdity of a ruler not following wise and maxims of the, 3. 2: 7.-kings,

counsellors, Book 1, Part 2, Chap. 9. the example and principles of, must Acknowledged favours, how Mencius, be studied, 4. 1: 1, 2. — the, ex6. 2:5.

changed sons, each one teaching the Action, faith necessary to firmness in, son of the other, 4. 1:18.-making 6. 2:12.

friends of the, 5. 2:8.-the, cultiAdherence to one course, against ob- vated the nobility that is of Heaven, stinate, 7. 1: 26.

6. 1: 16.-scholars maintained the Advantages, the greatest, of friendship, dignity of their characters, how, 7, 5. 2:8.

1:8.-and modern rule contrasted, Advice of Mencius with regard to 7. 2: 8.—the, led men by their exammourning, 3. 1: 2.

ple, 7. 2: 20. Adviser of the princes might always be Animals, man how much different from,

perfectly satisfied, how an, 7. 1: 9. 4. 2:19. Amictions, benefits of, 7. 1: 18. Antiquity, the example of, 7. 1:9. Aged the, were nourished by the gov- Appetites, the superior man subjects

ernment of king Wan, 7. 1: 22. his to the will of Heaven, 7. 1: 24. A ges, different conduct of great men in Archer, he who would be benevolent

clifferent, reconcileable, 4. 2: 29. is like an, 2. 1:7. A.greement of sages not affected by Archery, learning, 4. 1: 24; 6. 1: 20. place or time, 4. 2: 1.

Arrangement of dignities and emoluAgriculture, importance of a ruler at- ments according to the dynasty of

Lending to, 3. 1: 3.-a ruler should Chow, 5. 2: 2. not labour at with his own hands, 3. Association, influence of, 3. 2:6; 6. 1: 1:4.

9.-with those of whom one does not Air, how one's material position affects approve, unavoidable, 3. 2: 10. his, 7. 1:36.

Attainment, real must be made by the Ambition, and avarice, evils of, 1. 2: learner for himself, 7. 2: 5. · 11.-of Hwuy of Leang, 7. 2: 1. Authority, punishment should be inAmbitious, who are the, 7. 2:37. flicted only by the proper, 2. 2:8. Ancient(s), the, shared their pleasures Barbarians, influence of the Chinese

with the people, 1. 1: 2.-surpassed on, 3. 1: 4.; 2: 9. other men in what, 1. 1:7.-the mu- Barley, illustration taken from, 6. 1:7. sic of the, 1. 2:1.-emperors, tours Beauty, the love of, compatible with of inspection made by, 1. 2:4; 6. 2: royal government, 1. 2: 5. — only 7.-coffins used by the, 2. 2: 7.- moral is truly excellent, 4. 2:25. , sages, how all men may become Behaviour of Mencius with an unwor. equal to the, 3. 1:1.-kings prac-thy associate, 2. 2: 6. tised benevolent government, 3. 2: Benefits of trouble and affliction, 7. 1: 5.-Mencius appeals to the example 18.

Benevolence and righteousness, 1. 1: Common relations of life, importance

1,; 6. 2: 4. - belongs naturally to of to the prosperity of the empire, man. 2. 1: 6.; 4. 1: 10.; 6. 1:1.; 7.! 4. 1: 11. 1: 15.; 2: 16.-exhortation to, 2. 1: Compass and square, use of the, 4. 1: 7.- importance to all of exercising, 2. 4. 1:2. — the only security of a Condemnation of Hwuy of Leang, 7. prince, 4. 1:7, 8, 9.-filial piety the 2:1. richest fruit of, 1. 1:27.—the supe-Confidence of the Sovereign, how to rior man preserves, 4. 2: 28.—and obtain, 4. 1: 12. righteousness equally internal, 6. 1: Consequences, the thought of should 4,5.-it is necessary to practice with make men careful, 6. 2: 7. all one's might, 6. 1:18.-must be Concert, the character of Confucius a matured, 6. 1: 19.--and righteous- complete, 5. 2:1. ness, the difference between Yaou Conspicuous mound, monopolizing the, and Shun, Tang and Woo, and the 2. 2: 10. tive Chiefs in relation to, 7. 1:30.- Constitution, benevolence and rightthe empire can be got only by, 7. 2: eousness part of man's, 7. 1: 15. 13.

Conviction, how Mencius brought Benevolent government, 1. 1:5, 7.; 3. home, 2. 2: 4.

1: 3.; 4. 1: 1.-safety and prosperi- Cookery, E Yin's knowledge of, 5. 1: ty lie in, 1. 2:11.-affections of the 7. people secured by, 1. 2: 12.-glory Corn, assisting, to grow, 2. 1:2. the result of, 2. 2:4.-the prince who Corrupt times are provided against by sets about practising has none to established virtue, 7. 2: 10. fear, 3. 2:5.

Counsellors of great nen should be Bodily defects, how men are sensible morally above them, 7. 2: 34.

of, 6. 2: 11.-organization, only a Counselling princes from the ground of sage can satisfy the design of his, 7. profit, danger of, 6. 2: 4. 1:38.

Counsels for the government of a king. Book of Rites, quotations from, 2. 2: dom, 3. I: 3. 2.; 3. 2: 3.; 4. 1:1.

Courses, two, open to a prince pursued Brilliant Palace, the, 1. 2:5

by his eneinies, 1. 2: 15.-of Yaou Burial, Mencius', of his father, 2. 2: 8.;) and Shun, 6. 2: 2. of Mih's parents, 3. 1:5.

Court, Mencius would not pay to a faCalamity and happiness, are men's own vourite, 4. 2:27.

seeking, 2. 1:4.—the superior man Cultivation, men's disregard of self-, 6.

is beyond the reach of, 4. 2:28. 1:13.-men may become Yaous and Caluinuy, comfort under, 7. 2: 19. Shuns by the, of their principles and Careful, the thought of consequences ways, 6. 2: 2.-of the mind must not should make men, 7. 2: 7.

be intermitted, 7. 2: 21. Cattle and sheep, 'illustration taken Death or flight, whether should be chofrom feeding, 2. 2: 4.

sen, 1. 2: 15.—there are things which Character, how men judge wrongly of, men dislike more than death, 6. 1:10.

7. 1: 34.-different degrees of attain- -how Mencius prdicted the, of Pun ment in, 7. 2: 25.

Shing-kwoh. 7 2:29. Charge of one's-self the greatest of Decencies may not be expected, where charges, 4. 1: 19.

virtues are wanting, 7. 1:44. Chess-playing, illustration from, 6. 1: Decrees of Heaven, man's duty as af9.

lected by the, 7. 1: 2. Chief ministers, the duties of, 5. 2: 9. Deeds, not words or manners, prove Chiefs of the princes, the five, 6. 2: 7. mental qualities, 4. 1: 10. Chieftain of the princes not a sovereign Defects, men are sensible of bodily, but

of the Empire, 2. 1:3.-influence of not of mental or moral, 6. 1: 12. a, different froin that of a true sov- Defence of Shun’s conduct, 5. 1:2, 3. ereign, 7. 1:13.

--of E Yin, 5. 1:7.-of Confucius, Child-like, the great man is, 4. 2: 12. 5. 1:8.-oľ accepting presents from Comfort under calumny, 3. 2: 19. oppressors of the people, 5. 2: 4.

Degeneracy, the progress of, from the Emoluments, arrangement of in the

three kings to the five chiefs of the Chow dynasty, 5. 2: 2. princes, 6. 2: 7.

Emperor, friendship with an, 5. 2: 4.Deluge, the Chinese, 3. 1:4.; 2: 9.; 4. equanimity of Shun as an, 7. 2:6. 2:26.; 6. 2:11.

Empire, by whom the torn, may be Desires, the regulation of, essential, 7. united, i. 1:6.---king Hwuy's com2:35.

petence to obtain the, 1. 1:7.-emDeveloping their natural goodness may ployment of Mencius would be for

make men equal the ancient sages, the good of the whole, 2. 2: 12.-to 3. 1:1.; 7. 2: 31.

the State, the Family, 4. 1: 5,-the Dignities, arrangement of in the dynas- way to get the, 4. 1: 9.; 7. 2: 13.ty Chow, 5. 2: 2.

tranquillity of dependent on what, Dignity, how the ancient scholars main- 4. 1:11.-a drowning, 4. 1:17.-how

tained their, 7.1:8.-how Mencius! Shun got the, 5. 1: 5.—how Shun maintained his with the princes, 7. 2: would have regarded abandoning the, 23.

7. 1: 35. Disappointment of Mencius with the End, the, may justify the means, 7. 1: king Seang, 1. 1:6.

31. Discrimination of what is right and Enjoyment, man's nature the source of

wrong must precede vigorous right- his true, 7. 1: 21. doing, 4. 2:8.

Equanimity of Shun in poverty, and as Disgraceful means which men take to

emperor, 7. 2:6. seek wealth and honour, 4. 2: 33. Error of a Mihist refuted, 3. 1:5.; 2: Disposition, a man's true, will often ap- 9.

pear in small matters, 7. 2: 11. Errors of Yang, Mih, and Tsze-moh, 7. Disputing, Mencius, not fond of, 3. 2:9. 1:26.; 7. 2: 26. Dissatisfaction with a parent, not nec- Evil, a warning to the violently, and essarily unfilial, 6. 2:3.

the weakly, 4.1:10.-speaking, brings Division of labour, propriety of the, 3. with it evil consequences, 4. 2:9. 1:4.

Exactions just, should be made with Doctrine, of the Mihists refuted, 3. 1: discrimination, 7. 2: 27.

5.-heretical, 3. 2:9.-of the Mean, Example, influence of, 3. 2:6.-influquotation from the, 4. 1:12.-of the ence of a rulers', 4. 2: 5.-the ansages, to be advanced to by succes- cients led men by, 7. 2: 20. sive steps, 7. 1: 24.-on the transmis- Excellence, how a prince may subdue sion of, from Yaou to Mencius' own men by, 4. 2:16. time, 7. 2:38.

Excusing of errors, how Mencius beat Duties which the virtuous and talented down the, 2. 2:9.

owe to the young and ignorant, 4. 2: Exhortation to benevolence, 2. 1: 7. 7.-of different classes of chief min-Explanation of friendly intercourse isters, 5. 2:9.

with Kwang Chang, 4. 2:30.-of the Duty, man’s, how affected by the de- different conduct of Tsang and Tsze

crees of Heaven, 7. 1:2.-benevo- sze, 4. 2: 31.-of Shun's conduct lence the path of, 7. 2:16.

towards his brother, 5. 1:3.-id. towynasties, Hea, Yin and Chow, 2. 1: ards the emperor Yaoui, and his father 1.; 3.1:3.; 5.2:6.-Chow, 2. 2:13.; Koo-sow,5. 1:4.-of the Odes Seaou 5. 2: 2.—the three, 3. 1: 2.; 4. 1:3.; P'wan and Kae Fang, 6. 2:3. 2:20.—Hea and Yin, 4. 1:2.-Shang, Extreme cases must not be pressed to Yin and Chow, 4. 1:7.

invalidate a principle. 6. 2: 1. Earth, advantages of situation afforded Faith, the necessity of, 6. 2: 12. by the, 2. 2:1.

Fame, a love of, may carry a man over Earth-worm, an over-fastidious scholar great difficulties, 7. 2: 11. compared to an, 3. 2: 10.

Father, why a, does not himself teach Education, importance of a ruler at- his own son, 4. 1:18. tending to, 3. 1:3.

Favour to individuals, good govern. Elated by riches, not to be, a proof of ment does not lie in, 4. 2:2.-how superiority, 7, 1:11.

Mencius acknowledged a, 6. 2:5.

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