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2. "In the ' Completion of the War', I select two 01 three passages only, which I believe.
3. "The benevolent man has no enemy under heaven When the prince the most benevolent was engaged against him who was the most the opposite, how could the blood of the people have flowed till it floated the pestles of the mortars?"
IV. 1. Mencius said, u There are men who say—' I am skilful at marshalling troops, I am skilful at conduct
> ing a battle!'—They are great criminals. .
2. * If the sovereign of a state love benevolence, he will have no enemy in the empire.
3. "When 'Pang was executing his work of correction in the south, the rude tribes on the north murmured. When he was executing it in the east, the rude tribes on the west murmured. Their cry was—' Why does he make us last?'
4. "When king Woo punished Yin, he had only three hundred chariots of war, and three thousand life-guards.
5. "The king said,' Do not fear. Let me give you repose. I am no enemy to the people! On this, they bowed their heads to the earth, like the horns of animals falling off.'
6. "' Imperial correction' is but another word for rectifying. Each State wishing itself to be corrected, what need is there for fighting?"
V. Mencius said, " A carpenter or a carriage-maker may give a man the circle and square, but cannot make him skilful in the use of them"
VI. Mencius said, "Shun's manner of eating his parched grain and herbs was as if he were to be doing so all his life. When he became emperor, and had the embroidered robes to wear, the lute to play, and the two daughters of Yaou to wait on him, he was as if those things belonged to him as a matter of course."
VII. Mencius said, " From this time forth I know the heavy consequences of killing a man's near relations. When a man kills another's father, that other will kill his father; when a man kills another's elder brother, that other will kill his elder brother. So he does not himself indeed do the act, but there is only an interval between him and it"
VIII. 1. Mencius said, "Anciently, the establishment of the frontier-gates was to guard against violence.
2, u Now-a-days, it is to exercise violence."
IX. Mencius said, "If a man himself do not walk in
the right path, it will not be walked in even by his wife and children. If he do not order men according to the right way, he will not be able to get the obedience of even his wife and children."
X. Mencius said, "A bad year cannot prove the cause of death to him, whose stores of gain are large; an age of corruption cannot confound him whose equipment of virtue is complete."
XI. Mencius said, "A man who loves fame may be able to decline a kingdom of a thousand chariots, but if he be not really the man to do such a thing, it will appear in his countenance, in the matter of a dish of rice or a platter of soup."
XII. 1. Mencius said, " If men of virtue and ability be not confided in, a State will become empty and void.
2. * Without the rules of propriety and distinctions of right, the high and the low will be thrown into confusion.
3. "Without the great principles of government and their various business, there will not be wealth sufficient for the expenditure."
XIII. Mencius said, "There are instances of individuals without benevolence, who have got possession of a single State, but there has been no instance of the whole empire's being got possession of by one without benevolence."
XIV. 1. Mencius said, "The people are the most important element in a nation; the spirits of the land and gram are the next; the sovereign is the lightest.
2. "Therefore to gain the peasantry is the way to become emperor; to gain the emperor is the way to become a prince of a State; to gain the prince of a State is the way to become a great officer.
3. "When a prince endangers the altars of the spirits of the land and grain, he is changed, and another appointed in his place.
4. u When the sacrificial victims have been perfect, the millet in its vessels all pure, and the sacrifices offered at their proper seasons, if yet there ensue drought, or the waters overflow, the spirits of the land and grain are changed, and others appointed in their place."
XV. Mencius said, "A sage is the teacher of a hundred generations:—this is true of Pih-e and Hwuy of Lew-hea. Therefore when men now hear the character of Pih-e, the corrupt become pure, and the weak acquire determination. When they hear the character of Hwuy of Lew-hea, the mean become generous, and the niggardly become liberal. Those two made themselves distinguished a hundred generations ago, and after a hundred generations, those who hear of them, are all aroused in this manner. Could such effects be produced by them, if they had not been sages? And how much more did they affect those who were in contiguity with them, and were warmed by them!"
XVI. Mencius said, " Benevolence is the distinguishing characteristic of man. As embodied in man's conduct, it is called the path of duty."
XVII. Mencius said, "When Confucius was leaving Loo, he said,'I will set out by-and-by;'—this was the way for him to leave the State of his parents. When he was leaving Ts*e, he strained off with his hand the water in which his rice was being rinsed, took the rice, and went away ;—this was the way for htm to l*w.ve a Btrange State."
XVIII. Mencius said, u The reason why the superior man was reduced to straits between Ch'in and Ts'ue was because neither the princes of the time nor their ministers communicated with him."
XIX. 1. Mih K'e said," Greatly am I from anything to depend upon from the mouths of men."
2. "Mencius observed, "There is no harm in that. Scholars are more exposed than others to suffer from the mouths of men.
3. "It is said, in the Book of Poetry,
'My heart is disquieted and grieved, I am hated by the crowd of mean creatures.' This might have been said by.Confucius. And again, 'Though he did not remove their wrath, He did not let fall his own fame.' This might be said of king Wan."
XX. Mencius said, "Anciently, men of virtue and talents by means of their own enlightenment made others enlightened. Now-a-days, it is tried, while they are themselves in darkness, and by means of that darkness, to make others enlightened."
XXI. Mencius said to the disciple Kaou," There are the foot-paths along the hills;—if suddenly they be used, they become roads; and if, as suddenly they are not used, the wild grass fills them up. Now, the wild grass fills up your mind."
XXII. 1. The disciple Kaou said, "The music of Yu was better than that of king Wan."
2. "Mencius observed, " On what ground do you say so?" and the other replied, " Because at the pivot the knob of Yu's bells is nearly worn through."
3. Mencius said, " How can that be a sufficient proof? Are the ruts at the gate of a city made by a single two-horsed chariot?"
XXIII. 1. When Ts'e was suffering from famine, Ch'm Tsin said to Mencius," The people are all thinking that you, Master, will again ask that the granary of T'ang be opened for them. I apprehend you will not do so a second time."
2. Mencius said, "To do it would be to act like Fung Foo. There was a man of that name in Tsin, famous for his skill in seizing tigers. Afterwards, he became a scholar of reputation, and going once out to the wild country, he found the people all in pursuit of a tiger. The tiger took refuge in a corner of a hill, where no one dared to attack him, but when they saw Fung Foo, they ran and met him. Fung Foo immediately bared his arms, and descended from the carriage. The multitude were pleased with him, but those who were scholars laughed at him."
XXIV. 1. Mencius said, u For the mouth to desire sweet tastes, the eye to desire beautiful colours, the ear to desire pleasant sounds, the nose to desire fragrant odours, and the four limbs to desire ease and rest;— these things are natural. But there is the appointment of Heaven in connection with them, and the superior man does not say of his pursuit of them,' It is my nature.'
2. "The exercise of love between father and son, the observance of righteousness between sovereign and minister, the rules of ceremony between guest and host, the display of knowledge in recognizing the talented, and the fulfilling the heavenly course by the sage;—these are the appointment of Heaven. , But there is an adaptation of our nature for them. The superior man does not say, in reference to them,' It is the appointment of Heaven.'"
XXV. 1. Haou-sang Puh-hae asked, saying, " What sort of man is Yo-ching?" Mencius replied, " He is w good man, a real man."